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ANTH 1000 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Camila Correia

ANTH 1000 Final Exam Study Guide ANTH 1000

Camila Correia

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Study guide following Units 10-14 that will be on our final
Introduction to Anthropology
Joanne Phipps
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camila Correia on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Joanne Phipps in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 04/25/16
ANTH 1000 By: Camila Correia Exam #3 Study Guide (Units 10­14) Unit 10: Economic Systems Be able to describe the five types of adaptive strategies/production systems: ­foraging (know traditional ecological knowledge)  Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) ­Detailed collective knowledge of flora and fauna in their surroundings ­Small communities (40­60 people)   Egalitarian Society  (all have equal access to resources) ­Elders respected based on knowledge ­Divisions of labor based on gender ­horticulture       ­First cultivating economy ­Naturally­occurring plants are relocated to a garden ­Slash­and­burn technique to clear land ­Population limited by available useable land ­People own garden produce, not land itself ­Villages consist of single kin group ­Each household owns a garden and keeps the produce ­pastoralism ­Livelihood based on tending livestock i Secondary animal products ­Diets supplemented with foraging ­Herd animals provide subsistence and social status ­Kinship determines access to land/ resources ­agriculture ­Intensive form of cultivation ­Use of domesticated plants ­Use of technology ­Modification of land (Terrace Farming) ­Individual ownership of land ­Large increase in number of people supported (depends on sophistication of technology used) ­industrialism ­Economic emphasis on manufacturing ­Individualism (labor role determined by function) ­Globalization (import of raw material; wars erupt over scarce resources) Know the three parts of an economic system: ­production ­Five types of production strategies: 1 Foraging 2 Horticulture 3 Pastoralism 4 Agriculture 5 Industrialization ­distribution ­How goods are moved throughout the community ­consumption ­How goods are used ­Associated with systems of distribution ­Regarded in terms of capital ­Goods used to produce other goods ­In agricultural and industrial societies, ruling class has primary access to goods ­Consider: In USA 2008, wealthiest 10% of population owns 70% of country's capital ­The poorest 40% owns only 0.5% of capital ­Issues of differences in access directly related to poverty ­Ideas of poverty and wealth are ethnocentric Know the key characteristics of the three types of distribution: ­reciprocity (balanced and generalized) ­The giving and taking without use of money ­Foragers, horticulturalists and pastoralists ­Generalized Reciprocity ­Primary type among foragers ­People give without expectation of return            ­Requires high levels of trust and accountability ­Balanced Reciprocity ­Giving with expectation of return ­Primary system among horticulturalists and pastoralists ­redistribution ­Primary form of agricultural societies ­Centralized authority accumulates goods from society members, redistributes them as it  sees fit ­Resources often used to improve community infrastructure ­market exchange ­Found in industrial societies ­Exchange goods (including labor) for money ­Value of a good is not fixed (determined by rules of supply and demand) Understand the function of the Kula Ring of the Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea, and the purpose of  moka among the Kawelka (Ongka) ­System of non­competitive, ceremonial exchange ­Only men participate ­Helps establish, reinforce alliances and trading relationships ­Two things traded: ­Red shelled necklace "Soulava" ­White shelled armband "Mwali" ­If you get a Soulava, you must give a Mwali in return, and vise versa. Unit 11: Gender Know these terms: Sex The biological distinction of humans based on reproductive makeup Gender The culturally constructed status assigned to each sex Gender roles Culturally determined behavior, activities, attitudes and values Gender stratification ­Variation of status based on gender Sexual Dimorphism ­Distinct difference in size or appearance between the sexes of an animal in addition to  Know the four theories on divisions of labour based on gender: Strength ­Males are biologically stronger and have greater aerobic capacity  Sexual dimorphism Childcare Compatibility ­Activities that inhibit effective childcare assigned to males Economy of Effort ­One gender performs tasks that are related to each other Expendability ­Men tend to do dangerous activities because they are less of a reproductive loss ­Involvement in politics and warfare ­Access to weapons and training in their use ­Active role in warfare ­Men's activities tend to take them great distances from home Be able to describe: Why men frequently dominate politics and warfare ­Men valued more in societies that are routinely active in warfare ­Societies with centralized political systems give men more status What social factors impact the status of women ­Women tend to have more status in a society when involved with primary subsistence activities ­Women tend to have higher status in societies that are matrilocal (men move out of their home  and  move in with women) or matrilineal  ­Ex: Cherokee Indians The typical role and purpose of a third gender (Berdache tradition, Hijras of Northern India) Hijras of Northern India ­Biological males that take on more feminine appearance and women's economic roles ­Spirit of Mother Goddess ­Have separate religious role ­Bless children ­Perform marriages ­Some become prostitutes and entertainers ­Can enter into marriage with men ­Some undergo ritual surgeries to emasculate themselves   Two Spirits of the Americas ­"Berdache" ­Individuals with mix of male and female spirits ­Serve as dream interpreters and shamans The practice of homosexual activity as a cross­cultural pattern (what is its typical form, phase,  etc.) ­Variation in definition and tolerance of expression ­Cultural group may recognize more than two genders ­Exclusively same­sex relationships are rare ­Homosexuality occurs either as phase or along with heterosexuality Unit 12: Family and Kinship Know these terms: Family ­Most basic social grouping ­Cultural Universal ­Serves several important functions:  Family provides: ­Socially approved sexual and reproductive relationship ­Basic education and care for offspring ­Basis for individual's social identity ­Most fundamental economic unit of production Household (extended and nuclear) ­Made up of individuals that live together and share responsibility producing subsistence ­Two types of households:         Extended Family Household ­Created when newly­married couple move in with either bride's or groom's family ­Average 20 people living and working as cohesive unit         Nuclear Family Household ­Found in industrial and foraging societies ­Made up of parents and young children Residence pattern (Neolocal/Matrilocal/Patrilocal) ­Refers to where a couple lives after marriage ­Type associated with nuclear family is neolocal ­Patrilocal ­Bride moves in with groom's family ­Associated with patrilineal descent groups ­Matrilocal ­Groom moves in with bride's family ­Associated with matrilineal descent systems Kinship ­More formalized structure than family ­Serves several functions: ­Regulates access to property ­Determines individual's role in ceremonies ­Helps regulate labor ­Determines access to leadership positions Rules of descent ­In each society exists specific rules that determine your kin membership Descent group ­Kin groups that membership is ascribed ­Based on relation to a real or mythical ancestor ­Two general categorires: 1 Unilineal (one line) 2 Bilateral (two sides) ­Everyone is kin who is connected by blood or adoption ­Maximizes size of kin group Lineage ­All members trace back to one known ancestor; localized Clan ­Composed of several lineages; non­localized Types of Marriage: Monogamy Only one husband and one wife at any given time Serial Monogamy = many monogamous marriages through lifetime Polygamy When one individual marries more than one spouse at a time Polygyny = Poly + gyny = many + women; most common marriage pattern in the world Typical polygynous arrangement: Husband has compound Each wife has own space for her and children Women and children are markers of a man's wealth (land or animals), so more is  better. Polyandry (Fraternal Polyandry)  Fraternal Polyandry  ­ found in patrilineal societies in extreme geographic locations Means of preventing the division if small family land holdings and assets Cross/Parallel Cousins (and in what cultural situations you would likely marry a cross cousin) ­Unilineal societies distinguish between types of cousins ­Parallel cousins (kin) ­Cross cousins (not kin) Marriage Exchange (Dowry and Bride Price) ­Dowry ­Type of marriage exchange in form of money or goods ­Brides family provides goods for bride to take with her in to marriage ­Indication of sociey where women compete for men ­Dowry goods are wife's property ­Provide security in two ways: 1 Dissuade men from abusing wife 2 Support wife if she chooses to leave marriage  Bride Price ­Found in societies where women's labor is valued (Horticulture) ­Means of compensating bride's family for loss of her future labor ­Associated with polygyny   Unit 13: Political Systems Know these terms: Power (legitimate and coercive) ­ability to exercise one's will over others Authority ­Socially approved influence Be able to describe the basic characteristics of each political system as it relates to the distribution of power and  authority (political structure, leadership, social control, and conflict resolution): Bands ­Political Structure: Fluid group membership Bands are autonomous with own code of conduct ­Leadership: No formal leaders Decisions made by group consensus or informal headman ­Social Group: Gossip, ridicule, and avoidance used to enforce code of conduct Banishment worst form of punishment ­Conflict Resolution: Very little conflict Conflict often in form of grudges Tribes ­Political Structure: Made up of culturally distinct groups in localized areas Kinship is key to access to land ­Leadership: Nominal leadership positions Tribal leader called Big Man or Head Man Big men can only persuade people thru talk and leading by example ­(Achieved status) ­Generosity ­Social Control: Still very informal Threat is used to enforce rules ­Ordeal "Ducking" ­If accused of witchcraft, person tied up ­Thrown into a lake ­Floated = witch ­Drowned = innocent ­Ordeals serve as preventative measures Conflict Resolution: ­Conflict found within and between groups ­Conflict between individuals  resolved thru mediation ­Conflict between groups settled with raiding (illicitly taking something from) ­Raiding usually starts as a way to get limited resources ­Ex: Jivaro of South America ­Men expected to be fierce ­Raid rival tribes for women ­Creates a cycle of raid and retribution Chiefdoms Political Structure: ­Chiefdoms appear around 5­6,000  years ago ­Transitional political system Leadership: ­Structured like kingdom with monarchy ­Leadership is ascribed ­Allegiance is to chief, not the position Social Control: ­Chief is responsible for enforcing and making rules ­"Any person found breaking a boiled egg at the sharp end will be    sentenced to 24 hours in the stocks" ­King Edward VI of England Conflict Resolution: ­Internal conflict resolved by chief ­External disputes escalate ­Professional military States Political Structure: ­Involved a hierarchical and centralized government ­Compartmentalization and bureaucracy ­Ex: Department of the Interior Leadership: ­Achieved Position ­Allegiance is to position, not individual   Social Control: ­State systems have most amount of regulation and social control ­Public policy executed through laws ­Laws are codified ­Institutions enforce laws and policies ­Nationalism helps enforce social conduct rules Conflict Resolution: ­Internal conflict resolved through judicial process ­External conflict results in war on large scale ­Military not always voluntary Unit 14: Religion and Magic What are the main goals of anthropologists when we study religion? ­Describe religions and religious practices and beliefs ­Explain how they fit in the broader cultural system ­Seek generalizations about the nature of religion How do we define belief?  How is it different from science? ­What science cannot explain, belief fills the gap ­Anything taken on faith that cannot be tested is a belief What are the four main types of religious systems?  What adaptive strategies are they associated with and why? ­Animatism ­Belief in a supernatural impersonal force infuses all things ­World exists as a balance ­Foraging cultures ex: Star Wars ­Based on premise of animatistic religion ­Balance is essential to harmony ­Animism ­Belief in personal supernatural forces ­Ghosts and spirits ­Associated with pastoralism and horticulture (kin­based cultures) ­Spirits act as form of social control ­Polytheism ­Belief in multiple deities ­Agriculture ­Chiefdoms ­In general, gods have limitless power ­God reflects chief ­God specialize in one area of life ­Monotheism ­Belief in single, all powerful deity ­Associated with state system in industrialized societies ­Hierarchy among lesser supernatural beings What are Olympian religions?  What cultural transitions are they associated with? ­Not pure polytheistic systems ­Mirrors transition from chiefdom to state ­Transition from true polytheism to monotheism What are the ways in which people can interact with the supernatural? ­prayer ­physiological experience ­simulation  ­divination What is the definition and purpose of magic?  How does sorcery/witchcraft function as a religious  custom? ­Both belief and practice ­When people can compel supernatural to act in an intended way What are the types of practitioners found in societies and what are their respective roles? 1 Shamans ­Associated with foragers and some horticultural societies ­Part time male specialist ­Primary focus is healing ­High social status   1 Sorcerers/Witches ­Low social status ­Often found among pastoralists and agriculturalists   1 Mediums ­Often female ­Part time practitioners ­Heal and divine while in states of spiritual possession   1 Priests ­Full time male specialists ­High social status ­Officiate at public events ­Thought to communicate with high gods that ordinary people cannot What are the social functions of religion? Explanatory Function ­Religion serves to answer the big WHY questions ­Dramatic observable events ­Natural disasters ­Everyday phenomenon ­Birth and death   Integrative Function ­Serves to create and reinforce social cohesion ­Provides safe community and builds morale   Validative Function ­Closely tied to social control ­Related to Marxism "Religion is the Opiate of the Masses" ­Religion acts as social control by validating one's lot in life What are revitalization movements and cargo cults?  Under what circumstances do they happen, and  what are they meant to achieve? ­In times of rapid social change, practices not as effective in maintaining social stability ­Aim to either restore old ways or create new social order ­Usually associated with charismatic leader


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