Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide COMM 3325
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Rickard on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 3325 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Axel Westerwick in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 344 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Organizational Communication in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
The Cultural ADDroz Culture is a difference in countries societies etc and can be based on different religions ethnicity geography and other factors Within every national culture there are thousands of smaller cultures Society is how people have a common life together culture is what those people producepractice Both cultivate a set of common beliefs and values Ex American culture Freedom democracy equality etc Culture constantly and slowly develops but certain things remain rooted in tradition Changes can be good though women blacks gays having rights education communications with each other Organizational culture is defined as the actions practices stories and artifacts that characterize a particular organization When people work together in the workplace amp are culturally diverse you get new ideas coming together Open door new ideas feedback etc is always welcome Metaphorically is how you describe things Rituals maybe get together and have a company party weekly coffeedonut meeting etc Stories narratives that convey what and who is valued by the culture Hero People upheld as what the company should be best workers etc At OSU Urban Meyer For Apple Steve Jobs Microsoft Bill Gates Values shared sets of beliefs about appropriate organizational behaviors The early 197039s were characterized by a signi cant increase in global competition Questions of whether American customers would stay loyal to US brands Competitors seemed to have more effective ways to organize business amp make products better Forced a lot of other companies to think the same way Collaboration was the key foreign companies are performing better because of this They decided to implement the cultural elements that looked promising in other companies Work as a team Cannot change the culture completely You have to have good strategies amp time to employees to understand collaborations Such an organization would be based on cooperation with the capability to reduce segmented decisions Nothing to do with collaboration everything to do with investing Need to invest in good projects But still collaboration is important for success and improvement The new focus on organizational culture required a new approach for analyzing organizations and communication 198039s Ethnography looked at employees39 experiences in the workplace Researcher must be a participant who also observes amp re ects on hisher experiences Realist Tale basic elements of organizational culture are analyzed through observationquestioning of employees Impressionist Tale ethnographer allows employees to creatively express their experiences drawing etc Confessional Tale reports emotional experiences in the cultural settings after observation Practical view of Cultural Approach organizational culture can be in uencedcontrolled by management Supportive business environment dedication to a shared vision amp values well known corporate heroes effective rituals formalinformal communication networks gt business success Interpretive view managers cannot be successful on their own culture is constructed through everyday behaviors all organization members Critical view necessary to expose how everyday values stories rituals etc help the power structure of an organization Walmart Company Culture amp Power Structure Yearly rituals held in the form of manager meetings shareholder conference positive communications encouraged Strategies to have lowest possible market prices no investment that is frivolous Heroes in the form of Founder Sam Walton all Walmart strategies and activities are re ections of his ideas and ideals Communication Performance with usage of extensive messages do we want to increase profit Do we want to be the number 1 Paying more attention to growth and profit than to preventing sexual discrimination Women get less money for the same job than men The Critignl Approach 32i It reveals the hidden but pervasive power of organizations over individuals Unfair treatment at organizations can occur and often do People are sensitive to what happens how others treat you Karl Marx said it isn39t fair that everyone has to work but no one gets paid enough Socialism Criticisms of Marx criticism of those in power are fine but you also allow people to treat you that way Why not just walk away All members of a society play a part in the unlawful use of power If you want to find good people at the head of the organization you need to pay them good money Henry Ford thought that mass producing required more than the few rich people out there employees are the customers of the future gt they just need more money Increased salaries and set the precedence for other companies best employees will require more Pay Good time for all gt both individuals and companies made more money For the first time in human history more individuals worked for someone else than for themselves people became more dependent from companies So many jobs were shipped overseas that companies started getting more resources for big business 3415 Get more money to fight competitors and survive as an American company The Goal strengthened employers would pass increased profits on to employees From the 7039s on the average salary of workers is actually pretty at Employees from WalMart have to give higher copay when they go see doctors etc Costco covers health insurance better than WalMart even though they make less money How gt Critical Theory considers pro tability as essential for organizations but not at the expense of equally important social needs like employee wages 1 Reward power Person A can give formal or informal reward to Person B Coercive power gt incentive not to do something Referent power gt you want to be like someone so you39re more Willing to do things for themto be like them Expert power gt we39ll do things your way because you know best Legit power gt you are highly ranked so I will do What you ask It is an unquestioned agreement regarding the way the world really is There is always someone that creates ideology gt good for that person if everyone follows it Very subjective A significant number of US employees cite work as their biggest source of stress If a manager comes up to you and tells you to do something you aren39t going to immediately say no you may just later on do it your way instead Resistance to organizational dominance can take many forms from largescale social movements to individual tactics Ex Office Space extreme example of resistance Identity and Differences Slide 1 Slide 3 Networking occurs in everyday life too gt Facebook You can choose to connect to people or not at work you communicate with colleagues you like stay away from those you don39t Management Styles Can be frustrating when managers pay more attention to others instead of you goes outwith colleagues but not you There is something going on Everyday communication with coworkers Gender Race Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 7 Slide 9 Class These differences can cause a lot of problems How others see you treat you etc How you see yourself how you feel about things etc Both types are interdependent People try to differentiate themselves because they want to stand out in their career field Identity is essential when communicating with others Involves our understanding of how we are similar and different from others and how that shapes our sense of self News studies about identity creation and formation on Facebook where others get an idea of what that person is like have a certain impression of them Ideal American identity involves being wealthy successful determined honestfair to an extent be domestic with a family etc Example experienced colleague talking to another experienced colleague vs experienced colleague talking to an inexperienced colleague expect adaptive communication style based on whom is being talked toGOOD to adapt but DIFFICULT for most people to do It isn39t so easy to in uence what people think about companies nowadays because of the nature of modern companies Again no real loyalty on either end Less identification with the company and less in uence of companies on employees39 identity De ning person directly Who graduated at a topranked university is described as better compared to others by definition Someone who graduated Harvard is better than someone from OSU No Why is this believed gt harder school to get into harder curriculum etc MAKES NO SENSE Ohio State tries to in uence identity by emerging you in Buckeye culture once a Buckeye always a Buckeye football as a schoolwide culture messages from president with feelings of community being important Slide 10 Where is it okay and not okay to differentiate Gender differences that cause no trouble are no problem Gender differences that do cause problems women being paid less for the same work females are overlooked for physical labor Framing regards to different schemes of interpretations about the same topic Slide 11 For example men seek status by engaging in report talk while women seek relationships by engaging in rapport talk Men seem to focus more on work and those qualities while women seem to focus more on the environment relationships and those qualities Slide 12 Can strengthen the assumption that men and women should be treated differently inherently That can easily strengthen the assumption that organizations should treat men and women in different ways Slide 13 From this perspective gender is not a natural or xed category gender is learned and performed for speci c occasions Society teaches us our roles as a man or woman when we are little pink and blue for babies social norms Slide 14 If you want to change Frame 2 issues good but how do you do that Slide 15 Rules for hiring processes that favor women by equivalent qualification Restrictions for promotions 3615 Slide 1 We see lots of gender stereotypes in movies about men vs women In uences people and what they think about these gender differences If differences cause problems think about these things and try to in uence these industries Slide 2 They focus on gender but could also help to understand differences regarding race class or generations It39s important to understand these views to know why people behave a certain way Find commonalities and work to changes negative views Slide 3 Combination of our social identities in uence how we feel about things Older white male with traditional management style likely wouldn39t be promoted in a highly innovative business because they want someone young with fresh ideas Different characteristics in uence not only your life but your career Slide 4 People39s identity can be a privilege or a disadvantage Sometimes age is an advantage sometimes not Some cultures value age some don39t America definitely is a mix of these depending on the setting in which you work Slide 5 Be mindful Pay attention to your own privilege and help others with less power or in weak positions Start good relationships go to other people instead of waiting for them to come to you Teams Slide 1 Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 In different situations use different communication styles to deal with different people and Networks Employees need to help participate collaborate communicate etc for success It39s easier to get and provide info with technology but you need to have people Willing to gather this info Responsibilities must be decentralized and delegated to employees EmployeeParticipation becomes important for business success better products and services that meet customer demands innovation quality quantity more efficient internal processes If you feel important and valued you39re going to work harder stay longer etc If everyone is involved more can get done Some employees may not want to take on more responsibilities but there are more employees who want to do more for the organization More opportunities to demonstrate abilities and build one39s career Organize large events organize brainstorming sessions etc all benefit the company rather than the individual doing them These actions still benefit the employee as they will be seen as a team player Writing articles about your department39s newest achievements for the company newsletter Acting as trainer for new employees participation usually means more work for the same pay Managers need to understand the importance of freedom amp creativity Employees should consider extra responsibilities amp engagement increased will be re ected in performance review Consider additional efforts of employees in their performance review Set priorities implement teamwork make sure more things get done etc
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