FWF 250 STUDY QUESTION ANSWERS
FWF 250 STUDY QUESTION ANSWERS FWF 250
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by William Luke on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FWF 250 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Professor Christopher Graves in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 172 views. For similar materials see Conservation in Agriculture and Forestry at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
FWF 250 Chapter 12 1. Fish are the most abundant of the vertebrate animals? 2. Historically, fisheries management focused on game species 3. The health of fisheries depends on the protection and restoration of aquatic habitat 4. A fishery is a place where fish or other aquatic species are caught. 5. What percentage of the global commercial fish harvest is taken from inland fresh waters? a) 25% 6. What percentage of the global commercial fish harvest is taken from marine waters? a) 75% 7. Define anadromous. Born in fresh water>spends life in sea> returns to freshwater to spawn 8. Fish that live their entire life in freshwater are referred to as Resident fish. 9. Which of these triggers spawning (in this case can include spawning migration, nest building, egg fertilization, and egg deposition)? c) Temperature 10. Many trout can continue upstream migration in ___4.7_____ inches of water, while many salmon can continue in _9.5_______ inches of water. 11. DeFine turbiditysediment in water 12. Streams are usually very well ______oxygenated_________________ (due to tumbling or turbulence created by the flow of water over rocks) and thus, well oxygenated. 13. Based on the reading assignment, which of these would have higher oxygen levels? Little River, Tennessee 14. When oxygen levels fall to _____ ppm, they are generally inadequate for aquatic life. 2 parts per million 15. Define estuary. 3 freshwater sources meeting at one point in brackish water with an open window to the ocean 16. Graves’ M.S. project in Savannah, Georgia (and based on the reading assignment) was to document bird use of tidal marshes of different salinity. The saltwater “wedge” is more or less (circle one) dense than freshwater and can or cannot (circle one) be shifted up or downstream by human actions. 17. Define redd. – Salmon bed 18. Interstitial spaces between rockbased substrates are important because Well oxygenated water can pass through freely 19. Sedimentation in streams and rivers covers natural substrate and smothers bottom dwelling aquatic life. TRUE 20. Freshwater invertebrate populations will generally decrease with an increase in leaves, sticks, large woody debris, and aquatic plants. 21. Most freshwater fishes have low or high reproductive potential. 22. Generally, _______ % of a given fish population dies each year. c) 70% 23. Explain how beaver dams may actually improve overall stream health and habitat for animals. Decrease sediment downstream Create winter habitat Trap and strain sediment 24. Ideal leaping conditions for fish occur when the depth of a pool below a waterfall is _1.25_____ times the height of the falls. 25. Excessive nutrients = Excessive aquatic plant growth = Crowded waters = Less oxygen = Stressed Environment 26. Acid deposition is primarily caused by industry burning ____Fossil_______ fuels such as coal, in which waste gases containing harmful sulfur and nitrogen oxides combine with atmospheric water. 27. Normally, unpolluted rain has a pH of about ____5.6_______, slightly acidic. Today, streams in Great Smoky Mountains National Park can decrease to 4.2 due to acid rainfall. 28. Which of these is the primary reason common carp wreak havoc? Uproot aquatic vegetation during bottomfeeding 29. Define imprinting Fish ability to instinctively know how and where to return to 30. To accommodate migrating fish, many dams have been retrofitted with fish _____ladders_____________. 31. List 4 ways early logging efforts around the late 1800s and early 1900s had detrimental effects on stream health and aquatic animals. ALTERING SEDIMENT AND NUTRIENT DELIVERY RATES CHANGING WAER TEMPERATURE DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS OVEALL WATER QUALITY 32. Fisheries managers have created and developed ___stocking_ where artificial propagation or captive breeding facilitates “putandtake fishing” opportunities. 33. Newer reservoirs tend to be the most productive. 34. What was significant about a twostory reservoir? b) They can sustain both warm and cool water fishes 35. __Translocation___involves capturing live fish and/or their eggs, and introducing the species to original bodies of water with no or a low population. Often conducted to restore a species! 36. What are the regulations called that require anglers to release all of the fish they catch? Catch and release only 37. List 2 other types of fishing regulations enforced to protect and enhance a fishery. Closed seasons Size and catch limits 38. Most marine fish and shellfish worldwide are commercially harvested near the _____shorelines_______________ in the areas of the continental shelf and margin. 39. The open ocean, except the 200mile strip extending out from each nation’s shoreline, is the world’s biggest __________commons_____________. This means a public area over which no nation has sovereignty. 40. ________Bycatch________________ is the term used to describe captured marine organisms that are not the target species. 41. ________Discards________________ are the bycatch that are thrown back for various reasons. 42. What does MSY stand for? – Maximum sustained yield 39. ____________MSY_________________________ is the greatest catch that can occur each season without affecting the reproductive capacity of that species. 40. _____________Optimum yield________________________, on the contrary, considers the biological, economic, social, and political values of a given fishery in order to maximize benefits to society. 41. ____________Marine Protected Areas_________________________, similar to wildlife refuges, are designated areas off limits to many human activities, providing quality habitat conditions, and “seed” for surrounding areas. 42. _______aquaculture_______________ is the controlled culturing of fish and other aquatic food organisms. 43. Marine aquaculture is also referred to as ______mariculture___________________. FWF 250 Chapter 10 1. Water is recycled over and over through a phenomenon called the hydrological cycle. TRUE 2. List 4 places water is stored (physical locations) during the water cycle. Oceans Precipitation Ground Water Evaporation 3. The vast majority of the world’s water resides in the ________Oceans______________. 4. Oceans cover ____70______% of the Earth’s surface. 5. ___2/3______ of the rainfall evaporates. a) 1∕4 6. __30________% of annual rainfall in the U.S. flows into surface waters. 7. _____3_____% of rainfall and snowmelt seeps down through the soil in a process called infiltration. 8. Which zone is characterized by pore spaces that contain water and air? a) Zone of aeration 9. Groundwater is located in which of these zones? c) Zone of saturation 10. Most of the evaporation (i.e. water vapor) comes from ______transpiration from plants_______________. 11. The water table can rise and fall depending on the amount of water leaving and entering the zone of saturation. TRUE 12. Water cannot be withdrawn from an aquifer faster than it can be replenished. TRUE 13. __97______% of the world’s supply of liquid freshwater is in aquifers. 1. Which major U.S. aquifer is being drained faster than it can recharge? d) Ogallalaaquifer 2. Producing one pound of cotton requires ___150_____ gallons of water. 3. It requires _150000_______ gallons of water to produce a single bushel of wheat. 4. Which type of irrigation slowly releases water at the base of plants by means of perforated plastic pipes? Drip Irrigation
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