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brain & behavior

brain & behavior

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School: Garrett College
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Name: brain & behavior
Uploaded: 04/26/2016
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Absolute refractory period

A brief period during the action potential in which the neuron cannot be fired again because the sodium channels are closed.

Action potential

An abrupt depolarization of the membrane that allows the neuron to communicate over long distances.

Agonist

Any substance that mimics or enhances the effect of a neurontransmitter.

all-or-none law

The principle that an action potential occurs at full strength or it does not occur at all

antagonist

Any substance that reduces the effect of a neurotransmitter

Autoreceptor

A receptor on a neuron terminal that senses the amount of transmitter in the synaptic cleft and reduces the presynaptic neuron's output when the level is excessive.

Axon

An extnsion from a neuron's cell body that carries information to other locations

Cell body

and structures that produce proteins, convert nutrients into energy, and eliminate waste materials.

Dale's principle

The idea that a neuron is able to release only one neurotransmitter

Dendrites

Extensions that branch out from the neuron cell body and receive information from other neurons.

Electrostatic pressure

The force by which like-charged ions are repelled by each other and opposite-charged ions are attracted to each other.

excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)

A hypopolarization of the dendrites and cell body, which makes the neuron more likely to fire.

Force of diffusion

The force that moves ions from an area of greater concentration to an area where they are less concentrated

Glial cell

Nonneural cell that provides a number of supporting functions to neurons, including myelination.

Graded potential

A voltage change in a neuron that varies with the strength of the stimulus that initiated it.

Hyperpolarization

An increase in the polarization of a neuron membrane, which is inhibitory and makes an action potential less likely to occur.

Hyopoplarization

A decrease in the polarization of a neuron membrane, which is exitatory and makes an action potential more likey to occur.

Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

A hyperpolarization of the dendrites and cell body, which makes a neuron less likey to fire.

Interneuron

A neuron that has a short axon or no axon at all and connects one neuron to another in the same part of the central nervous system.

Ion

An atom that is charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons.

Ionotropic recepor

A receptor on a neuron membrane that opens ion channels directly and immediatley to produce quick reactions.

Metabotropic receptor

A receptor on a neuron membrane that opens ion channels slowly through a metabolic process and produces long-lasting effects.

Motor neuron

A neuron that carries commands to the muscles and organs

Myelin

A fatty tissue that wraps around an axon to insulate it from the surronding fluid and from other neurons.

Neural network

A group of neurons that function together to carry out a process.

Neuron

a single neural cell, in contrast to a nerve.

Neurotoxin

substance that impairs the function of a neuron.

Neurotransmitter

A chemical substance that a neuron releases to carry a message across the synapse to the next neuron or to a muscle or organ.

Node of Ranvier

A gap in the myelin sheath covering an axon

nondecremental

When a neuron travels down the axon without any decrease in size, propagated anew and at full strength at each successive point along the way.

Oligodendrocyte

A type of glial cell that forms the myelin covering of neurons in the brain and spinal cord.

Polarization

A difference in electical charge between the inside and outside of a neuron.

Postsynaptic

Term referring to a neuron that receives transmission from another neuron

Presynaptic

Term referring to a neuron that transmits to another neuron.

Presynaptic excitation

Increased release of neurotransmitter from a neuron's terminal as the results of another neuron's release of neurotransmitter onto the terminal ( an axoaxonic synapse).

Presynaptic inhibition

Decreased release of neurotransmitter from a neuron's terminal as the result of another neuron's release of neurotransmitter onto the terminal ( an axoaxonic synapse).

Rate law

Principle that intensity of a stimulus is represented in an axon by the frequency of action potentials.

Relative refractory period

Period during which a neuron can be fired again following an action potential, but only by an abovethreshold stimulus.

Resting potential

The difference in charge between the inside and outside of the membrane of a neuron at rest.

Reuptake

Process by which a neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminals by transporters.

Saltatory conduction

Conduction in the axon in which action potentials jump from one node of Ranvier to the next.

Schwann cell

A type of glial cell that forms the myelin covering on neurons outside the brain and spinal cord.

Sensory neuron

A neuron that carries information from the body and from the outside world into the central nervous system.

sodium-potassium pump

Large protein molecules that move sodium ions through the neuron membrane to the outside and potassium ions back inside, helping to maintain the resting potential.

Spatial smmation

The process of combining potentials that occur simultaneously at differnt locations on the dendrites and cell body.

Synapse

The conection between two neurons.

Synaptic cleft

The small gap betwen a presynaptic neuron and a postsynaptic neuron.

Temporal summation

The process of combining potentials that arrive a short tine apart on a neuron's dendrites and cell body.

Terminal

also called an end bulb.

Vesicle

A membrane-enclosed container that stores neurotransmitter in the neuron terminal.

Voltage

The difference in electical charge between two points.