Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brian Parme on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
Study Guide Exam 1 Below is a comprehensive outline of the material you need to have mastered from each unit hopefully it will help you quiz yourself as you review your notes Don t focus on anything that isn39t on this study guide To help you out you will see an indication of whether the listed concept was covered just in the book just in the lecture or in both places You will know that you really understand and remember something if when you look at a blank copy of the study guide without being able to peak at any notes you can explain the concept fully in your own words to an imaginary audience or better yet get a study buddy and try explain it to them as if you are the teacher Also be aware that for all the concepts below you might simply get tested on your memory for a basic de nition or you might need to apply a more thorough understanding of the concept to an example The exam will be 50 questions TF and multiple choice Unlike the quizzes the exam is closed bookclosed note You will have from 830920 to work on it We meet in our regular classroom Bring a 2 pencil and your student ID number If you arrive any later than 845 you will need to make plans to take a makeup test Classroom doors will close at 845 so testtakers can focus in a quiet environment QHAPTER 1 De ning and Describing Psychology 1 What is the de nition of psychology Make sure you can also explainde ne what is meant by the various parts of the de nition ie what is mind what is behavior and what is meant by the science or scienti c study of those two things Both lecture amp book 2 Be able to describeidentify examples of the 4 goals of psychology that we discussed describe predict understand modify lecture 3 Be able to describe and identify examples of the 3 common misconceptions of psychology that we discussed in class and understand why they are misconceptions just lecture 4 What is a clinical psychologist and what does heshe do How is this different from a counseling psychologists and what a psychiatrist is Both lecturebook 5 What is a research psychologist and what does heshe do Both lecturebook 6 What is an applied psychologist and what does heshe do Both lecturebook Tracing the Development of Psychology A Brief History 7 What is the philosophical position known as empiricism just book 8 What two disciplines did psychology develop out of just book 9 What is the philosophical position known as nativism just book 10What is Gestalt psychology just book 11Explain the structuralism approach to psychology and know which two psychologists were associated with this school of thought Both book amp lecture 12What is the technique of systematic introspection Which approach to psychology was best known for relying on this technique Both book amp lecture 13Describe the functionalism approach to psychology Who was the most famous psychologist mentioned in class and in your book that was associated with this approach Both booklecture 14Describe the behaviorism approach to psychology both lecture amp book Who was the most famous psychologist viewed as the leader of this movement just book 15What time frame was the height of the behaviorism movement Know whether the behaviorism movement came just after or just before the structuralism amp functionalism movements and be able to describe how the techniques of behaviorism were different from these approaches both lecturebook 16Be able to describe the key characteristics of psychoanalysisor the psychodynamic approach to psychology and know who was most associated with the development of psychoanalysis both lecturebook 17Be able to describe what is meant by humanistic psychology both lecturebook Identifying the Focus of Modern Psychology 18ln modern psychology know what is meant by the eclectic approach just book The idea that it39s useful to use several sources rather than just one 19ln modern psychology know what is meant by the cognitive revolution both booklecture The shift away from strict behaviorism renewed interest in internal mental processes 20ln modern psychology know what is meant by the biological approach both booklecture 21ln modern psychology know what is meant by evolutionary psychology both booklecture The idea that we39re born with preinstalled quotsoftwarequot 22ln modern psychology know what is meant by the consideration of cultural factors or the sociocultural approach both booklecture The idea that society and upbringing effects our behavior QHAPTER L 1 De neunderstand descriptive research just book Methods designed to observe and describe behavior 2 De neunderstand reactivity just book When behavior changes as a result of the observation process 3 De neunderstand naturalistic observation Does naturalistic observation normally come with the advantage of high external validity or high internal validity just book Records naturally occurring behavior as opposed to behavior from in the lab high external 4 De neUnderstand case studies just book Effort is focused on a single case usually an individual 5 De neUnderstand what a survey is just book A way to gather limited amounts of data such as a questionnaire 6 De neunderstand the basic principles of sampling when conducting a survey e What is a population What is a sample What is random sampling and why does it produce a representative sample as opposed to biased sample just book Population is everyone and sample is those in the population you are surveying 7 What is an achievement test and what is an aptitude test just book Achievement measure person39s current level of knowledge Aptitude measure potential 8 Be able to de ne amp understand how to compute the following measures of central tendency mean mode median just book 9 De ne variability and de ne the following two measures of variability range and standard deviation just book Variability A measure of how much the scores in a distribution differ from one another 10What are inferential statistics just book Math techniques to decide if data are representative of a population or if it39s just chance 11De ne theory and hypothesis just lecture 12Understand what independent and dependent variables are and be able to identify them in examples both booklecture 13Understand de ne and be able to identify examples of an operational de nition both booklecture De nitions that specify how concepts can be observed and measured 14 A correlational approach involves just observing to see if there is an existing relationship between two variables or whether two variables vary together systematically Eg Is it true that as aggression goes up a tendency to wear black Tshirts goes up Is it true that as intelligence goes up quality of physical health also goes up Is it true that as average time spent in the gym goes up weight goes down Make sure you understand what a correlation is and know what a positive and negative correlation is Hint Be able to identifv a visual depiction of each kind of correlation on a graph booklecture 15 Does correlational research allow researchers to predict behavior Does correlational research allow researchers to identify the cause of behavior both booklecture Yes No 16Be able to describe and understand the 3 quothallmarksquot of an experimental approach ie what makes an experiment an experiment hint you must have 1 control of all other variables 2 manipulation of an independent variable and 3 random assignment to conditions Know what is meant by these things both lecturebook 17Know what the bene t is of an experimental design What does an experiment allow you to conclude that a correlational approach does not hint it establishes causeeffect relationships and allows you to EXPLAIN BEHAVIOR INSTEAD OF JUST PREDICT BEHAVIOR both booklecture 18Understand why random assignment is necessary and why NOT doing random assignment threatens your ability to conclude that the independent variable caused the change in your dependent variability when you run an experiment both lecturebook Presents bias and hard to be con dent in test results 19What is a control group and why is it necessary both booklecture A group you know the results ahead of time to assure that no outside variables were induced 20What is a confounding variable just book An uncontrolled variable that changes along with the independent variable 21What is internal validity and what is external validity both booklecture Know whether the following designs tend to be high or low on each of these 1 experiments done in the lab 2 correlational studies done in the eld and 3 quasiexperimental studies done in the eld just lecture 1 High internal 3 High external 1 High external 22Understand what a quasiexperimental design is identify examples What makes a quasiexperiment different from an experiment just lecture 23What39s a placebo just book An inactive or inert substance that resembles an experimental substance 24What39s a single blind study book and lecture Participants don39t know what condition they39ve been assignedbut experimenter does 25What39s a double blind study book and lecture Neither participants nor experimenters are aware of who39s in which group 26 Make sure you review the differences between reliability and validity and be able to de ne and apply them to examples m hint Be able to identify some images that represent high and low validity and high and low reliability from the PowerPoint slides just lecture 27What is informed consent just book The principle that participants should informed of any factors that could affect their health 28What is debrie ng just book Informing participants of the purpose of the experiment after its been concluded 29What is con dentiality just book Personal information obtained from a participant should not be revealed without permission QHAPTER Q 1 De ne understand and be able to apply the following basic ideas of evolution just lecture Variation differences between organisms Natural selection survival advantage for some Heritability the ability to pass changes to offspring Sexual selection a quotspecial casequot of natural selection Sexual selection acts on an organism39s ability to obtain often by any means necessary or successfully copulate with a mate 2 Know the 3 main things nature selects for just lecture Food attainment Predatordanger avoidance Reproductive factors 3 Be able to explain why people say the nature vs nurture debate is a FALSE DICHOTOMY ie how might nature and nurture actually work together to determine human behavior What is the interactionist perspective just lecture 4 What is a major caution of the evolutionary model of human behavior hint can there be a discord between modern environment and evolved instincts Do all quotevolvedquot instincts serve us perfectly in our modern environment now just lecture 5 What is meant by tradeoffs lecture 6 Clark and Hat eld study 1978 Know the approximate percentages of men and women who told a complete stranger of the opposite sex that they would be willing to 1 Go out 2 Go back to their place 3 Have sex just lecture 7 How would an evolutionary psychologist explain the Clark amp Hat eld results ie Describe why during the era of evolutionary adaptedness men who adopted a shortterm mating strategy would have successfully passed on their genes more often than women who adopted a shortterm mating strategy parental investment what is it just lecture 8 What are sensory neurons just book Cells that carry environmental messages toward the spinal cord and brain 9 What are interneurons just book Cells that transfer information between neurons and don39t make contact with outside world 10What are motor neurons just book Cells that carry information away from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands 11What are glial cells just book Cells that ll between neurons remove waste or help neurons to communicate ef ciently 12Myein sheath Insulating material that protects the axon and speeds up neural transmission 13Dendrites The bers that extend outward from a neuron and receive information from other neurons 14Soma The cell body of a neuron 15Axon The long taillike part of a neuron that serves as the cell39s transmitter 16Termina Buttons The tiny swellings at the end of the axon that contain chemicals for neural transmission 17What is a synapse both booklecture The small gap between the terminal buttons and the dendrite of another neuron 18What is resting potential both booklecture The tiny electrical charge in place between the inside and outside of resting neuron 19What is action potential both booklecture The allornone electrical signal that travels down a neuron39s axon 20What are neurotransmitters both booklecture Chemical messengers that relay information from one neuron to the next 21What is acetylcholine just book Neurotransmitter that excites muscle contraction and plays multiple roles 22What is dopamine and what does it do What disorders are associated with dopamine problems both booklecture Neurotransmitter that has been linked to pleasure systems Parkinson39s and schizophrenia 23What is serotonin and what does it do What disorders are associated with serotonin problems both booklecture Neurotransmitter that is linked to sleep and dreamingDepression and schizophrenia 24What is GABA and what does it do What disorders are associated with GABA problems both booklecture Gammaaminobutyric acidcontrols anxiety 25What are endorphins and what do they do just book Morphinelike chemicals that act as the brain39s natural painkiller 26What is a refractory period just book period of time following an action potential when more action potentials cannot be generated 27What does the central nervous consist of both booklecture The brain and the spinal cord 28What is the peripheral nervous system both booklecture The network of nerves that links the central nervous system with the rest of the body 29What is controlled by the somatic system What is controlled by the autonomic system Are the somatic and autonomic systems part of the peripheral or central nervous system both booklecture Peripheral nervous systemconnects brain to skeletal muscles to initiate movement 30What does the sympathetic division of the autonomic system do What does the parasympathetic division of the autonomic system do both lecturebook Sympathetic arousing Parasympathetic calming 31For the parts of the brain please review the parts on the brain cheat sheet uploaded under quotpractice activitiesquot on blackboard Any questions about brain parts will come from this list both booklecture 32What changed in Phineas Gage after his injury What part of his brain was injured both booklecture His personality changedhis frontal lobe was injured 33What is the function of the corpus callosum both booklecture Nerve bers communication bridge between two lobes 34The hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are specialized to perform certain tasks What is left hemisphere responsible for and what is the right hemisphere responsible for both booklecture Left logic Right creativity 35When it comes to physical movement the left hemisphere controls movement on which side of the body The right hemisphere controls movement on which side of the body both booklecture Left right Right left 36When it comes to the visual eld information received through the eyes travels to one side of the brain or the other If you39re looking straight ahead an image coming from the left visual eld gets projected to which brain hemisphere An image coming from the right visual eld gets projected to which brain hemisphere both booklecture Left right Right left 37lf somebody has a severed corpus callosum and you show them an object in either the right or left side of the visual eld know how they would respond verbally for each if you asked them what they were seeing and know how they would respond physically for each ie if you asked them to draw what they were seeing with either hand what would they do both booklecture Left brain speech Right brain visual 38What is the endocrine system and what are hormones just book Network of glands that use bloodstream to send messages and control regulatory functions 39What is an adaptation just book 40What are genes both lecturebook 41Understand the basic method of twin studies What are researchers trying to determine when they conduct a twin study What are the examples of things that twin studies have revealed that are somewhat quotheritablequot that we talked about in lecture both booklecture QHAPTER 4 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT What is the germinal period ie explain the time frame and key developmental events book 02 weeks zygote implants itself in the wall of the uterus What is the embryonic period ie explain the time frame and key developmental events book 28 weeks cells develop into a somewhat familiar creature and sexual differentiation occurs What is the fetal period ie explain the time frame and key developmental events book 8 weeks birth the rest of development of bones and muscular system as well as growth What are teratogens book Environmental agents that can damage the developing embryo or fetus TrueFalse Morning sickness may be an evolutionary adaptation book True GROWTH AFTER BIRTH 6 For infants by what age have 90 of infants learned to a roll over b sit without support c walk book 5 months 8 months 15 months What is puberty book The period during which a person reaches sexual maturity and can produce offspring Around what age do most people begin to steadily decline physically book In your 2039s What is menopause book The period during which a woman39s menstrual cycle slows down and nally stops 10 What is dementia book Physically based losses in mental functioning OTHER 11 When studying babies there are different techniques that can be used What is the preference technique just book Babies will look at a picture they prefer more over a different picture presented side by side 12 What is the habituation technique just book Babies lose interest if the same thing is shown over and over 13 What is the quotusing rewardsquot technique just book 14 What is assimilation and what is accommodation just book Assimilation The process through which we t new experiences into existing schemata Accommodation We modify existing schemata to accommodate new expe ences 15 What is the average age of Piaget39s sensorimotor period Describe the main characteristics of the sensorimotor period When do babies usually develop object permanence and what is it both booklecture 2 years old scheata revolve around sensory and motor abilities gt 1 year old remembering an object after it39s out of view 16 What is the average age of Piaget39s Preoperational Period Be able to describe the main characteristics of children in this period in terms of conservation both booklecture centration both booklecture reversibility both booklecture egocentrism both booklecture and animism just lecture Know what is meant by being quotperceptually orientedquot and quotintuitivequot lecture 17 What is the average age of Piaget39s Concrete Operational Period Be able to describe the main developmentscharacteristics of this period both booklecture 18 What is the average age of the formal operational period Be able to describe the main developmentscharacteristics of this period both booklecture 19 According to Kohlberg s stage theory what is the preconventional level what is the conventional level and what is the postconventional level booklecture 20 What are attachments booklecture 21 What is contact comfort Be able to describe the results of the famous studies conducted by Harlow that demonstrated the importance of contact comfort booklecture 22 What is the strange situation test booklecture 23 What is secure attachment booklecture 24 What is resistant attachment booklecture 25 What is avoidant attachment booklecture 26 What is disorganizeddisoriented attachment booklecture 27 What is personal identity book 28 Understand and be able to explain Erikson39s series of psychosocial crises that are confronted in personal identity at characteristic stages of development just book 1 Infants trust vs mistrust 2 Terrible twos autonomy vs shame or doubt 3 age 36 initiative vs guilt 4 age 612 industry vs inferiority 5 adolescence identity vs role confusion 6 young adulthood intimacy vs isolation 7 career amp family generativity vs stagnation 8 Late adulthooddeath integrity vs despair 32 What are gender schemas book 33 What is ageism book 34 What are KublerRoss39s ve distinct psychology stages that people go through as they face death De neexplain 1 denial 2 anger 3 bargaining 4 depression 5 acceptance book
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