Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide EDP 301
Popular in Child development
Popular in Educational Psychology
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Texana Sonnefeld on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EDP 301 at University of Arizona taught by Heidi Burross in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 477 views. For similar materials see Child development in Educational Psychology at University of Arizona.
Reviews for Exam 2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/07/15
EdP 301 Spring 2015 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 9 cognitive processes 33 of exam Promoting strategic learning Describing what you re teaching so students understand why they are learning it Challenging tasks Metacognitive awareness Opportunities for various uses Feedback Summarizing outlining notetaking prioritizing concept mapping mnemonics noting key concepts vocabulary contextstory assessment Issues in decisionmaking De nition an identi ed list of options and solutions making a choice from a set of options prior experience may tie into the decision Con rmation bias examining options in which we have one option we prefer and only seeking information that supports that bias of that choice Belief perseverance we are given information that opposes our biased option and we still choose the biased choice anyway you persevere with your choice denial could be why we make poor decisions Overcon dence bias you are sure you are making the right decision and don t seek to nd informationevidence to support your choice Hindsight bia only happens when the decisionmaking choice goes bad saying ohl knew that was the right answer when you chose wrong in the first place Heuristics Rule of thumb or mental shortcut Availability heuristic salience instance is more common than it actually might be 0 Ex People who don t like ying in airplanes because they think it is unsafe the reasoning in their decision making is affected by the idea that a plane crashing is scary in actuality it doesn t happen very often Representativeness heuristic uncertain situations we rely on similar instances than actual probabilities 0 Ex A person who has tattoos likes heavy metal music and eats their steak rare Is this person more likely to be a truck driver or a ight attendant We think it would be a truck driver because the stereotype would most likely lead us to believe they would t those characteristics more than a ight attendant Strategies and approaches for problem solving Approaches for what you actually do Successive scanning trial and error approach try until you do or don t get it not learning from your mistakes Focus gambling identifying potentials in getting what you want but you ONLY try ONE time because you only have the resources available to do it once 0 Ex Studying an hour before the test on material that you think the teacher spent the most time on in hopes they ask about those more it s a gamble Conservative focus trying one option at a time but learning from your mistakes as you go start with the most feasible and trying the next feasible option if that doesn t work Simultaneous scanning trying every option at once to get results 0 Ex when your check engine light comes on replacing everything at once to solve the problem Obstacles to problem solving These are not mutually exclusive there can be a combination of any or none of these Fixation being preoccupied with something that prevents us from solving a problem 0 Focusing on an unattractive quality of a person that prevents us from getting to know them as a person Lack of motivation when you don t even want to START solving a problem Lack of persistence you have started solving the problem but don t FINISH it Inadequate emotional control 0 Ex positive being so excited about applying to college that you don t remember the deadlines 0 Ex negative being so depressed you can t solve anything Problembased learning A REALLIFE implication application usually a tangible or observable aspect Realworld problems evaluating success or unsuccessful plans applies the use rules knowledge and strategies to solve real problems seen in the real world 0 Ex implicating a recycling system in a school to decrease waste and promote reusing of materials As we get older we get better at 0 Using rules being exible and testing limits 0 Flaming and prioritizing importance of order 0 Complexity of problem solving taking unique approaches to solving problems 0 Implicating more effective problem solving using various strategies appropriately and effectively Creative amp critical thinking Encourages metacognition looking outside the box different perspectives multiple solutions unique and unorthodox ways Convergent thinking different starting point 9 same outcome 0 Ex How do you water a plant Some start by using a watering can hose soaking water in a sponge and squeezing over plant outcome will be the same the plant will be watered Divergent thinking same starting point 9 different outcome 0 Ex Class given an assignment with a rubric and outlined points they must cover outcome will be different because everyone will think a little differently Chapter 10 constructivism 27 Piaget s cognitive constructivism Thought of children as little scientists they will figure things out for themselves in exploring there world they want to try and figure out their world Use schemas to make sense of our world Eguilibrium We know what we know what we learn should be balanced should disrupt their understandings so we have to learn to rebalance when we are learning new information o Assimilation put togethertake onbring in make new knowledge a part of your base knowledge it is the SAME A way to remember this is Second letter of Assimilation S SAME 0 Accommodation changingmodifying something you already know to help you distinguish the two forces you to change something you already knew A way to remember this Second letter in Accommodation C CHANGE Types of concepts Concepts ideas mental categories framework for organizing and understanding experiences these types of experiences can t multiple types and they can be mixed and matched 1 Conjunctive joined two things have to be both in order to t that concept Success money and happiness 9 2 Disjunctive your de nitionclassi cation can t one or the other can be more than one as well Success money or happiness 3 Relational includes some comparative aspect Success making more money than my best friend Concept formation 1 Identify features ex Cat is uffy have pointy ears 2 De ne concept ex Take features and create a de nition of cat 3 Concept mapvisual representation develop a map of features and related things such as dogs or animals 4 Hypothesis development creating a hypothesis you think will t your de nition can compare things such as cats vs dogs what features are and aren t present etc 5 Prototype set up modelexample of that concept as you encounter new concepts you will form a better prototype doesn t have to be images can be words quotes etc Ex a lion is also a cat Promoting concept formation give examples to help understanding differences and distinctions between concepts providing concrete examples relate new concepts to old concepts they know concept maps hypothesize prototype matching check for understanding and generalization Reasons for misconceptions Prior experience students could ve had poor instruction in the past that leads to misunderstandings and misinterpretations Appearance judging a book by its cover judgments are based on their concepts they formed from a previous very young age not having a lot or a variety of experiences can be confusing Society culture can lead to misconception religious beliefs value of speci c people Language interpretation and translation differences even with the same language tone different word de nitions slang Vygotsky s social constructivism Environment acting on the learner Learning is a social process 0 From whom and with whom you learned something with ex Where you sit who your friends are 0 Shared meaning through social negotiation who is learning what is going to be learned how it is going to be learned 0 Learner is responsible for their own understanding and leaming individual still takes responsibility on howwhat they learn o Scaffolding building something new with a structure around it to reach higher levels building a strong foundation with strong supports that allows the learner to have a foundation understating and after learning the scaffolding support is taken away gradual release of responsibility to the learner Ex Have to teach addition and subtraction before multiplication and division Approaches to social constructivism Cognitive apprenticeship have true expert and a novice not struggling that wants to be a skilled expert as well Tutoring having peers work together where one is more advanced than the other who is less advanced and struggling Service leaming volunteering and learning in the process Reciprocal teachingquestioning students pair up and they teach each other ask each other questions both act as teacher and student Problembased leaming tackle real world problems Virtual experiences allow students to go beyond passive learning Cooperative leaming group work work together on a specific task 2 or more students Slavin s requirements for cooperative learning Learning works best by 2 conditions 1 Individual accountability level of responsibility in each individual Ex individual grade components different tasks assigned to each person having roles for each individual leader recorder etc 2 Group reward group recognition some individual has responsibility but the group will be rewarded afterwards Bene ts makes big projects doable reciprocal teaching and learning have to learn con ict resolution how to be assertive could be more fun real world concepts youre going to have to work with others in the future Considerations assign roles or have students pick at least have roles outlined grading tough identity individual accountability how is evaluation done by group members Other groups Presentation grade having a processplan in place for con ict resolution mechanisms in place how to negotiate when to ask for outside help teacher Chapters 11 amp 12 Motivation 40 Definition amp model of motivation Motivation inspiration intemalextemal drive to do something desire reasons for behavior VOLUNTARY Model Need 9 Drive 9 Goal 0 Need recognizing a deficit physiologicalpsychological 0 Drive change in behavior do something different 0 Goal target you satisfied the need don t always reach the goal Behavioral motivation Operant conditioning not classical conditioning because that is involuntary 0 Uses reinforcers to motivate 0 Positive amp negative reinforcement 0 May also behave in ways to avoid punishment Intrinsic amp extrinsic motivation Reasons for behavior Intrinsic do it for self you want to and you bene t from the behavior Ex showering to keep yourself clean you would do it otherwise even if no one notices 0 Bene ts the more intrinsic we are the better off we tend to be ex Someone who likes to read for enjoyment may do better in classes because they will read the textbook unmotivated individuals tend to look for external reinforcement praise can easily be internalized 9 positive selftalk is reinforcing and motivating praise is external but when internalized it is selftalk o Boosting internalization of motives seeing results from behavior external factors boost internal motives feedback being re ective on the benefits when we can t find an extrinsic reason for a task we look intrinsically example from class is having a group on two sides of the room that are doing the same task circling vowels in an encyclopedia one side of the room is being paid 5 and the other side 100 the people being paid 100 look at extrinsic money as the reward the people being paid 5 look intrinsically and see the experiment as more positive than the other side of the room Extrinsic do it because of others not necessarily for others Ex feeding the dog because its hungry if he she weren t there you wouldn t be doing it Examples in class Read a book to relax 9 intrinsic Read a book because it is assigned 9 extrinsic Wear a hat to protect yourself from the sun 9 intrinsic Take a nap because you re bored 9 intrinsic Pet the cat because he keeps bothering you 9 extrinsic Clean your kitchen because it s driving you crazy 9 intrinsic Maslow s hierarchy of needs Selfactualization fulfilling your destiny as a human being when you recognize or fulfill your purpose for being here getting your diploma Aesthetic needs reorganizing to make it more appealing need to hear a particular piece of musicsee artwork religion Cognitive needs need to know what happens at the end of a book entertainment for learning value figuring out what she meant when she said this Esteem needs need for recognition approval need for praise to win a contest entertainment because of boredom Belongingness amp Love Needs need to call momhome need to see your best friend taking care of your dog religion Safety needs shelter abuse situation using a helmet wearing a seatbelt cleanliness Physiological needs food water sleep shelter using bathroom De ciency needs quot 393 0 needs A Growth ao 70 Value amp selfef cacyexpectations Value something important to you or what it is worth to you Expectation beliefs about your ability and success Bandura s selfefficacy depends on your own individual beliefs and perceptions Value x Expectation motivation 0 High selfefficacy with no motivation has no value it doesn t mean anything to you If you are good at something but it doesn t have any value to you you wont be as motivated to do it 0 High value more motivation high expectation Ex turning paper in early to get 100 bonus points 0 If either value or expectation is zero motivation zero anything times 0 is nothing Many students cannot see longterm value Why should I care methods for increasing value help them recognize value by increasing their knowledge base leading by example being passionate and enthusiastic putting knowledge in context for students demonstrating concepts applying the knowledge to all students based on their interests have them invest in the process give them clarity Cognitive dissonance When what we know or believe and what we are learning do not coincide belief structure and something that violates those beliefs equilibrium a behavior is hypocritical to your beliefs saying one thing but doing another Uncomfortableness is the motivation actively trying to reduce dissonance by 0 Changing beliefs to fit behavior 0 Changing behavior to fit beliefs 0 Compartmentalizing the two keep separate we are good at doing both but we don t actively try to line up the two we isolate them mentally o Merging the two compromising Weiner s attribution theory Very cognitive approach to past experiences you think why you were successful or why you failed based on three components l Locus location within the self or external to the self something you brought to the task or and outside factor that lead to successfailure lntemal perseverance you knew what you were doing External the test was hard easy 2 Stabiligg is the reason for successfailure going to be there the next time you succeedfail Stable good at test taking Unstable friends helped you along the way 3 Control anyone can be the controller Controllable studying for a test internal teacher likes you so you do well on the test external stable Uncontrollable illness internal accident unstable external Attributions come from past experiences and feedback from others the way you reason these past experiences affect how we are motivated in the future feedback from others will affect us in our motivation as well ex if something thinks you did well on a test you didn t believe you did that well on you will be motivated to do the same or better next time 0 O O Accurate attributions are not always the most motivating being honest with yourself is not always motiving all of us are bad at something Recognizing failure is not motivating to do that task in the future Balance between helping students and realistic reasons for performance and increasing future motivations are delicate being optimistic Having students step back and asking what can be done to improve in the future encouraging them changing the reason they think they failed give them tools to try other ways make small goals that lead to an ultimate goal Examples For each of the following identify where the individual is in Wiener s theory 0 0 Seth believes he did well on a test because he was lucky internal unstable uncontrollable Steve believes he did poorly on a test because he is stupid internal stable you have consistent thoughts about that uncontrollable Sally believes she did poorly on a test because she didn t study enough for a test intemal controllable unstable Sandra believes she did well on a test because the teacher likes her external controllable by the teacher stable for that class Goal orientations Type of Goal Example 1 Helpless goal orientation Focusing on how little time they have to complete the task limitations what s going to stop us from accomplishing tasks 2 Performanceavoidance goal Avoiding speaking for a group so they won t look dumb orientation don t want to feel less than so you avoid task 3 Workavoidance goal Completing an assignment with as little effort as possible orientation student meets minimum standards 4 Social goal orientation Wanting the teacher to view them as responsible approach task because you want others to see how well you perform 5 Performanceapproach goal Producing the best essay in the class when you want to do orientation the task to be better than everyone else want to be on top 6 Mastery goal orientation Understanding the difference between wellwritten and poorly written essays you do it because you want to understand and master the task McClelland s trait theory Socialcognitive approach look at overall patterns and characteristics of motivation based on own thought processes and the social aspects It can change there can be a change over time developmentally but there is a general pattern of motivation present over time Mathematical model additive Motivation needs for achievement and af liation n n n Some are motivated by achievement sense of accomplishing something others are motivated by being af liated with others recognizedassociated by others and belongingness Achievement is the healthiest Arousal theories Primarynecessary for basic survival bottom 2 theories of Maslow s pyramid Ex Food water shelter sleep etc Secondary learned motives not necessary for basic survival learned in culture Ex communication religion money exchange Stimulation some classify this as a part of secondary reasons for behavior that don t meet survival needs and don t need to be learned Selfregulation Time management skills goal setting monitoring goals metacognitive knowledge tool box of strategies Climate order exible safety ability to explore options emphasize success appropriate challenges that match abilities task comprehension to help learner understand what they re doing Teachers model show enthusiasm care about students maintain positive expectations are focused on material organized personalrelevant involved in the process provide constructive feedback Social in uences on motivation Parents good role models to children provide challenge in a positive environment Peers high achieving role models to each other Teachers provide challenges and support them in the process to help them achieve Family factors cultural values traditions parenting styles familymake up birth order social economic status and ethnicity low predictor of motivation Motivation and gender Males 0 Rate themselves higher in math and sports high selfef cacy o Rambunctious more teacher attention and or special needs services 0 Get lower grades 0 List more career options what they could do vs what they plan to do Females 0 Higher competence in language arts writing reading speaking and social activities make more friends 0 Con icts in gender roles and achievement ex plan time off to start a family Compliant 0 Less teacher attention 0 0 Have very low selfesteem starting around middle school developmental changes peerpressure different school environment etc don t recover fully like boys tend to do Speci c motivationachievement issues Low achievers amp low expectations don t think it will ever get better 9 set up subgoals and small achievements High anxiety allow for safety in task management what s the worst that can happen experiencing failure but learn how to get them back up Protection of selfworth by avoiding failure failing to do the task at all is less harmful than failing to succeed pretty tough on learner 9 teach them that selfworth is not based on this one task Procrastinators have them set their own deadline to get parts done along the way work on the parts piece by piece until accomplished Perfectionists can result in procrastination they dwell on small details 9 get them to decrease selfcriticism Hard to reach low achievers students who do not come to class or are not engaged in the classroom 9 include social aspect for them to be accountable for such as working with another student group work make sure there is not an outside factor playing a role such as diagnosis family issues etc
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'