CUMULATIVE REVIEW/ STUDY GUIDE
CUMULATIVE REVIEW/ STUDY GUIDE APY 203
Popular in Principles of Physical Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Demaree Rios on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APY 203 at University of Miami taught by William Pestle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Principles of Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.
Reviews for CUMULATIVE REVIEW/ STUDY GUIDE
Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class
-Amya Simonis PhD
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/25/16
UNIT 1 | EVOLUTION I. REFRESHER ON THE BASICS ANTHROPOLOGY:the studyofhumanityand humansasbiological,social,and cultural beings Four Subfields of Anthropology Linguistics; study of human lang.,how sounds, structuresandrulescanconnect acrosslang.s,about ½ ofworld’spopular lang.scan be traced backto progenitor lang.(proto-indoeuropean),howcultureshapeslang./speakingand vice versa Sapir-Whorf hyp.; theway that wetalkaboutthingsshapesthewaythat we behave,lang.and cognition Cultural; study of culures Culture; learned set of behaviors/ sys. ofbeliefswithinagrouppassed down/taught to generations Ethnography; an anthro.livesw/a culture tostudy/ learn form groups/ subculturestolearn about thehuman condition Archaeology; rummagingthroughancient garbageasawindowtothepast life Physical; study of human (and othercloselyrelated species)biologyand behavior within the framework of evolution EVOLUTION: change ingenefrequencyinapopulationover time Evolution isa demonstrablefact,it existsbecausewecan measureit Evolution by means of natural selection isa theory; aseriesofhypothesesthat have been tested repeatedlyand vigorouslyandhasn’t beendisproven,it’s nota law,it’s subject to change,but iscurrentbestexplanation Science seeks and empirical (verifiableobservationrather thantheoryorlogic) understanding of materialworld via scientific method todiscard what nolonger holds UNIT 1 | EVOLUTION II. PRE-DARWINIAN CONCEPTS OF EVOLUTION ESSENTIALISM - AncientGreek philosophy that a divine creator created the world in itsideal form and peoplehave the essence of the ideal thing and are just imperfect copies (explainsvariation) - The essence iseternal,change is unlikely FIXITY - The world is,asit was,asit willbe THE GREATCHAIN OF BEING (scalae naturae) - A divine being created hierarchy in the world and you were stuck inthe “rank” you were bornin Humans(at the top) | Plants(bottom) CREATIONISM - God created the world and life forms(fairly JAMES USHER (1581-1656) - Used the genealogical recordswithinHebrew recently) and nothing/very little haschanged since Bibletodetermine thattheworldwascreated then Oct.22 ,4004BC,this wasverywellreceived) JOHN RAY (1627-1705) ENLIGHTENMENT - Bringsexposure todiversity and variation - Taxonomist whostartsattemptingtoorganizeall the diversity; observed thatcan groupplantsand TAXONOMY animalson similarappearance and abilityto - The science of classifying living things reproducewithone another (species)or ifthey BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE - Naming system: Genus species cant (different genus) CAROLUS LINNAEUS (1707-1788) Ex.Homo sapiens - Standardized Ray’ssysand addsbroader levels (class & order)usingsameconcept ofthings grouped onbasisofsimilar features DESCENT W/ MODIFICATION COMPTE DE BUFFON (1707-1788) did notbelievein fixity,but ratherthat organismsfit wellwiththeir environment/climate/resourcesthus animals adapted to environment ERASMUS DARWIN (1731-1802) organismsareslowlygenerated overtime, lots of small changes eventually leads to huge differences JEAN BAPTISE LAMARCK (1744-1829) studied thefossilrecord and phasesofdevelopment,thought organisms ascendedthe chain of being and if given long enoughover generationsoffspringwould “transmutate” intobeings higher and higher in chain of being,alsobelieved ininheritance ofacquired traits,whiletheseideaswerewrongthe concept that organisms of today are descendants of what see in fossil records isimportant ROBERT CHAMBERS (1802-1871) alsobelieved inascensionofchainviatransmutationduringgestationperiod III. DARWINIAN EVOLUTION THEORY OF EVOLUTION BYMEANS OF NATURALSELECTION_ - Descent w/modification, gradualism CHARLES DARWIN - Multiplicationofspecies from single common ancestor - On theOriginofSpecies (1859) - Worksthroughmechanismof natural selection ALFRED WALLACE(1823-1913) - Darwin’scontemporary,alsocame up with similartheoryviasimilarmethods,butDarwin publishedfirst - Changesin environmentdictate what char.s/traitsareappropriate/selectedfor DARWIN’S INFERENCES - Thereare morebornthan can be DARWIN’S OBSERVATIONS supported,thosewhosurvive DARWIN’S 4 INFLUENCES - Specieshavehighpotential dependsonmakeup/traits/genetics VOYAGEOF THE BEAGLEselectedtobe residentnaturaliston - Over time/generationsselection ship,for 5yearscircumnavigatestheglobe,criticismfromcaptain fertilityand should grow exponentiallyyet pop.sremain leadstosmallscalechangesina meansmustconstantlyrefine hisarguments,encounteredfossils normallystablelongterm pop.(microevolution)and prod.of ofextinctorganismswhichbroughtup question ofwhy theydied newspecies(macroevolution)over outandnotothers?Galapagos;“common ancestor”then finches - Naturalresourcesarelimited diversifiedon diff.islands - No 2 individuals in a pop. are even longer time exactlysame,great variance GEORGE CUVIER theorizedpastcataclysmwipedoutnow extinct speciesandspeciesoftodayaredifferentspecies - Variationisheritable UNIFORMITARIANISM CHARLES LYELLPrinciples ofGeology; ifyou extrapolate theincrementalobservable everydayprocesses ANALOGY; char.Thatevolvedindependentlybutserve similarpurpose, (function) we seetodayitcan explaingeologicalphenomenaovertime bc Ex.Birdandbatwings earth stillactsthesame way,refutescatastrophismandpresents ideathat earth isveryveryold, HOMOLOGY; similarityin feature/structure due tocommon descent,(origin) SELECTIVE BREEDING crossbreeding pigeonstopasson Ex.Similarforearmstructureacrossvertebrateslike people,horses,porpoises, characteristicsmaybring aboutchangein apop. vestigialbodyparts HOMOPLASY; independentevolution ofsimilaradaptations,superficiallysimilar THOMAS MALTHUS pop.Growsexponentially,foodproduction islinearsoone daywontbe able toprod.Enough forpop., carrying butmaynotserve same purpose,(appearance) capacity, competition forsurvival Ex.Platypusbeak IV. GENETICS & EVOLUTION GENETICS:study ofhowgeneswork and traitsarepassed onfromonegenerationtothenext GENE CHROMOSOME Small sectionsofDNA TightlypackedstrandsofDNA joined@ ThesesectionsaresequencesofbasesinDNA thatcodeforaspecific centromere,during cell replication trait,protein,aa,orfunctional product Wehave23pairsfrom ea. Parent,46total Alleles arevarietiesofagenefound@samelocusonmemberofapairof Autosomes arethe22pairsthatcarryinfoto chrom.buthavediff.expressions,some aredominantsomearerecessive governphys.char.’s Genomeistheentiregeneticmakeup Thenwealsohave1 pair (onememberofthis RegulatoryGenes control expressionofothergenes pairisfrom eachparent) of sex chromosomes Homeobox Genesdirectoverall bodyplanandsegmentationoftissues alocusislocationonachrom.Whereagiven Hox genesdirectembryonictiss,specifywhatkindofcellsthey’ll become geneoccurs Mutation(point-mutation/basesubsitutions)bringaboutvariation,tobe evol.significantitmustbepassedonandbecomemorecommoninpop. DNA Directs all cell activity Directs assembly of proteins Nitrogen bases CELL DIVISION mitosis; how somatic cells reproduce during growth & development or repair/replace older cells w. new ones EVEN SMALLER THINGS meiosis; reproduces gametes, increases gen. variation in Nitrogen basescodeareATCG Thesequence/orderofatriplet(3basepairs)specificsan amino acid pop.s bc random assortment produces new arrangements of gen. material, gives natural selection something to act on aminoacidsmakeup proteinswhichcarryoutfunctions V. HEREDITY & MENDELIAN EVOLUTION PRE-MENDELIAN THEORIES: PREFORMATION w/in reproductive cells there existed preformed version of the offspring and the womb was just the incubator (like little photocopies), doesn’t explain mixed resemblance of offspring nor variation BLENDING INHERITANCE both parents contribute to char.s of offspring. again, doesn’t explain variation or novel traits bc eventually offspring would all regress to same “mean”/ average bc no mechanism for variation so how would species evolve? MENDEL’S GENETIC PRINCIPLES: GREGOR MENDEL PRINCIPLE OF SEGREGATION studied hybridizationofgarden peas, Chrom. occur in pairs so genes (alleles) occur in pairs, during gamete focused onexpressionofcertain formation the pairs separate so ea. gamete has one member of ea. pair characteristics(height,texture,coloring (meiosis) DOMINANT etc)fromgenerationtogeneration began interbreedingpeaplants and dom. allele is the one that is expressed in the F1 gen. may partially or completely prevent expression of rec. alleles observingpatternsrecurringinother traits RECESSIVE not expressed in F1 but is expressed in F2 gen., individual needs to copies of rec. allele for the trait to be expressed CODOMINANCE mixture of both alleles is expressed HOMOZYGOUS inherit same allele @ same locus on chrom pair (AA or aa) HETEROZYGOUS inherit diff, allele @ same locus on chrom pair (Aa) GENOTYPE an organism’s underlying genetic makeup, diff. genotypes can produce diff. phenotype, and it is possible to produce same phenotype via diff. genotypes PHENOTYPE observable phys. char.s/ expressions of an organism MENDELIAN INHERITANCE IN HUMANS: INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT some char. aren’t inherited together, genes that code for diff. traits separate independently during gamete formation RANDOM ASSORTMENT the random/chance distribution of chrom. to daughter cells during meiosis, is important for genetic variation MENDELIAN/DISCRETE TRAITS controlled by alleles at only one locus discontinuous, as in phenotypic expressions don’t overlap, are NON-MENDELIAN/ POLYGENIC/ CONTINUOUS TRAITS clearly defined categories (ex. blood type) traits show variation (ex. height, hair, eye color) expression not usually influenced by traits governed by alleles at 2 or more loci, ea. locus bears phenotypic o Traits can be traced out through pedigree charts that diagrams generations of parents and offspring to determine modes of influence , this also makes it harder to ID all the loci associated with a given trait inheritance: o Pleiotropy autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive x-linked dominant, x-linked recessive the action of a single gene influences more than one trait Genetic and Environmental Factors y-linked o phenotypes are not solely products of genotypes, while mitochondrial (mtDNA only passed on from the mother thus no meiosis= no recombination= variation only comes from genotypes set limits for development they also interact with environment (ex. nutrition) which in turn can influence mutation phenotype too VI. MACROEVOLUTION WHAT EVOLUTION ISN’T WHAT EVOLUTION IS isn’t Lamarckian bc you can’t pick and choose, the idea that acquired characteristics are heritable (giraffes “passing on their stretched out change in gene freq (alleles) in a population over time the result of 5 factors that bring out change in allele freq. necks” example) mutation: isn’t random, some traits are advantages bc better suited not by accident bc it has been selected for over time gene flow: exchange of alleles,doesn’t introduce new just moves gene variants around shouldn’t be thought of/ modeled as “linear progress” from simpler to non random/assortative mating: pick and reject mates for certain reasons more complex”better” life forms- NO. think of a tree with many branches representing a diversity of life forms not a ladder genetic drift: random event, usually in small populations, full genetic frequencies thus are not represented bc of small pop. sample leading to same for humans, human evo. is not human progress, the modern little variation could be dire if put under nat’l sel pressure. humans that exist today may be better suited for current environment but are not “better” than those that came before founder’s effect: random event when small group of ind found a new colony far away from original pop so the original high allele frequencies isn’t teleological, isn’t goal-orientated, organisms are not granted the maintain high things they need to solve environmental problems, rather, variation exists and over time better suited organisms come to dominate bc their Bottleneck: when small % of a pop survives, the pop. that reemerges is different from original pop. traits of those environmental conditions are selected for natural selection: acts on genetic variety, allows those selected for to works on pre-existing structures/processes (tinkering). ex. complex organs such as the eye produce slightly more and not selected for slightly less, pass on more gen material, depends on reproductive success so must be well suited for isn’t social, has nothing to do with lived experience of individuals, there environment is no social context directional selection: over time as a result of selective forces, variation in a pop will shift toward previously existing extremes stabilizing selection: being closest to the avg is the most advantageous disruptive selection: the mean is such a compromise that the mean isn't well suited for either of the tasks. important for macroevolution and MICROEVOLUTION: small scale change of gene frequency speciation. somehow the two extremes are selected for and the median/ generation to generation, results introduce variety mean is selected against MACROEVOLUTION: changes bring about new species over a long time SPECIES POPULATION GENETICS biological species concept: species is group of individuals capable allele freq: proportion of a specific allele at given locus of fertile interbreeding with each other genotype freq: proportion of a specific genotype at given locus speciation: process by which a new species evolves from an earlier to be able to see if evol IS occurring must consider what to expect if it weren't happening? one, most basic process of macroevolution no allel/ gene flow, mutation, random mating, nor selection geographic isolation: common mechanism that gives rise to speciation bc geographical barrier will limit gene flow within a know evol happening when these assumptions are violated these violations can be seen through H-E equil. population resulting in increasing genetic differences to the Hardy-Weinburg Equilibrium; how alleles are distributed and how change over time point of speciation expression of % of various alleles for given trait in a given pop frequencies always sum to 1.0 or 100% LOCOMOTION Why did primates evolve in the first place? UNIT 2 | PRIMATES Arboreal Hypothesis; the suite of features evolved to facilitate living in the trees …but not all arboreal organisms have these features (ex. Squirrels) SOCIAL ACTIVITY/ORGANIZATION Visual Predation Hypothesis; set of common adaptations to hunt insects Noyau;F+child, orangutans,usu.primitivenocturnal, Angiosperm Coevolution Hypothesis; diversitytied to emergence of angiospermsadaptive radiation into niches left open after major meteor impact 65 mya, lead to evolutionary arms raceerlaphomerageswsolitarymalesbut nocare Monogamy; M+F+offspring,lackofsexual dimorphism,don’twelcomeothermalesbcinfanticide DIET seenamongprimates ,gibbons Folivores;leaves,sharpermolars,smaller ACTIVITY PATTERNING Terrestrial/ Knuckle walking incisors,complexdigestion,biggerprimates Diurnal;Haplorrhines,betterforaging,better Polyandry; 1F+ multipleadultM’s+offspring, quadrupedalism;roughlyequal Vertical clinging/ leaping; visual comm.,morecompetition &predation deliberatelyconfusepaternitysuchthatall malescare intermembral indeces,shorter Frugivores;fruit,havebroaderincisors, Nocturnal;primitive,lessfoodcompetition,less foroffspring,tamarinds tail bcgroundisuniform longerlegs,longgrasping simplestomach/intestine Multimale group;mult.M’s+F’s,reproductive hands,flexibilityinback/ Insectivores/ Faunivores; insects,easierfor heat,moreolfaction,lesssocial comm, substrate,lessergraspingability necktokickoffandturnin smallerprimatestodigest Crepuscular;Dawn&dusklightavailatlowlevel competitionamongmalesso sexualdimorphism infeet(still someinhand) tree Cathemeral;Switchactivitypatterndepending heavilypronounced,chimps,capuchins Gummivores;gum insap from trees onresourceavail orseason,selectivepressuresto One male group;Mult. F’s+youngM’s+1M, gorillas, Largerbraintendstobecorrelatedwith sometimesfemalesreproduce.woutsidemales higherqualitydietbccan maintainbrain avoidcompetition (diversity) DERIVED/MOREMODERN TRAITS_ Fission-fusion; dependingonresourcesandtimeof ANCESTRAL/PRIMTIVE TRAITS_ Tendencytowardanerect posture day,groupsizechangesanddiffcomboofsexes, Endothermal Occasionallybipedal walking flexiblesocial arrangements,dominancehierarchy Generalized limb structure Arboreal quadrupedalism; Omnivorous, wide diet Vision;Colorvision(inmost),forwardfacing reproducelikemultimalegroup,chimps Generalized heterodonty (teeth) eyes, Stereoscopicvision,Depthperception Hamadryas Baboons; break downintosmallergroups graspinghands,roughlyequal IM LiveIsocialgroups&permanentassociation Whyliveingroups?;Predationavoidance,carefor index (relativelysimilarlimb Hands; Pentadactylous,, generalized amongadults offspring,accesstoresources,foodsharing,mates length),longtail forbalance Brachiation, suspensory; primitive arrangement, grasping, longarms& curvedfingers opposable thumb and partially Nailsinsteadofclaws/Enhancedsenseoftouch; Philopatry,Mkickedoutwhenadult,F’sstay, opposable big toe tactilew.sensorynerves, diversity/avoidincest Quadrupedal Reducedsnoutsize;Trendawayfrom Dominance hierarchies;determineaccessto prognathism toorthognathicflatterfaceaseyes resources,mating movetofrontofface. lessrelianceonolfaction Grooming;reinforcesbehavior,relationships, HABITAT Auditorybullapart of petrous portion of heirarchies Tropical,diffarboreal environments,grasslands temporal;Onetruesynapomoprhy K-selected;producefewyoung, increasedparental Vertical displacement;liveindifflevels toavoid Decreasedlittersizes;K-selection care/investment Prolongedlifehistory;sloweddown resourcecompetition R-selected;producemanyyoung,lessparental care Compareto Bipedalism; developmental clock, Longerlegs(smallerIMindex),S- Longgestationperiod&Longpostreproductive spinecurvature, shorterflaring lifespan Trendtowardsdiurnality pelvis,femurangledinward, archesinfoot,toesorientedsame Increasedbrainsize;expansionofneocortex way,foramenmagnum (highermental functions+integratesensoryinfo) inferior/perpendiculartoskull Social groupliving PALEOCENE EOCENE PLIOCENE [65-56 mya] OLIGOCENE MIOCENE [56-34mya] “Dawn Age” [34-23 mya] [23-5.3 mya] [5.3-2.6 mya] small animals w/ generalized Climatic warming, tropical forests mammalian anatomy, Haplorrhines & Early Clearer difference Late adaptive explosion Euprimates; first true primates, of OWM, start displacing insectivores live in trees, Anthropoids emerging btwn OWM & NWM maybe ancestral to primates start to see emergence of features Generalized hominoid apes’ niches still in living groups of primates ANCESTRAL PRIMATE STREPSORHINES HAPLORHINES the most primitive/non-derived among living nocturnal, tapetum lucidum Post orbital closure, protects eye Bigger, complex brains primates unfused mandible and frontal bone Dry nose, no rhinarium Diurnal(except tarsiers&owl monkeys) reliance on olfactory sense (long snout, shorter gestation period + shorter Reliance on vision, shorter nose Fused mandible and frontal Simplex uterus rhinarium; fleshy moist pad nose, bigger maturation period Eyes on front of head olfactory bulb) grooming claw & dental comb No grooming feature smaller brains Good grasping and climbing abilities eye placed on side of the face Bicornuate uterus + 2 pairs nipples; ANTHROPOIDS TARSIERS post-orbital bar larger litters Monkeys, Apes, & Human,: traits that set IslandsSoutheastAsia,wide range LORISIFORMS LEMURIFORMS them apart from Lemurs&Lorises: ofhabitats Africa, Southeast Asia Larger body size, Larger brain size Nocturnal Insectivores Madagascar, E. coast Africa islands Rely more on vision, less on olfaction Verticalclimbing andleaping Nocturnal Very diversified into varied ecological Bony plate protects back of eye socket Slow quadrupedal climbing or matedpair andoffspringunit niches bc only primates on these islands Different blood supply to brain weirdbchighlyderivedblendof highly agile vertical Larger lemurs usually diurnal varied diet Fusion bone into one mandible climbers/leapers (galagos) Smaller lemurs usu. nocturnal, characteristics Insectivorous (some entirely), plus Generalized dentition for wide diet insectivores Diff. female reproductive anatomy ex:immobile enormouseyes , fruits and leaves A lot of behavioral variation (some Longer gestations and maturation period rotatehead180º,grooming claw, Leave infants alone at times arboreal, terrestrial, vertical leapers, Increased paternal care unfusedmandible butfusedfrontal (extremely uncommon among quadrupeds, social, solitary) More mutual grooming primates) PLATYRHINES [NWM] 2133 CATARHINES [OWM] 2123 Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia, Southern Mexico, Central and South America Cercopithecines: Colobines : Arboreal environments Diurnal narrower, downward facing nose More generalized Narrower diet Arboreal and terrestrial quadruped Wide variation in size, diet, and ecological adaptatio Sexual dimorphism Diurnal Omnivorous Asia flatter broad noses, outward facing nostrils Africa small groups, 1- 2 Mostly quadrupedal, some are semibrachiators Pronounced cyclical changes in female genitalia adult males Monogamous pairings not common Live in mixed sex groups of all aged categories, HOMINOIDS Larger body size Anatomically different shoulder joint, suspensory locom. No tail Y-5 molar Complex behavior/cognition/ brain capabilities Broader thorax Shorter, more stable lower back Arms longer than legs (apes) Increased period of infant dependency/development Sahelanthropus tchadensis Ardipithecus ramidus Chad, weird because it’s central Africa rather Australopithecus afarensis [G] than E. or S., possibility that more evidence in Ethiopia No honing complex E Africa other parts of Africa Laetoli trail (bipedal footprints Olduvai Gorge, Mosaic of primitive ape & derived hominin Fully bipedal based on leg & pelvis but still retained features arboreal ability/ behavior (longer arms, curved Tanzania) pedal phalanges) 2.5-4 mya Small brain, actually smaller than modern chimps Opposable/grasping toe, more arboreal feature Small body, stature, and brain Small canines No diastema Biped; Flat tibial plateau, broad pelvis, Shorter and more broadly flaring pelvis than great Big toe in line with other toes No/ greatly reduced diastema Thicker enamel than apes apes but not as much as hominins dental arch bit more curved, diastema seen pronounced sexual dimorphism *speciation event btwn chimps and hominins* longer arms, arboreal tendencies but movement [4.4 mya] [6-7 mya] towards full bipedalism ** Lucy; Ethiopia, relatively complete, sex. Dimorph. [3.5-3mya]** **These 3 pre-australopiths shared [4-2.5 mya] paleoenvironment of gallery forests/ grassland, so why bipedalism? ** [4 mya] [2-3 mya] [6 mya] Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus africanus[G] E Africa Orrorin tugenensis AUSTRALOPITHECINESght arranged, not curved S. Africa Kenya orientation Small brain only 13 fossils recovered Smaller canines Prognathism; protruding jaw, snout Debate over degree of bipedalism: No diastema Face still orientated directly of Shows some terrestrially bipedal and some arboreal Thick enamel Post orbital constriction (long curved fingers) adaptations Post cranial anatomy looks like biped, Curved dental arch, more modern but Large canines (for a hominin) Tibial plateau is very flat Post-cranial skel. similar to that of great ape, not as complete/ obligate bipedalism Prominent sexual dimorphism **Tuang Child; determined was child based on dentition (3-6 years old), endocast; imprint of brain, can start to roughly work out aspects of cognitive capability** Homo erectus/ergaster E. Africa *Acheulean tools; Preconceived, Contemporous w/ H. habilis manufactured following a “blueprint”, Paranthropus robustus[R] Modern body morphology; curved dental standardizes shape, symmetrical about arch, small molars, longer legs, weight/ multiple axes (reflective of changing brain/ S. Africa stature approaching modern proportions, cognition) Slightly larger body size, similar brain size longer limb length Very large teeth, esp. premolars and molars Fair degree of Prognathism Ex. Hand axes, 1.6 mya and unchanged Large deep jaw, large masseter muscles Small orbital ridge for over 1.5 mill yrs all over Afr, Eur, and Paranthropus boisei [R] attach up to sagittal crest (ridge atop skull) *H. erectus (non-African, more derived) vs. H. Asia Flatter face, broad cheek bones E. Africa ergaster (African, earlier primitive) * Earliest evidence of controlled use of suggest well adapted for eating rough large Very robust fossils *Turkana Boy; E. Africa, 16-28 yr old, 5’6” fire, 1.5-1.6 mya E. Africa cooked food vegetables but also had a varied diet Sagittal crest, huge jaws potential 6’ when adult, modern human post = extract nutrients better= brain growth, Fair degree of sexual dimorphism Huge teeth cranial proportions defense from larger predators, warmth… …hominins start to leave Africa to Asia and Eur. using these tools/ innovations Spread across OW, 1.8 mya Eurasia (Georgia) Dmanisi *[2.5-2 mya] existed together, [1.8 mya, OUT OF AFRICA ] diversified to avoid direct competition, robust specialize to thick vegetatin and a. Multiregional/Polycentric: parallel go extinct, shows hominin evolution is tracks/ continuities of evol. around NOT progressive* world . which is why have variation GENUS HOMO-1.5 mya] b. Out of Africa: H. ss evolved in modern ** form only once in Africa then spread Homo habilis out and displaced archaic populations Paranthropus aethiopithecus [R] Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (E. Africa) of genus Homo Brain getting bigger, face shifting below brain c. Best answer;our gen. diversity has E. Africa Curved dental arch, molars getting smaller been evolving in Africa longer than The Black Skull;stained by manganese soil was found in Compound crest on back of skull Reduction of prognathism rest of world, soOut of Africa origin Brain organization; Broca’s (speech) & Wernicke’s with some contribution from archaic Upper face projects, Broad face pop coming out of diff regions Large palate, large zygomatic foramen, ;arge area for (understanding lang) **Oldowan tools [2.5mya]Olduvai Gorge; back teeth Simplistic looking but very effective in cutting *These features place it between A. afarensis and [1 mya] Paranthropus Paranthropus aethiopithecus* through meat, cutting bone to get to marrow, Good for scavenger behavior/ life style Homo antecessor? **H. rudolfensis; debate over if its variation in 1 species Fossils found in Spain (lumpers) or 2 separate species (splitters) and which Ancestor to Neand? features determine this* Homo sapiens sapiens Widely distributed and diverse ,fossils found Omo 1 , 200kya, suite of features like modern humans, on all continents except Antarctica, also more fossils found bc more recent BUT… Omo 2 found same site, same level, dated to same time Practiced intentional burial= more tendency but features look a lot more archaic like H. erectus of complete specimens (pronounced angulation/bunning of occipital (seen in Belongs to H. ss if indistinguishable from earlier members of genus Homo), much more archaic morphology of at least one pop. of modern Homo heidelbergensis/ humans variation or diff species? rhodesiensis Herto specimen, 200kya, modern human features BUT Rounder skull, less robust cranium, big brain pronounced brow ridge Afr & Eur. No brow ridge Very robust cranial bones Smaller facial skeleton relative to brain case, Very pronounced brow ridges (seen in face shifts beneath (prognathism receding, Neanderthals later on) hardly any), no post orbital constriction Bigger brain Smaller teeth, smaller zygomatic arch, chin! **again, debate over 1 varied species or 2 Long limb bones (relatively) separate** Relatively longer distal segments of limbs Less postcranial robusticity [500kya] [200kya-today] [10-15 kya PEOPLING OF NW] Clovis First; arrival by lower sea levels, bearing strait land bridge, walked from Russia [200-25kya] [60-40kya?] across to E Alaska/W Canada, then ice sheets melted opening a corridor between glaciers Neanderthals then migration down 12kya spread all over Denisovans Neander valleys Americas Many similarities to modern humans; H. sapiens neanderthalensis Denisova Cave, SW Siberia BUT there are sites far from AK that predate Very few specimens opening of ice corridor that have artifacts (subspecies) or H. neanderthalensis (own separate species) Melanasian modern pop. have Den DNA so People start to question if Darwin’s concepts apply to humans present (monte verde site, S. Amer.), so Robust hominins; thick brow ridge, very large nasal apertures suggests Den and H. ss interbreeding there may have been humans there before …found they plotted closer to Aust. More than Clovis Generally flat-faced but project a little in mid facial region Very laterally rounded crania modern humans, interesting bc found in Eurasia Coast-hopping: came by boat along edge of Bigger brains, broader bodies than modern humans Where do they fit? strait and “coast-hopped” along W. coast of Bodies well suited for cold climates when Eur and Asia were partly Americas, explains early sites on islands and glaciated, diversity of body types related to environment/ climate coasts, genetic data supports this bc All of the Homo naledi living native ppls of Americas can trace decent Displaced by humans? Around 2x longer than humans have been Refined material culture Found deep in cave system in Africa to 1 of 5 matrilines Modern hyoid bone, capable of possessing complex language No date, where do they fit? May have produced art Intentionally burying their dead
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'