GLBL 210 Final Exam Study Guide
GLBL 210 Final Exam Study Guide GLBL 210
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GLBL 210 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Jonathan Weiler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Global Issues in Global Studies at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
GLBL 210 Final Exam Study Guide - Value chains: many different links/parts, easier to exploit beginning of chain o Completely different lifestyle on opposite sides of chain o Typical chain includes: Growers/producers Buyers Exporters or processors Foreign buyers Roasters (for coffee specifically) Retailers (ex. Starbucks) o Goal is to increase grower treatment/well-being by getting rid of some of above links o Ex. producers also act as exporters/processors and possibly roasters, get rid of buyers - Fair trade: created to get rid of exploitation and inequality of small-scale farmers on global market o Not always a guarantee of well-being because fair trade producers still rely on market conditions o Different motivations for fair trade: want to support fair treatment of farmers o Willing to pay higher price for environmentally-friendly produced coffee (or other commodity good) o Criticisms: No standardization of fair trade requirements Ex. different fair labor standards to be considered “fair trade” for different organizations Fair trade distorts national price, causing too much production for demand, which leads to surplus and decreased prices - Information: o Lack of information of coffee prices on global market Farmers have difficult time fighting for fair price o Different availability of information at different ends of supply chain Power is asymmetrical o Lack of information to consumers about fair trade policies - MDG’s (Millennium Development Goals): o Marissa Hall notes: 4 of UN MDG’s deal directly with health Health also prerequisite for many other goals Ex. in order for 2/3 of children to complete primary school, must be healthy o Takes into account health, life expectancy, etc. o Not just a measure of GDP, so better measure of well-being o Easterly reading notes: MDG’s don’t necessarily focus on wants/needs of aid-receivers Poor countries don’t get a choice Most money should go to low-cost, high-benefit goals o Galatsidas reading notes: Missed specific targets for: Poverty eradication Enrollment in primary school Reduced child mortality rates Reduced maternal mortality rates Reduced disease (HIV/AIDS, malaria) Met specific targets for: Gender equality in primary education Access to clean water Amount development assistance o Criticisms: Goals made in 2000, but measured targets from earlier Ex. measured poverty eradication from 1990-2015 Some argue that MDG’s take credit for larger-scale progress China responsible for much of global poverty reduction proportion, bot a global reduction Efforts of MDG’s possibly not responsible for instances like China Achievability vs. adequacy; Debate about whether goals/targets are enough to make significant change MDG’s referred to as “Minimum Development Goals” o Ex. world technically met poverty reduction target, but only 47 out of 144 countries specifically met the goal o Some argue that $1.25 per day is not sufficient for measuring poverty o Targets are arbitrary to some degree, don’t always mean that larger goal was met Problems addressing gender (see “Gender goals”) No way to enforce goals or achieving targets - Electoralism: transition between authoritarian rule and democratic rule o Democracy functions with free and fair elections o But no liberal parts of a liberal democracy No separation of powers, protection of basic rights, etc. o Elections still important: Opportunity for change People pay more attention to politics than they usually do during elections Sense of popular sentiment Usually shows movement toward peace Acceptance of voted officials Legitimizes leadership of those elected Even though people may not agree with all policies, do respect way in which they were elected Powerful psychological events Ex. collective feeling of relief from peace, acceptance, equality Creates foundation of democratic institutions Democracy can’t exist without elections - Illiberal Democracy: democracy (free, fair, regular elections) that doesn’t involve constitutional liberalism o Constitutional liberalism: not just about elections, human rights focused Equality protected by law Impartial, fair courts Separation of church and state Protection of basic rights/liberties o Leaders use power gained from democratic elections to deprive constitutional liberties o World powers usually recognize democracies regardless of whether or not they are constitutional So many illiberal democracies are sanctioned by US Ex. reelection of Boris Yeltsin 1996 Drinking habits, low approval ratings because of bad economic situation caused by his economic policy Somehow won by very close vote, so suspected unfair practices Usually wouldn’t be considered a fair election, but outcome suited US and Western interests, so looked the other way - Universal Declaration of Human Rights: guide to protecting inherent rights of all humans created by Eleanor Roosevelt 1948 o Not a law so not legally enforceable o No one thought it would cause immediate change, aspirational document o Human rights vs. state’s rights: State sovereignty is important, but must also protect universal human values Problem arises when states violate human rights within borders UN Charter Ch. 1, article 2: protects sovereignty of member states, prohibits threat against sovereign states, basically prohibits foreign intervention UN Charter Ch. 7, article 39: intervention allowed when sovereignty of states threatens international peace, determined by UN Security Council UN Charter Ch. 7, article 42: global military force sometimes necessary against sovereign states when threaten international peace - International Bill of Human Rights: human rights convention passed by UN o Legally enforceable o US has ratified, but not amendment on death penalty o Contains Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Convention of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), International Convention of Economic and Social Rights (ICESR) But only ICCPR and ICESR are legally enforceable o Certain number of countries must ratify before becomes legally binding Every country has different process for ratification Ex. US Senate ratifies treaties by 2/3 majority (usually difficult to ratify treaties) - Humanitarian Intervention: debate about when it is appropriate/necessary to intervene o Different values lead to different viewpoints o Some argue that humanitarian intervention is mostly self-interested o Involves defining genocide: intent to destroy all or part of specific group Difficult to define/act on because previously understood that state sovereignty was paramount o Example: Russian invasion of Georgia 2008 Tensions between Georgians and Russians living in Georgia Russia intervened Justified intervention to protect Georgian Russians from human rights violations Other countries thought it was more self-interested o Example: US invasion of Iraq 2003 Justified invasion with idea of weapons of mass destruction that would threaten international peace and human rights o Other countries thought it was to protect oil interests in Middle East - Responsibility to Protect (R2P): states have responsibility to make sure all human rights protected o Sovereignty is responsibility, not a right o International community responsible to intervene as last resort to stop war crimes, ethnic cleansing, mass murder, etc. Sometimes military force necessary as last resort o Qualifications for international intervention Right intention and just cause Only use military force as last resort Force must be proportional to violation Carried out under right authority (usually UN Security Council) Must be likely to succeed - Women’s Rights: Charlotte Bunch argues that women suffer many violations that are not recognized by international human rights laws o Examples of women’s rights violations Violence Political participation, voting, some opportunities of citizenship Human trafficking (usually woman sex slaves) Equal pay and educational opportunities Public/private distinction Classical liberalism valued individual privacy Problem= women mistreated in home, little to no way to eradicate this o Why issues dismissed: Sex discrimination seen as trivial issue Abuse is cultural Ex. Saudi Arabian treatment of women Ex. female genital mutilation Violations not necessarily human rights violations Problem of state responsibility and private actors o Ex. domestic violence is a crime committed between two people, state has little responsibility - American exceptionalism: idea that US is special case, refuse to play by the rules o Trend of US reluctance to ratify UN conventions Genocide convention Racial discrimination Discrimination Against Women (still hasn’t signed) Cruel and Unusual Punishment Rights of Child (still hasn’t signed) o Treaty of Rome (still hasn’t signed) - What is health? o Combination of complete physical, mental, and social well-being o Human right Outlined in Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Impacts of climate change on society and environment o Rising temperatures o Increased precipitation o Can cause flooding and increased water levels o Health: Infectious disease spread Respiratory illnesses caused by poor air quality o Agriculture: Change in crop yields Need for irrigation o Forests: Decreased productivity of forest Less diversity in forest o Water resources: Water supply/quality Competition over good quality and access to water o Coasts: Beach erosion Costs more to protect coastal communities o Habitat loss o Extreme weather o Species changes (distribution) o Impacts vary by region Ex. Alaska has less snow, increased forest fires in Midwest Not all regions experience same consequences - Inequality: I was not here on this day, so these notes come from the Global Inequality reading o 3 concepts of inequality: Inequality between nations: usually calculated by GDP using Gini coefficient Inequality between nations with population in mind Global inequality: individual-based (not based on country averages): difficult to acquire data on this o Limits of global inequality measurements: Poorest countries don’t usually provide household surveys because don’t have resources to do so Rich individuals tend to not participate in surveys o Global inequality determined by: Class: income differences within a specific country Location: differences between incomes (average) of different countries o Before Industrial Revolution, inequality mostly determined by class o Currently, inequality mostly determined by location Citizenship of certain country determines income level more than class within it Therefore, solution to inequality is become richer in own country or migrate to wealthier country o How to reduce global inequality: High growth rates of poor countries Global redistribution of wealth: difficult and unlikely Migration: could turn into problem Wealthy countries restrict migration Ex. Syrian migration to EU - SDG’s (Sustainable Development Goals): focus on entire planet o 17 new goals to replace MDG’s o Focus on environment - Gender goals: MDG’s do not adequately address ALL problems against women o Especially violence against women- many say this is the #1 problem facing women o SDG’s try to correct this mistake o 2 out of 8 MDG’s address gender issues 3. Promote gender equality 8. Improve maternal health o Failure to address problem of violence against women affects possibility of achieving other goals Ex. difficult to decrease gender inequality in schools when still violence against women o Don’t address realities of women/girls Ex. increased incomes not necessarily distributed equally among family Boys/men usually fed first with resource scarcity - Poverty Trap: one of the unique problems of Africa according to Sachs o Poorest of poor do not have enough capital and do not have the ability to increase their capital, poverty itself causes economic stagnation because all labor/resources/income goes to mere survival (nothing left to be invested in future) Usually experience economic depreciation instead (conditions getting increasingly worse) Causes economic stagnation Some possible causes: Demographics: large families mean less resources per person Intense farming to increase income leads to soil degradation and less crop in the future Simplified lifestyle: decreased quality - Africa: difficult to address issues in Africa as a whole because made up of so many different, sovereign countries o Myths about development in Africa according to Sachs: A lot of money in aid is spent on Africa (600 billion) Sounds like a lot, but isn’t enough to address all problems Not true that money already spent should have achieved more than is has Not enough democracy A lot of corruption, but other areas of world also have this problem and are doing fine development-wise Does not necessarily explain why African countries tend to be poor Lack of important modern values Lack of neoliberalism (economic freedom is solution to Africa’s problems) o Unique challenges that much of Africa faces (possible reasons why Africa is so poor) Unfortunate geography: many countries are landlocked Lack of access to waterways inhibit agriculture and trade Bad conditions for agriculture (poor soil quality, frequent drought) Disease ecology: climate creates favorable environment for disease History of colonialism o Realistic goals for development of Africa: Increased food production: Green Revolution Control of malaria Improved health services Increased amount safe water Provide school lunches End isolation from rest of world Ex. access to more technology o Achievement of goals depends on commitment, not resources - Cash transfers: similar to welfare in US o Criticisms of welfare: Abuse of system Dependency o Conditional cash transfers: give money to people who qualify, recipients must follow certain rules to continue getting cash transfers Requires effective bureaucracy to be carried out successfully Many poor countries don’t have effective governments to make them work o Non-conditional cash transfers: Families give $1000 in increments over 10 months Which translates into a lot of money in these regions Found that not much money actually spent on “temptation goods” Study at MIT showed many positive benefits Families had less stress (improved overall health) Reduced number hungry kids during program Incomes increased - An alternative to progress? o Universal basic income: every person in specific country guaranteed minimum income Would address worry of machines replacing too many human jobs o McKibben’s other view of Bangladesh Food self-sufficient: very productive soil, many natural resources, and local knowledge Should ask for local opinions on how to enhance current practices Should focus on organic and sustainable agriculture - Aid vs. trade o David Rieff; Not true that all aid is bad/good Unbalanced aid is more harmful Some aid programs do work Aid deprives recipients of agency Aid avoids politics Fundamentally, people must help themselves for best results o Gayle Smith: Argument against aid overlooks its complexity Comes from many different places Lumping all aid together hides good it can do Success in health , education, and economic advancement Wireless access funded partly by aid: helps get up-to-date commodity prices Microfinance generated by aid o George Ayittey: Separate humanitarian impulse from aid Obligation/responsibility of rich to help poor Blinds people to harm that aid causes More than $600 billion put into aid in African, but not a lot to show for it Foreign aid not free: given to governments as loans Aid comes with forced dependency on other countries US aid forces Africa to buy American products Chinese aid forces Africa to employ Chinese people and then expect to be paid back for projects Africans not asked about aid o John McArthur: Correlation does not equal causation Just because Africa still poor, does not mean aid is the cause of it Bad government/corruption not singularly responsible for African problems Senegal and Ghana have better government transparency than India/China, but worse growth/development $600 billion in aid has actually been helpful Eradication of smallpox due to aid MDG success due to aid
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