CUMULATIVE FINAL REVIEW/ STUDY GUIDE
CUMULATIVE FINAL REVIEW/ STUDY GUIDE APY 203
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Demaree Rios on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APY 203 at University of Miami taught by William Pestle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Principles of Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
UNIT 1 | EVOLUTION I. REFRESHER ON THE BASICS ANTHROPOLOGY: the study of humanity and humans as biological, social, and cultural beings Four Subfields of Anthropology Linguistics; study of human lang., how sounds, structures and rules can connect across lang.s, about ½ of world’s popular lang.s can be traced back to progenitor lang. (proto- indoeuropean), how culture shapes lang./ speaking and vice versa Sapir-Whorf hyp.; the way that we talk about things shapes the way that we behave, lang. and cognition Cultural; study of culures Culture; learned set of behaviors/ sys. of beliefs within a group passed down/taught to generations Ethnography; an anthro. lives w/ a culture to study/ learn form groups/ subcultures to learn about the human condition Archaeology; rummaging through ancient garbage as a window to the past life Physical; study of human (and other closely related species) biology and behavior within the framework of evolution EVOLUTION: change in gene frequency in a population over time Evolution is a demonstrable fact, it exists because we can measure it Evolution by means of natural selection is a theory; a series of hypotheses that have been tested repeatedly and vigorously and hasn’t been disproven, it’s not a law, it’s subject to change, but is current best explanation Science seeks and empirical (verifiable observation rather than theory or logic) understanding of material world via scientific method to discard what no longer holds UNIT 1 | EVOLUTION II. PRE-DARWINIAN CONCEPTS OF EVOLUTION ESSENTIALISM - Ancient Greek philosophy that a divine creator created the world in its ideal form and people have the essence of the ideal thing and are just imperfect copies (explains variation) - The essence is eternal, change is unlikely FIXITY - The world is, as it was, as it will be THE GREAT CHAIN OF BEING (scalae naturae) - A divine being created hierarchy in the world and you were stuck in the “rank” you were born in Humans (at the top) | JAMES USHER (1581-1656) Plants (bottom) - Used the genealogical records within CREATIONISM Hebrew Bible to determine that the - God created the world and life foworld was created Oct. 22 , 4004 BC, (fairly recently) and nothing/very little has changed since then this was very well received) JOHN RAY (1627-1705) - Taxonomist who starts attempting to ENLIGHTENMENT organize all the diversity; observed that - Brings exposure to diversity and can group plants and animals on similar TAXONOMY appearance and ability to reproduce - The science of classifying living things BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE with one another (species) or if they - Naming system: Genus species cant (different genus) CAROLUS LINNAEUS (1707-1788) Ex. Homo sapien- Standardized Ray’s sys and adds broader levels (class & order) using DESCENT W/ MODIFICATION COMPTE DE BUFFON (1707-1788) did not believe in fixity, but rather that organisms fit well with their environment/climate/resources thus animals adapted to environment ERASMUS DARWIN (1731-1802) organisms are slowly generated over time, lots of small changes eventually leads to huge differences JEAN BAPTISE LAMARCK (1744-1829) studied the fossil record and phases of development, thought organisms ascended the chain of being and if given long enough over generations offspring would “transmutate” into beings higher and higher in chain of being, also believed in inheritance of acquired traits, while these ideas were wrong the concept that organisms of today are descendants of what see in fossil records is important ROBERT CHAMBERS (1802-1871) also believed in ascension of chain via transmutation during gestation period III. DARWINIAN EVOLUTION THEORY OF EVOLUTION BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION_ CHARLES DARWIN - Descent w/ modification, gradualism - On the Origin of Species (1859) - Multiplication of species from single common ancestor ALFRED WALLACE (1823-1913) - Works through mechanism of natural selection - Darwin’s contemporary, also came up with similar theory via similar methods, but Darwin published first - Changes in environment dictate what char.s/traits are appropriate/ selected for DARWIN’S INFERENCES - There are more born than can be supported, those who OBSERVATIONSnds on DARWIN’S 4 INFLUENCES VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLEselected to be resident -akSpecies have high potential naturalist on ship, for 5 years circumnavigates theOver time/generations globe, criticism from captain means must constantlyselection leads to small scale refine his arguments, encountered fossils of extincthanges in a pop.yet pop.s remain normally stable organisms which brought up question of why they die(microevolution) and prod. of out and not others? Galapagos; “common ancestor” new species (macroevolution) then finches diversified on diff. islands - Natural resources are GEORGE CUVIER theorized past cataclysm wiped out limited now extinct species and species of today are differ-ntNo 2 individuals in a pop. species UNIFORMITARIAANALOGY; char. That evolved independently but serve similar of Geology; ipurpose, (function)he incremental observable evEx. Bird and bat wingse today it can explain geoloHOMOLOGY; similarity in feature/structure due to common acts the same way, refutes catastrophism and presents idea that earth is very very old, Ex. Similar forearm structure across vertebrates like people, horses, SELECTIVE BREporpoises, vestigial body parts pass on charaHOMOPLASY; independent evolution of similar adaptations, pop. superficially similar but may not serve same purpose, THOMAS MALTHUS pop. Grows exponentially, food production is linear so one day wont be able to prod. IV. GENETICS & EVOLUTION GENETICS: study of how genes work and traits are passed on from one generation to the next GENE CHROMOSOME Small sections of DNA Tightly packed strands of DNA joined @ These sections are sequences of bases in DNA that code for a centromere, during cell replication specific trait, protein, aa, or functional product We have 23 pairs from ea. Parent, 46 total Alleles are varieties of a gene found @ same locus on member Autosomes are the 22 pairs that carry of a pair of chrom. but have diff. expressions, some are info to govern phys. char.’s dominant some are recessive Then we also have 1 pair (one member of Genome is the entire genetic makeup this pair is from each parent) of sex Regulatory Genes control expression of other genes chromosomes Homeobox Genes direct overall body plan and segmentation a locus is location on a chrom. Where of tissues a given gene occurs Hox genes direct embryonic tiss, specify what kind of cells DNA Directs all cell activity Directs assembly of proteins Nitrogen bases CELL DIVISION mitosis; how somatic cells reproduce during growth & development or repair/replace older cells w. new ones EVEN SMALLER THINGS Nitrogen bases code are ATCG The sequence/order of a triplet (3 base pairs) specifics an meiosis; reproduces gametes, amino acid amino acids make up proteins which carry out functions increases gen. variation in pop.s bc random assortment produces new arrangements of gen. V. HEREDITY & MENDELIAN EVOLUTION PRE-MENDELIAN THEORIES: PREFORMATION w/in reproductive cells there existed preformed version of the offspring and the womb was just the incubator (like little photocopies), doesn’t explain mixed resemblance of offspring nor variation BLENDING INHERITANCE both parents contribute to char.s of offspring. again, doesn’t explain variation or novel traits bc eventually offspring would all regress to same “mean”/ average bc no mechanism for variation so how would GREGOR MENDEL species evolve? studied hybridization of MENDEL’S GENETIC PRINCIPLES: PRINCIPLE OF SEGREGATION garden peas, focused on Chrom. occur in pairs so genes (alleles) occur in pairs, during expression of certain gamete formation the pairs separate so ea. gamete has one member of ea. pair (meiosis) characteristics (height, texture, coloring etc) from generation to DOMINANT generation dom. allele is the one that is expressed in the F1 gen. may partially or completely prevent expression of rec. began alleles RECESSIVE not expressed in F1 but is expressed in F2 gen., individual needs to copies of rec. allele for the trait to be expressed CODOMINANCE mixture of both alleles is expressed HOMOZYGOUS inherit same allele @ same locus on chrom pair (AA or aa) HETEROZYGOUS inherit diff, allele @ same locus on chrom pair (Aa) GENOTYPE an organism’s underlying genetic makeup, diff. genotypes can produce diff. phenotype, and it is possible to produce same phenotype via diff. genotypes PHENOTYPE MENDELIAN/DISCRETE TRAITS observable phys. char.s/ expressions of an controlled by alleles at only one locus organism NON-MENDLIAN/ POLYGENIC/ CONdiscontinuous, as in phenotypic MENDELIAN INHERITANCE IN HUMANS: TRAITS expressions don’t overlap, are clearly defined INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT traits show variation (ex. height, some char. aren’t inherited together, geneshair, eye color)iff. (ex. blood type) traits separate independently during gamte formation governed by alleles at 2 or more influenced by RANDOM ASSORTMENT traits loci, eao locus bearsTraits can be traced out through pedigree makes it hacharts that diagrams generations of parents and given traitoffspring to determine modes of inheritance: o autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive the action of a single gene influences more than one traitd recessive Genetic and Environmental Factors mitochondrial (mtDNA only passed o phenotypes are not solely products of VI. MACROEVOLUTION MICROEVOLUTION: small scale change of gene frequency generation to generation, results introduce variety MACROEVOLUTION: changes bring about new species over a long time SPECIES biological species concept: species is group of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding with each other LOCOMOTION Why did primates evolve in the first place? UNIT 2 | PRIMATES Arboreal Hypothesis; the suite of features evolved to facilitate living in the trees …but not all arboreal organisms have these features (ex. Squirrels) Visual Predation Hypothesis; set of common adaptations to hunt insects SOCIAL ACTIVITY/ORGANIZATION Angiosperm Coevolution Hypothesis; diversitytied to emergence of Noyau; F+child, orangutans, usu. primitive nocturnal, overlap home rages w solitary angiospermsadaptive radiation into niches left open after major meteor impact 65 mya, lead to evolutionary arms race males but no care Monogamy; M+F+offspring, lack of sexual DIET ACTIVITY PATTERNING dimorphism, don’t welcome other males bc Terrestrial/ Knuckle Folivores; leaves, sharper molars, infanticide seen among primates , gibbons smaller incisors, complex digestion,iurnal; Haplorrhines, better foraging, Polyandry; 1 F + multiple adult M’s + walking Vertical clinging/ bigger primates better visual comm., more competition offspring, deliberately confuse paternity such quadrupedalism; roughly leaping; longer legs Frugivores; fruit, have broader & predation equal intermembral long grasping hands, Nocturnal; primitive, less food that all males care for offspring, tamarinds indeces, shorter tail bc incisors, simple stomach/intestine competition, less heat , more olfaction,ultimale group; mult. M’s+F’s, reproductive ground is uniform flexibility in back/ Insectivores/ Faunivores; insects, less social comm, competition among males so sexual substrate, lesser grasping to kick off and turn in easier for smaller primates to digest dimorphism heavily pronounced, chimps, tree Gummivores; gum in sap from trees Crepuscular; Dawn & dusk light avail at capuchins low level One male group; Mult. F’s + young M’s + 1M, Larger brain tends to be correlated Cathemeral; Switch activity pattern with higher quality diet bc can DERIVED/MORE MODERN TRAITS_ gorillas, sometimes females reproduce. w ANCESTRAL/PRIMTIVE TRAITS_ outside males (diversity) Tendency toward an erect posture Fission-fusion; depending on resources and Endothermal Occasionally bipedal walking time of day, group size changes and diff Generalized limb structure Vision; Color vision (in most), forward combo of sexes, flexible social Arboreal Omnivorous, wide diet facing eyes, Stereoscopic vision, Depth arrangements, dominance hierarchy quadrupedalism; Generalized heterodonty (teeth) perception grasping hands, roughly Bra Hands; Pentadactylous,, generalizLive I social groups & permanent reproduce like multimale group, chimps equal IM index (relatively chiation, Hamadryas Baboons; break down into primitive arrangement, grasping, association among adults smaller groups similar limb length), long suspensory; long opposable thumb and partially Nails instead of claws/Enhanced sense of Why live in groups?;Predation avoidance, care opposable big toe touch; tactile w. sensory nerves, for offspring, access to resources, food Quadrupedal Reduced snout size; Trend away from sharing, mates prognathism to orthognathic flatter face as eyes move to front of face. lessPhilopatry, M kicked out when adult, F’s stay, HABITAT diversity/avoid incest Tropical, diff arboreal environments, reliance on olfaction Dominance hierarchies; determine access to Auditory bulla part of petrous portion resources, mating grasslands of temporal;One true synapomoprhy Grooming; reinforces behavior, relationships, Vertical displacement; live in diff levels Decreased litter sizes; K-selection heirarchies Compare to Bipedalism; to avoid resource competition Prolonged life history;slowed down Longer legs (smaller IM developmental clock, K-selected; produce few young, increased index), S-spine curvature, Long gestation period & Long post shorter flaring pelvis, femur reproductive lifespan angled inward, arches in Trend towards diurnality foot, toes oriented same Increased brain size;expansion of way, foramen magnum neocortex (higher mental inferior/perpendicular to functions+integrate sensory info) PALEOCENE EOCENE PLIOCENE [65-56 mya] OLIGOCENE MIOCENE small animals w/ [56-34mya] “Dawn Age” [34-23 mya] [23-5.3 mya] [5.3-2.6 mya] Climatic warming, tropical generalized Haplorrhines & Clearer difference Late adaptive mammalian anatomy, forests explosion of OWM, Early Anthropoids btwn OWM & insectivores live in trees, Euprimates; first true emerging NWM start displacing maybe ancestral to primates, start to see Generalized apes’ niches emergence of features still ANCESTRAL PRIMATE STREPSORHINES HAPLORHINES the most primitive/non-derived Bigger, complex brains among living primates Dry nose, no rhinarium reliance on olfactory sense (long Reliance on vision, shorter snout, rhinarium; fleshy moist pad LORISIFORMSnose LEMURIFORMS nose, bigger olfactory bulb) Eyes on front of head Africa, Southeast Asia Nocturnallaced on side of the face Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia,, E. coast Africa post-orbital bar Southern Mexico, Central and South America islands ANTHROPOIDS Slow quadrupedal climbing Arboreal environments Diurnal narrower, downward fainVery diversified into varied or highly agile verticaluc Wide variation in size, diet, and ecological Monkeys, Apes, & Human,: traiecologicalniIslands Southeast Asia, wide climbers/leapers (galagos) Sexual dimorphism primates on these islands Insectivorous (some adaptation tat Pronounced cyclical changes in femalerange of habitats flatter broad noses, outward facing nostrils Lemurgenitalia: Larger lemrsNocturnaldiurnal Insectivores entirely), plus fruits and Mostly quadrupedal, some are semibrachiators Larger body size, Larger braivaried die Vertical climbing and leaping leaves Live in mixed sex groups of all aged categories,ly more on vision, less on Smaller lemurs usu. nocturnal, Leave infants alone at times olfaction insectivores mated pair and offspring unit (extremely uncommon Bony plate protects back of eyelot of behavioral variationderived blend among primates) of cCATARHINES [OWM] socket Larger body sizeNWM] Different blood supply to brain No tailobile 2133Y-5 molar Fusion bone into one mandible Shorter, more stable lower back Generalized dentition for wide diet grooming claw, unfused(apes) Diff. female reproductive anatomy Anatomically different shoulder mandible but fused frontal Longer gestations and maturation Sahelanthropus tchadensis Ardipithecus ramidus Chad, weird because it’s central Africa Australopithecus afarensis [G] rather than E. or S., possibility that Ethiopia more evidence in other parts of Africa No honing complex E Africa Mosaic of primitive ape & derived Fully bipedal based on leg & pelvis but Laetoli trail (bipedal footprints Olduvai hominin features still retained arboreal ability/ behavior Gorge, Tanzania) (longer arms, curved pedal phalanges) 2.5-4 mya Small brain, actually smaller than Small body, stature, and brain modern chimps Opposable/grasping toe, more arboreal Small canines feature Biped; Flat tibial plateau, broad pelvis, No/ greatly reduced diastema No diastema Big toe in line with other toes Thicker enamel than apes Shorter and more broadly flaring pelvis dental arch bit more curved, diastema than great apes but not as much as seen *speciation event btwn chimps and pronounced sexual dimorphism hominins* hominins [4.4 longer arms, arboreal tendencies but [6-7 movement towards full bipedalism ** Lucy; Ethiopia, relatively complete, sex. Dimorph. [3.5-3mya]** **These 3 pre-australopiths [4-2.5 mya] shared paleoenvironment of gallery forests/ grassland, so whAUSTRALOPITHECINE bipedalism? ** S [4 mya] [2-3 mya] [6 mya] Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus Orrorin tugenensis E Africa Teeth straight arranged, not friS. Africa Kenya curved orientation Smaller canines Small brain only 13 fossils recovered Prognathism; protruding jaw, Debate over degree of bipedalism: No diastema snout Shows some terrestrially bipedal and some Thick enamel Face still orientated directly of arboreal (long curved fingers) adaptations Post cranial anatomy looks like Post orbital constriction Large canines (for a hominin) biped, Tibial plateau is very flat Curved dental arch, more modern but Post-cranial skel. similar to that of great ape, not as complete/ obligate bipedalism Prominent sexual dimorphism **Tuang Child; determined was child based on dentition (3-6 years old), endocast; imprint of brain, can start to roughly work out aspects of cognitive capability** Homo erectus/ergaster E. Africa Contemporous w/ H. habilis Paranthropus robustus[R] Modern body morphology; curved dental arch, small molars, longer S. Africa legs, weight/ stature approaching Slightly larger body size, similar modern proportions, longer limb length brain size Very large teeth, esp. premolars Fair degree of Prognathism and molars Paranthropus boisei [R] Small orbital ridge Large deep jaw, large masseter E. Africa *H. erectus (non-African, more derived) muscles attach up to sagittal vs. H. ergaster (African, earlier primitive) Very robust fossils * crest (ridge atop skull) Sagittal crest, huge *Turkana Boy; E. Africa, 16-28 yr old, Flatter face, broad cheek bones jaws suggest well adapted for eating Huge teeth 5’6” potential 6’ when adult, modern rough large vegetables but also human post cranial proportions *[2.5-2 mya] existed [1.8 mya, OUT OF AFRICA ] together, diversified to avoid GENUS direct competition, robust a. Multiregional/Polycentric: specialize to thick vegetatin and HOMO parallel tracks/ continuities of go extinct, shows hominin evol. around world . which is why have variation [2.8-1.5 mya] b. Out of Africa: H. ss evolved in Homo habilisrn form only once in Paranthropus aethiopithecus Africa then spread out and [R] Olduvai Gorge, Tanzdisplaced archaic populations E. Africa Brain getting biggeof genus Homoing below brain Curved dental arc. Best answer;our gen.ler The Black Skull;stained by manganese soil was Reduction of prognathism found in Brain organization; Broca’s (speech) &evolving in Compound crest on back of skull Africa longer than rest of Upper face projects, Broad face Wernicke’s (undersworld, soOut of Africa origin Large palate, large zygomatic foramen, ;arge **Oldowan tools [2.5with some contribution from Simplistic looking but very effective in area for back teeth cutting through meat, cutting bone to get to [1 *These features place it between A. afarensis marrow, Good for scavenger behavior/ life mya] and Paranthropus Paranthropus style Homo antecessor? aethiopithecus* **H. rudolfensis; debate over if its variation Fossils found in in 1 species (lumpers) or 2 separate species Spain (splitters) and which features determine this* Ancestor to Neand? Homo sapiens sapiens Widely distributed and diverse ,fossils found on all continents except Antarctica, also more fossils found bc more recent Practiced intentional burial= more tendency of complete specimens Belongs to H. ss if indistinguishable Homo heidelbergensis/ from morphology of at least one pop. rhodesiensis of modern humans Afr & Eur. Rounder skull, less robust cranium, Very robust cranial bones big brain No brow ridge Very pronounced brow ridges (seen Smaller facial skeleton relative to in Neanderthals later on) Bigger brain brain case, face shifts beneath **again, debate over 1 varied (prognathism receding, hardly any), species or 2 separate** no post orbital constriction Smaller teeth, smaller zygomatic arch, chin! Long limb bones (relatively) [500kya] [200kya- [10-15 kya PEOPLING OF today] NW] Clovis First; arrival by lower sea levels, bearing strait land bridge, [200-25kya] walked from Russia across to E [60-40kya?] Alaska/W Canada, then ice sheets Neanderthals melted opening a corridor between Denisovans glaciers then migration down 12kya Neander valleys Many similarities to modern humans; H. sapiens Denisova Cave, SW Siberia spread all over Americas neanderthalensis (subspecies) or H. neanderthalensis Very few specimens BUT there are sites far from AK that (own separate species) Melanasian modern pop. have Den DNA predate opening of ice corridor that so suggests Den and H. ss have artifacts present (monte verde People start to question if Darwin’s concepts apply to interbreeding site, S. Amer.), so there may have humans …found they plotted closer to Aust. been humans there before Clovis Robust hominins; thick brow ridge, very large nasal apertures More than modern humans, interesting Coast-hopping: came by boat along Generally flat-faced but project a little in mid facial bc found in Eurasia edge of strait and “coast-hopped” Where do they fit? along W. coast of Americas, explains region early sites on islands and coasts, Very laterally rounded crania Homo naledi genetic data supports this bc All of Bigger brains, broader bodies than modern humans the living native ppls of Americas can Bodies well suited for cold climates when Eur and Asia Found deep in cave system in were partly glaciated, diversity of body types related Africa trace decent to 1 of 5 matrilines to environment/ climate No date, where do they fit? Displaced by humans? Around 2x longer than humans
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