Sociology 101 Final Exam chap 13-16
Sociology 101 Final Exam chap 13-16 SOC 101
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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Souaid on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101 at University of Miami taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Leisure A period of time that can be spent relaxing, engaging in recreation, or otherwise indulging in freely chosen activities Recreation Any satisfying, amusing, and stimulating activity that is experienced as refreshing and renewing for body, mind and spirit Commodification The process by which it becomes possible to buy and sell a particular good or service Consumption The utilization of goods and services, either for personal use or in manufacturing Fourth Estate The media is considered like a fourth branch of government (after the executive, legislative, and judiciary) and thus serves as another of the checks and balances on power Conglomeration The process by which a single corporation acquires ownership of a variety of otherwise unrelated businesses Synergy A mutually beneficial interaction between parts of an organization that allows it to create something greater than the sum of its individual outputs Merger The legal combination of two companies, usually in order to maximize efficiency and profits by eliminating redundant infrastructure and personnel Concentration The process by which the number of companies producing and distributing a particular commodity decreases, often through mergers and conglomeration Monopoly A situation in which there is only one individual or organization, without competitors, providing a particular good or service Antitrust Legislation Laws designed to maintain competition in the marketplace by prohibiting monopolies, price fixing, or other forms of collusion among businesses Deregulation Reduction or removal of government controls from an industry to allow for a free and efficient market place Popular Culture Usually contrasted with the high culture of elite groups; forms of cultural expression usually associated with the masses, consumer goods, and commercial products High Culture Those form of cultural expression usually associated with the elite or dominant classes Taste Publics Groups of people who share similar artistic, literary, media, recreational, and intellectual interests Taste Cultures Areas of culture that share similar aesthetics and standards of taste Polysemy Having many possible meanings or interpretations Hypodermic Needle Theory A theory that explains the effects of media as if their contents simply entered directly into the consumer, who is powerless to resist their influence Uses and Gratifications Paradigm Approaches to understanding media effects that focus on individuals' psychological or social needs that consumption of various media fulfills Reinforcement Theory Theory that suggests that audiences seek messages in the media that reinforce their existing attitudes and beliefs and are thus not influenced by challenging or contradictory information Agenda Setting Theory Theory that the mass media can set the public agenda by selecting certain news stories and excluding others, thus influencing what audiences think about Two Step Flow Model Theory on media effects that suggests audiences get information through opinion leaders who influence their attitudes and beliefs, rather than through direct firsthand sources Active Audiences A term used to characterize audience members as active participants in "reading" or constructing the meaning of the media they consume Interpretive Strategies The ideas and frameworks that audience members bring to bear on a particular media text to understand its meaning Encoding/Decoding Model A theory on media that combines models that privilege the media producer and models that view the audience as the primary source of meaning; this theory recognizes that media texts are created to deliver specific messages and that individuals actively interpret them Textual Poaching Henry Jenkins's term describing the way that audience members manipulate an original cultural product to create a new one; a common way for fans to exert some control over the media they consume Interpretive Community A group of people dedicated to the consumption and interpretation of a particular cultural product and who create a collective, social meaning for the product Role Model An individual who serves as an example for others to strive toward and emulate Communitarianism A political and moral philosophy focused on strengthening civil society and communal bonds Lifestyle Enclaves Groups of people drawn together by shared interest, especially those relating to hobbies, sports, and media Third Place Any informal public place where people come together regularly for conversation and camaraderie when not at work or at home Civil Society Those organizations, institutions, and interactions outside government, family, and work that promote social bonds and the smooth functioning of society Idioculture The customs, practices, and values expressed in a particular place by the people who interact there Ecotourism Foreign travel with the goal of minimizing the environmental consequences of tourism as well as its possible negative effects on local cultures and economies, typically involves people from highly industrialized nations traveling to less developed countries Acute Diseases Diseases that have a sudden onset, may be briefly incapacitating, and are either curable or fatal Chronic Diseases Diseases that develop over a longer period of time and may not be detected until symptoms occur later in their progression Curative Medicine Type of health care that treats the disease or condition once it has manifested Preventive Medicine Type of health care that aims to avoid or forestall the onset of disease by taking preventive measures, often including lifestyle changes Palliative Care Type of health care that focuses on symptom and pain relief and providing a supportive environment for critically ill or dying patients, rather than fighting the illness or disease Medicalization The process by which some behaviors or conditions that were once seen as personal problems are redefined as medical issues Epidemiology The study of disease patterns to understand the cause of illnesses, how they are spread, and what interventions to take Epidemic Occurs when a significantly higher number of cases of a particular disease occur during a particular time period than might otherwise be expected Pandemic Occurs when a significantly higher number of cases of a disease also spreads through an especially large geographical region spanning many countries or even continents Vector Organisms Animals like mosquitoes, ticks, and birds that carry and spread pathogens (germs or other infectious agents) in a given area Food Desert A community in which the residents have little or no access to fresh, affordable, healthy foods, usually located in densely populated, urban areas Deprivation Amplification When our individual disease risks (based on our heredity and physiology) are amplified by social factors Sick Role The actions and attitudes that society expects from someone who is ill Cultural Competence The concept of acknowledging and incorporating a patient's cultural background as part of the treatment process; the recognition that patients' beliefs shape their approach to health care Recission The practice by insurance companies of canceling coverage only after a person gets sick Complementary Medicine A group of medical treatments, practices, and products that can be used in conjunction with conventional Western medicine Alternative Medicine A group of medical treatments, practices, and products that are used instead of conventional Western medicine Integrative Medicine The combination of conventional medicine with complementary practices and treatments that have proven to be safe and effective Bioethics The study of controversial moral or ethical issues related to scientific and medical advancements Eugenics An attempt to selectively manipulate the gene pool in order to produce and "improve" human beings through medical science Demography Study of the size, composition, distribution, and changes in human poluation Fertility Rate A measure of population growth through reproduction; often expressed as the average number of births per 1,000 people in the total population or the average number of children a woman would be expected to have Mortality Rate A measure of the decrease of population due to deaths; often expressed as the number of deaths expected per 1,000 people per year in a particular population Infant Mortality Average number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births in a particular population Life Expectancy Average age to which people in a particular population live Longevity Aka life span; the uppermost age to which a person can potentially live Migration Movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of resettling Immigration Entering one country from another to take up permanent residence Emigration Leaving one country to live permanently in another Internal Migration Movement of a population within a country Net Migration Net effect of immigration and emigration on an area's population in a given time period; expressed as an increase or decrease Malthusian Theorem The theory that exponential population growth will outpace arithmetic growth in food production and other resources Malthusian Trap Malthus's prediction that a rapidly increasing population will overuse natural resources, leading inevitably to a major public health disaster Neo Malthusians Contemporary researchers who worry about the rapid pace of population growth and believe that Malthus's basic prediction could be true Anti Malthusians Contemporary researchers who believe the population boom Malthus witnessed was a temporary, historically specific phenomenon and worry instead that the worldwide population may shrink in the future Demographic Free Fall Decrease in fertility rates among populations that have industrialized their economies as children become an economic liability rather than an asset Demographic Transition A theory suggesting the possible transition over time from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, resulting in a stabilized population Family Planning Contraception, or any method of controlling family size and the birth of children Growth Rate Expression of changes in population size over time figured by subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births, then adding the net migration Natural Increase Change in population size that results from births and deaths; linked to a country's progress toward demographic transition Rural Relating to sparsely settled areas; in the United States, an county with a population density between 10 and 59.9 people per square mile Urban Relating to cities; typically describes densely populated areas Urbanization Movement of increasing numbers of people from rural areas to cities Metropolis An urban area with a large population, usually 500,000 to 1 million people Agglomeration Aka metropolitan statistical area (MSA); One or more adjacent counties with at least one major city of 50,000 or more inhabitants that is surrounded by an adjacent area that is socially and economically integrated with the city Megapoplis Aka megacity; A group of densely populated metropolises that grow dependent on each other and eventually combine to form a huge urban complex Global Cities A term for megacities that emphasizes their global impact as centers of economic, political, and social power Urban Density Concentration of people in a city, measured by the total number of people per square mile Suburbanization Beginning after WWII, the shift of large segments of population away from the urban core and toward the edges of cities Urban Sprawl A derogatory term applied to the expansion of urban or suburban boundaries, associated with irresponsible or poorly planned development Edge Cities Centers of employment and commerce that began as suburban commuter communities Smart Growth Term for economic and urban planning policies that emphasize responsible development and renewal White Flight Movement of upper and middle class whites who could afford to leave the cities for the suburbs, especially in the 1950's and 60's Urban Renewal Efforts to rejuvenate decaying inner cities, including renovation, selective demolition, commercial development, and tax incentives Gentrification Transformation of the physical, social, economic, and cultural life of formerly working class or poor inner city neighborhoods into more affluent middle class communities Rural Rebound Population increase in rural counties that adjoin urban centers or possess rich scenic or amenity values Utopia Literally "no place"; an ideal society in which all social ills have been overcome Dystopia Opposite of a utopia; a world where social problems are magnified and the quality of life is extremely low Community Supported Agriculture A model of food production and distribution in which small farms recruit subscribers to purchase shares of the farm's harvest; subscribers or shareholders pay at the beginning of the year, and then receive regular deliveries of the farm's produce throughout the growing and harvest seasons Social Atomization A social situation that emphasizes individualism over collective or group identities Urbanites People who live in cities Alienation Decreasing importance of social ties and community and the corresponding increase in impersonal associations and instrumental logic Altruism Unselfish concern for the well being of others and helping behaviors performed without self interested motivation Bystander Effect AKA diffusion of responsibility; The social dynamic wherein the more people who are present in a moment of crisis, the less likely one of them is to take action Civil Inattention An unspoken rule governing interactions in public places, whereby individuals briefly notice others before ignoring them Pluralistic Ignorance A process in which members of a group individually conclude that there is no need to take action because of the observation that other group members have not done so Community A group of people living in the same local area who share a sense of participation, belonging, and fellowship Social Ecology The study of human populations and their impact on the natural world Environment In sociology, the natural word, the human-made environment, and the interaction between the two Biosphere The parts of Earth that can support life Environmental Sociology The study of the interaction between society and the natural environment, including the social causes and consequences of environmental problems Renewable Resources Resources that replenish at a rate comparable to the rate at which they are consumed Nonrenewable Resources Finite resources that can become exhausted; includes those that take so long to replenish as to be effectively finite Biodiversity The variety of species of plants and animals existing at any given time Pollution Any environmental contaminant that harms living beings Environmental Protection Agency A government agency organized in 1969 to protect public health and the environment through policies and enforcement Greenhouse Gases Any gases in Earth's atmosphere that allow sunlight to pass through but trap heat, thus affecting temperature Greenhouse Effect The process in which increased production of greenhouse gases, especially those arising from human activity (e.g., carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) cause changes to Earth's atmosphere Global Warming Gradual increase in Earth's temperature, driven recently by an increase in greenhouse gases and other human activity Global Dimming Aka solar dimming; a decline in the amount of light reaching the Earth's surface because of increased air pollution, which reflects more light back into space Treadmill of Production Term describing the operation of modern economic systems that require constant growth, which causes increased exploitation of resources and environmental degradation New Ecological Paradigm A way of understanding human life as just one part of an ecosystem that includes many species' interactions with the environment; suggests that there should be ecological limits on human activity Anthropocentric Literally "human centered"; the idea that needs and desires of human beings should take priority over concerns about other species or the natural environment Human Exceptionalism The attitude that humans are exempt from natural ecological limits Environmental Movement A social movement organized around concerns about the relationship between humans and the environment Conservation Era Earliest stage of the environmental movement, which focused on the preservation of "wilderness" areas Modern Environmental Movement Beginning in the 1960's, the second major stage of the environmental movement; focused on the environmental consequences of new technologies, oil exploration, chemical production, and nuclear power plants Mainstream Environmentalism Beginning in the 1980's, the third major stage of the environmental movement; characterized by enhanced organization, improved promotional campaigns and political tactics, and an increased reliance on economic and scientific expertice Earth Day An annual event conceived of by environmental activist and former senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns; first celebrated on March 22, 1970 Grassroots Environmentalism Fourth major stage of the environmental movement; distinguished by the diversity of its members and belief in citizen participation in environmental decision making Nimby Short for "not in my back yard"; originally referred to protests that aimed at shifting undesirable activities onto those with less power; now sometimes used without negative connotations to describe local environmental activists Ecoterrorism Use of violence or criminal methods to protect the environment, often in high profile, publicity generating ways Green Party A U.S. political party established in1984 to bring political attention to environmentalism, social justice, diversity, and related principles Environmental Justice A movement that aims to remedy environmental inequities such as threats to public health and the unequal treatment of certain communities with regard to ecological concerns Environmental Racism Any environmental policy or practice that negatively affects individuals, groups, or communities because of their race or ethnicity Sustainable Development Economic development that aims to reconcile global economic growth with environmental protection Ecological Footprint An estimation of the land and water area required o produce all the goods an individual consumes and to assimilate all the wastes she generates Social Change The transformation of a culture over time Collective Behavior Behavior that follows from the formation of a group or crowd of people who take action together toward a shared goal Contagion Theory One of the earliest theories of collective action; suggested that individuals who joined a crowd could become "infected" by a mob mentality and lose the ability to reason Emergent Norm Theory A theory of collective behavior that assumes individual members of a crowd make their own decisions about behavior and that norms are created through others' acceptance or rejection of these behaviors Crowd A temporary gathering of individuals, whether spontaneous or planned, who share a common focus Riot Continuos disorderly behavior by a group of people that disturbs the peace and is directed toward other people and/or property Mass Behavior Large groups of people engaging in similar behaviors without necessarily being in the same place Fads Interests or practices followed enthusiastically for a relatively short period of time Fashion The widespread custom or style of behavior and appearance at a particular time or in a particular place Social Dilemma A situation in which behavior that is rational for the individual can, when practiced by many people, lead to collective disaster Tragedy of the Commons A type of social dilemma in which many individuals' overexploitation of a public resource depletes or degrades that common resource Public Goods Dilemma A type of social dilemma in which individuals incur the cost to contribute to a collective resource, though they may never benefit from that resource Social Movement Any social groups with leadership, organization, and an ideological commitment to promote or resist social change Mass Society Theory A theory of social movements that assumes people join not because of the movements' ideals, but to satisfy a psychological need to belong to something larger than themselves Relative Deprivation Theory A theory of social movements that focuses on the actions of oppressed groups who seek rights or opportunities already enjoyed by others in the society Resource Mobilization Theory A theory of social movements that focuses on the practical constraints that help or hinder social movements' action Activism Any activity intended to bring about social change Regressive Term describing resistance to particular social changes, efforts to maintain the status quo, or attempts to reestablish an earlier form of social order Progressive Term describing efforts to promote forward thinking social change Technological Determinism A theory of social change that assumes changes in technology to drive changes in society, rather than vice versa Cultural Lag The time between changes in material culture or technology and the resulting changes in the broader culture's relevant norms, values, meanings and laws Virtual Community A community of people linked by their consumption of the same digital media Global Village Marshall McLuhan's term describing the way that new communication technologies override barriers of space and time, joining together people all over the globe Cultural Diffusion The dissemination of beliefs and practices from one group to another Globalization The increasing connections between economic, social, and political systems all over the globe Cultural Imperialism Cultural influence caused by adopting another culture's products Cultural Leveling The process by which societies lose their uniqueness, become increasingly similar Modernity A term that characterizes industrialized societies, including the decline of tradition, an increase individualism, and a belief in progress, technology, and science Postmodernity A term that characterizes postindustrial societies, including a focus on the production and management of information and skepticism of science and technology
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