Bio2 Exam 3 Study Guide
Bio2 Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL 10513
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sijil Patel on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 10513 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Demarest in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Week 12: Migrate Why? To follow /move to a more favorable environment -genetically hardwired Innate behaviors -require no conscious thought -subject to selective pressures and evolution Learned behaviors -picked up as we go -highly dependent on experience, variable -subject to conscious control -indirectly subject to selective pressures and evolution Human mating -society and biology evolve -we are a product of both nature and nurture Ex: -monogamous prairie vole with ADH vs promiscuous montane vole Monogamy vs promiscuity -high output and genetic competition of promiscuity seems to outweigh monogamy benefits Ex: -birds are monogamous, K-selected species -it depends, maximize cost v benefit over time Mating systems -mating displays/rituals along with these -females are choosy bc need resources—costly to reproduce -males need females and are competitive -key is to maximize fitness through generations -mating behaviors” most successful passing of genes determine behavior that prevails -changes in mating behavior within a local group can make it so they no longer interbreed with other members of the species= reproductive isolation= formed new species Reproductive strategy 1 -shotgun approach, quantity not quality -lots of kids, don’t care beyond that -r-selected sepcies—high reproductive rates, high mortality rates, short life cycle, small size, semel parous (reproduce only once in life) Reproductive strategy 2 -all eggs in one basket, quality not quantity -few kids, invest heavily -k-selected species—low reproductive rates, low mortality rates, long life, large size, iteroparous (reproduce many times throughout life) Promiscuity -no lasting bond beyond sex act -no special mate relationship Polygamy -a member of one sex maintains long term bonds with many members of the opposite sex -polygyny- one male, may females (most common form) -lions, seals, cichlids, hippos -polyandry- one female, many males -crickets, frogs, monkeys Monogamy -one member of each sex join to form exclusive pair bond -birds Extra pair copulations -monogamous “cheat” on side -males little resource investment but chance for extra reproduction -females greater genetic diversity, more offspring survive Mate guarding -jealousy behavior in which males prevent access to their female to prevent them from cheating -avoids being cuckolded- raising offspring that aren’t your own Intersexual competition -selection by one sex for certain characteristics in members of the opposite sex -females choosing males Intrasexual competition -favoring of characteristics in one sex as a result of competition for mates among individuals of that ex -males competing for females Sexual selection -result of sexual competition -differential reproductive success among individuals due to variation in ability to acquire mates -results in certain traits becoming more prevalent over time in sex-specific manner -leads to sexual dimorphism- males look different from females -involves secondary sex characteristics- characteristics of animals that distinguish bw the sexes but do not produce of convey gametes -results in runaway selection- the feature being selected for becomes ridiculously pronounced Ex: peacock tail Runaway selection -exaggerated feature may serve as a proxy for other, more evolutionary success important characteristics Handicap or “good genes” hypothesis: -tail indicates, otherwise great, healthy robust genetic stock -does not matter if it’s detrimental to the male since male does not limit reproduction sexy son hypothesis: sexy peacocks will reproduce and like sexy sons will be successful Direct combat -males battle for access to females Advertisement -males use displays to intimidate rivals and more successfully attract and convince females they are the best choice Sneak fertilization -a male may swoop in and mate with a female while the other males aren’t paying attention Mate guarding -male may remain actively vigilant against sneak fertilization Sperm competition -faster swimming sperm are more likely to reach the egg first (so bizarre lolol) Sperm removal -male may extract or otherwise displace any rival sperm present from previous copulation events (ridge on human penis) Copulatory plugs -males may inject a glue like substance after copulation that blocks the females genital tract preventing any subsequent rival’s sperm from penetrating Infanticide -males kill young that aren’t there (lions) -females (rats) also do it Week 13: Population -all the members of a species that inhabit the same area t the same time -interbreeding group of individuals -distinct from other populations -migration and breeding bw them is rare -contain variance, can be a lot or not very much (conserved traits) Emergent properties -individuals interact to give populations these -characteristics of the system as a whole that are not possessed by the individualas that make up the system Population distribution -environment including interactions with other organisms determine this Geographic range -the area it inhabits Dispersal -the movement of individuals Dispersion -distribution (spacing) of individuals within the population -most populations are a mix of patterns Random -nothing in particular limits distribution= no discernible pattern to where organisms are Regular (ordered, -mostly occurs due to biotic interactions (territoriality, alleopathy) uniform, spaced) Clumped -clsuters form around resources as part of social behavior and due to low reproductive dispersal Sympatric population -share the same area Allopatric population -occupy entirely separate regions—not adjacent or overlapping Parapatric population -adjacent to each other Metapopulation -population that is divided into subpopulations (breeding occurs within these) Mark Recapture -to estimate size of a population based on smaller representative Technique survey 1) catch random sample M and mark them 2) Release sample back into wild 3) Catch second random sample C and count recaptured marked as R 4) calculate N (population size) based on N= MC/R -if we find the proportion marked, we can find the total population amount -sample must be assumed representative Requirements: -population must be closed -must mix randomly 0must be no sampling biases or other procedural shortcomings Demography -characterization/description of population (vital statistics such as mean age, male/females, etc) Growth rate -simply the change in population size that occurs with change in time Growth rate= ∆????/∆???? Intrinsic growth rate/ ∆???? intrinsic rate of = ???????? ???? -per capita basis—not constant number added, rather certain fraction increase of current population added each time ∆???? -number of births (natality) and migrants in minus number of deaths (mortality) and migrants out -if positive—population has positive growth rate -if negative—population has negative growth rate Continuous growth -reproduce continuously -reproduction in all individuals all year Discrete growth -reproduce discretely -there is definite mating season during which all reproduction occurs at once r -rate at which population actually growing per capita ???????????????? -maximum possible per capita growth rate= maximum growth rate population can achieve (∆???? ????????????/∆????) ???????????????? = ???? ???? Life history -describes reproductive events Maturity -life stage during which reproduction is possible Parity -number or reproductive events possible in a lifetime Fecundity -number of offspring that may be produced at each reproductive event Fertility -number of offspring actually produced at each reproductive event Recruitment -successful addition of reproductive individuals to the breeding population Longevity -lifespan Biotic potential -theoretical limit to a populations ability to grow through reproduction Reproductive tradeoffs -fecundity with parity to maximize total offspring -semelparous has high fecundity against low parity -iteroparous has lower fecundity but high partiy -mortality -r species have high fecundity to compensate for high mortality -k species have lower fecundity and have positive growth Senescence -decline in physiological function over time -this is why we can’t live forever Exponential growth -growth is per capita -the larger N gets, the larger ∆???? gets -upward leap regardless of r value, small r value just takes longer to get large jumps -J shaped curve ???????? ???? = ???? ???????? ????????( ???? ) ???? = ???? ???? ???? -not realistic, not sustainable -environmental resistance causes r to decrease Logistic growth -s shaped curve ???? ???? = ???? ???????????? (???? − ) ???? -carrying capacity (K) accounted for- max population size that can be sustained -r max- the amx growth rate possible under unrestricted conditions -r- the intrinsic growth rate that is actually achieved -(1- N/K)- density dependent term, causes r to be reduced to some fraction of rmax -when N is much less than K, r is close to rmax -when N is slightly larger, r decreases -when N= K, r=0 Things that change r -biotic factors (living things) -abiotic factors (physical environment) Density dependent -factors that impact population growth are dependent on density of factors population itself, either directly or its effect on carrying capacity -food supply, conflict, mate access, disease, predators Density independent -set as they are, regardless of density factors - abiotic factors such as humidity, temperature, etc. R strategist -population size highly driven by growth rate K strategist -population size set by carrying capacity (stays over time) Population growth -it is an emergent property Survivorship curves -plot fraction of cohort that is alive over time -reveal clues to life history Age structure -age distribution of population, insight to demographic diagrams (population pyramids) Statistics -help objectively quantify data Qualitative -“either or” -determined by single gene Quantitative -vary along continuum, any conceivable value within a range -determined by multiple genes (polygenic inheritance) -most individuals fall near average or mean (normal curve, bell shaped curve) -more variation causes a broader spread of data) -next three quantitative terms are descriptive characteristics bc describe part of the population Mean -average x= sample mean (statistic) ????= population mean (parameter) Standard deviation -variability about the mean s= sample standard deviation ???? = population standard deviation (parameter) 68.3% population in ±1 standard deviation of mean 95.5% population in ±2 standard deviation of mean 99.7% population in ±3 standard deviation of mean median -midpoint, not influence by high or low numbers Parameters -represent true, directly measured values for a whole population Statistics -represent estimates of parameters based on data from sample Representative sample -random and unbiased -greater variability is more accurate Datum -singular data N -size of sample Normal distribution 68.3% population in ±1 standard deviation of population mean model 95.5% population in ±2 standard deviation of population mean 99.7% population in ±3 standard deviation of population mean -there is no difference, no effect Default null hypothesis p-value -indicates likelihood that null hypothesis is true, given data -quantifies likelihood there is no difference -standard at 0.05 -lower p value is more compelling conclusion -replicaton Type 1 error -rejecting null hypothesis when it is true Type II error -failing to reject null hypothesis when it is false (false negative outcome) Correlation/correlated -variable that change in concert -positive: one value goes up, so does the other -negative: one value goes up, the other goes down -correlation does not mean causation Regression analysis -quantifies strength of correlation -correlation coefficient (r) -perfect correlation= 1 -closer to +1, stronger positive correlation -closer to -1, stronger negative correlation Correlation -indicates the proportion of the variance in one variable that is determination (r^2) accounted for by the other Proxy -something that is observed or measured in order to gain insight into something else , that perhaps is more difficult to observe/measure Genes -sequences of dna that code for heritable traits alleles- different variants of gene Genetic diversity -number of genotype combinations present in a population Ex: lap94 gene in mussels greater expression in mussels close to salt water Gene sweep -region of DNA that shows very little variation in population Ex: cold tolerance, rice alcohol tolerance, low O2 tolerance, UV skin lightening Mutation -increase genetic diversity by creating new alleles Natural selection -decrease genetic diversity in population by eliminating some of those creations Sexual selection -pressure from one sex choosing quality is opposing sex for mating Bottleneck -population experiences sever size reduction -decrease in genetic diversity -NOT nonrandom assortative mating Founder effect -reduced genetic diversity that occurs in founder group that departs from parent population to establish new population, naturally only carrying some alleles Genetic drift -loss of alleles by chance -loss of diversity Gene flow -organisms move from one population to another -loss of diversity Nonrandom assortative -being choosy for mates that are either similar to yourself or different mating from yourself -no effect on genetic diversity -leads to heterozygosity or homozygosity Hardy-Weinberg -everything stable and random equilibrium -no mutation -no natural selection -no genetic drift -no gene flow (migration) -no preferential mating p+q=1 ???? + 2???????? + ???? = 1 -allows us to make predictions -check to see if population in equilibrium and if not, something is going on Large populations -greater genetic diversity Small populations -less diversity -more prone to statochistic (random) extinction -stronger drift Week 14: Biological community -populations impact each other here Mutualism -mutally beneficial partnership Commensalism -one sided, but otherwise harmless partnership -things that eat other dead things in terms of direct effect Consumer-Resource -one organism consumes another to some degree clearly one beenfits while the other is harmed -things that eat other dead things in terms of carbon energy flow Predation -one organism eats another, killing it Parasitism -one organism feeds on another, without killing it Parasitoidism -one organism feeds on another slowly like a parasite, but fatally so—eventually kills it over time Herbivory -eating of plants Scavengers -large animals that eat already dead animals Detritivores -smaller animals that eat wastes, generally feces/plant- more of the leftover small pieces of “stuff” Decomposers -feed on waste materials by absorbing their chemicals rather than eating chunks Ammensalism -harm another organism without benefitting from it (coincidental, unintentional) Competition -organisms compete for same resources Interspecific competition -between species -more niches overlap, more competition -competitive exclusion: the exclusion of one species from a community due to being outcompeted by another one (two species cannot occupy same niche indefinitely, one will hold advantage and win) Outcomes: Extinction- one species dies out- other wins Migration- one species moves out- otherwine Adaptation- both species shift their niches to alleviate competition- both sort of win Resource partitioning (niche differentiation)- their niches adjust to utilize resource differently- more specialized Intraspecfic competition -within species , within population Symbiosis -living closely together Coevolution -strong reciprocal influence on evolution between two epcies Emergent properties of Productivity- rate at which biomass is generated biological communities Biodiversity- variety of species present Complexity- number and nature of connections bw players in community Stability- tendency to resist change over time (absorb the blows, recover from perturbation) Keystone species -exhibits disproportionate influence on its community Ecological succession -the characteristic changes that occur in a biological community in a given area as it develops forma fresh, naked habitat to a mature one Facilitation -alter environment to help next species Inhibition -alter environment to make it harder for next species to succeed Climax community -eventual goal, mature and stable -hardy pioneer species with rapid dispersal and later species don’t establish until conditions developed Ecological niche -where it lives, what it does -habitat and role Fundamental niche -full range of environmental conditions an organism could theoretically play Realized niche -environmental conditions and function organism actually fulfills Generalists -organisms with broad niche Specialists -organisms with narrow niche Tophic levels -individuals feeding level in a community Primary producer -autotroph, mainly plants -fix carbon Primary consumer -secondary producer, herbivore -eat primary producer Secondary consumer -carnivore, tertiary producer -eat other animal consumer Standing stock -primary producer supporting smaller primary consumer and secondary etc Ecological tropic -upward decrease in biomass in energy pyramid -upper level contains 10% of level below it 1) basic metabolic needs 2) transfer inefficiency 3) nutritional inefficiency 4) carbon sinks Bioaccumulation -accumulation of molecules in cells, tissues Biomagnification -concentrations increase through the food web Ecosystem -biological community and physical environment Biomes -broad biological community/ecosystem that occur in similar climate zones Microclimates -on small scale -under a rock, in a cave, etc Regional scale climate -forest shade, desertification, forests in costa rica change by organisms Keeling curve -shows global net balance of photosynthesis vs respiration resulting in annual cycle of CO2 changes -spring and summer—more photosynthesis than respiration so draw down of CO2 -winter and fall- respiration greater than photosynthesis leading to net release of CO2 into atmosphere Milankovitch cycles -periodic changes of sunlight intensity due to orbit (tens of thousands of years) Sunspot cycles -shift In stomr activity on sun (every 11 years) El Nino Southern -ocean cycle Oscillation -decade Feedback loops -Positive (warm, permafrost releasing methane, more warmth) -Negative (warming, CO2 uptake and cooling; warming causing phytoplankton to cause cloud buildup and cooling) Ecology -branch of science that deals with how organisms interact with their environments= understanding how nature on earth function Organism -single individual of species Population -interacting members of species community -all interacting populations Ecosystem -biological community and its habitat Biome -broad regions of earth containing similar biological communities Biosphere -all life and inhabited zones of earth Everglades -control flooding, recharge aquifers, purify water, blunt hurricanes
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