Study Guide for the Final
Study Guide for the Final Psyc 3221
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Warren on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3221 at East Carolina University taught by Kendell Thornton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Study Guide for Exam #4 which is the final! **Don’t forget to do your extra credit papers before Friday! Terms are in black, then the notes on the terms are as follows: From Notes From Study Guide Review From Book Chapter 10 Definition of aggression This is the behavior of someone when they are trying to hurt another person. It is behavior that is intended and directed towards harming someone. Study: (Response Form) looking at aggression in the 60s and 70s. Study with little girls and boys on a playground with aggression. Some boys are more aggressive than girls. Intent to harm= Different Data. Because accidents happen, and they are not considered aggression. New definition with intent to harm and separating accidents from intentional harm: The Paradigm is the Teacher/Learner Paradigm: Similar to milligrams study with the shocking. This was used to do research on Aggression. And it was real and they were competing and winner would shock looser. o Use the “Buss Aggression Machine” similar to the shock box in this study. o They would have individuals primed to be aggressive or not. They would bring them in early and get them to play some games that would cause aggression. Like “roll-up” for measuring IQ and you would win a certain amount of money. They would get the other participant to bump them and prime them to be upset and angry. They would also insult the player and prime them to tend to be aggressive. They did this many different ways, and found that it worked and lead to aggression. Frustration Hypothesis: Frustration leads to aggression. Types of aggression (e.g., emotional, indirect, etc.) Indirect: when you are hurting someone without being with them at the time, or not in direct physical contact with them. Emotional: when you are trying to hurt someone because of how you feel at that moment. Instrumental: when you hurt someone for a reason other than your accomplishment. This is if you want something to happen in consequence of your success. 1. Hostile Aggression: occurs when the person is angry or upset and they lash out at a specific person or the person who caused the frustration. Premeditated o Direct: Men typically do this, and they do it in the moment. o Indirect: or spreading rumors through twitter and they will never know: Women. They plan, plot and scheme. o Sticks and stones may break my bones but words will never hurt me: Very untrue. Psychological damage can last a lifetime. Physical wounds can heal. 2. Instrumental Aggression: someone is in your way and gets the side slap. Cold blooded Murder is when you have to kill someone to get the goal accomplished. Wrong place wrong time. That person was just in the wrong place at the wrong time. When they were killed instrumentally to get away with the crime your killing them for. 3. Emotional Aggression: Grandma comes and grabs you by the cheek: Cute aggression. Play fighting and when it gets rough and out of hand, someone gets hurt. With all these women rights then there are still unequal things. Catharsis: Get it out of your system. When you have an aggressive episode just to get it out. Such as yelling off of the back porch from mate or child anger. Displacement: When you place your aggression on someone or something else other than what caused it. It is just when you are expressing your aggression away from the person or thing that caused it. Frustrationaggression hypothesis Original: that aggression was the direct response to any type of blocking goal directed behavior. Points: o When you see someone who is acting in an aggressive way you can assume that they were already aroused. o With frustration there will be an act that will be the result of this frustration and allow the person to let go of that anger. Revised: with unpleasant stimuli the person will have some sort of emotional aggravation that causes emotional unhappiness. With these unpleasant feelings the person might or might not have an aggressive reaction depending on the situation and that person. Excitation transfer Aggression and anger produce the same results as when someone feels any other arousal in any emotional state. Sex differences in aggression Women are commonly the ones that hit their mates and men are the ones who normally cause more damage when they hit. For example when Chris Brown was violent with Rihanna the singer. Media violence and aggression Children viewing violence on TV and becoming more violent. Research on Catharism (term above): boys in football for them to be less violent and we find that it is untrue, increases probability of the problems later. With violence on the media it makes aggressive behaviors look rewarding and they also cause more aggressive tendencies. The people who are already aggressive are more likely to be drawn to the aggressive Medias. Punishment :Punishing a child is not the way to go. No logic in it. When you are punishing the kid you are usually doing the behavior you are punishing them for and then you are also making them more aggressive and making them angry. They end up thinking that when they are bigger they can act that way too. Punishment is not effective when you are delivering an aversive consequence. And you can do rewards and (Positive punishment) omission punishments. Negative reinforcement like being grounded and not being able to use social media. Pleasant Unpleasant Present Positive Reinforcement Positive punishment Remove Negative Negative punishment( removing reinforcement something negative) Reinforcement increases the behavior in the future no matter what the behavior was and then punishment decreases overtime. Ex: Spanking kids doesn’t work! For example learn what they want and like and then take that away for reinforcement. o Children maximize the places they can get away with the behavior Weapons effect This is when the presence of a weapon enhances someone’s feelings of aggression and other thoughts that pertain to those types of behavior. Study of Guns vs. Butter. Simple study there would be either guns or butter in the room when people entered. When someone saw the guns, the sight of it in the room increased negative emotions and aggression. It is the weapons effect. So there is a confluence going on where there is a huge push to bring more weapons into our lives. This triggers a complex line of emotional estates inside the body that expresses aggression. Situation where the economy is not so that everyone is allowed a stake in the game of social reality. Then we have individuals that are conditioned to respond negatively to these types of environments. Then they attribute their behaviors to you rather than themselves, then they get all wound up and angry to do stupid crimes. This shows a lack of connection and disassociation to do crimes so stupid. Without the stake the people do not belong in the economy. As a community of Greenville we should address this instead of doing nothing. Rather them be dumb, they only require education. We are giving them the benefit of the doubt and hope they are not psychopaths. With stakes in the community you become all in, instead of being disenfranchised. People think it is not their job to get involved. Carl Marks: everyone is bought off in a state of living and you think you are happy, but you need to wake up and realize that things need to change. People need to keep committing stupid crimes and not think they are living in it. Social learning theory: by being in those aggressive situations you learn that that is the way to get your way. Play hard or get trampled on. Way you learn through your experiences or through others experiences. Vicarious or direct. Thorndike’s law of effect: behaviors usually are not redone by people who are seeing others in pain. This theory explains that aggression is something that is learned by direct reward and even possibly by watching someone else fail or get rewarded from aggressiveness. Chapter 11 Both Stereotype and Prejudice are evolved from real conflicts of the past. Real conflict in our historical past has been the cause of some of the stereotypes that we traffic in. Not all but some are. Read this chapter well. Stereotype: This is a common misconception of certain social groups or members of them. Stereotypes about Italians, Jews, blonds, Asian. How do these form? Expectations when they are not met then your attention is drawn. Called contrast effect Discrepancy between … and …. o Lead to experience in the moment with whatever Historical Perspective: For African Americans is that they are not that smart. This is only relevant in America! We are all related there is only one species. When we talk about race it is not true, it is a political game. This is to try and get the level of social economic level how the politicians want it. Dr. Thornton says to leave the blank of race empty on surveys. We are all traced back to one common mother. There is research about it. In Africa is the only small difference in genetics. Since the 1960s we are reverting back to the less free view of America. We do not have as many free writes. Political Perspectives: rationalize war, discrimination, economic oppression, and politician’s traffic stereotypes to divide and conquer the masses. Laws in the south are legalizing discrimination about religion and belief changing within a couple weeks. This means that there is a power move and they are trying to keep the status quo. 5 states in the last couple of weeks, it is not a coincidence. Started in Indiana a year ago. But they did not sign. America is not all about giving everyone equal rights and against discrimination. These laws are used to justify things, including religion (a particular religion). Some Christians ruin the brand for others. They are not doing it right and are not living the way that is told in the Bible. These are the ones that ruin Christianity for the ones who are trying to be good to other people. This religious war is happening in the south and people in power are putting the masses against each other to divide and conquer. The political game is terrible and it is forever going to happen. Don’t be complicit by inaction, speak up against it. The political people are corrupted by their power, they are thinking through these laws. Sociocultural perspective: There are differences between immigrants that come to America and that is where stereotypes come from and then we formulate a thought of stereotypes. There are differences in people who come to America, which is wonderful, we need to celebrate it and integrate it too. We should be motivated to be on the same page together. We should not tolerate, but we should accept each other! Without integration there is more conflict. We need equal education here in America and we need to help people learn English when they come here to get better jobs and learn how to live it right here and make it. It doesn’t matter anymore (The melting pot) about everyone being able to work hard and become something is changed into what you are considered in stereotype terms about how you will succeed here. There is a celebration of individuality now instead of celebration of individuals coming together where we all live together and prosper. The 1% are leaving the rest of us behind now. We are a nation of immigrants. In the City there are little towns that represent isolation and separation of race. There are so many stereotypes there that are practiced. There is segregation and it is alive and well there in New York and around that area. These stereotypes were easier when people were immigrating but they still happen today. They don’t want to become Americans. They don’t want to learn the language or have the desire to become a citizen anymore. They don’t want to assimilate into the culture anymore when they come to America and it has caused problems. Dr. Thornton thinks you can have pride in your religion and culture and still become an American and live life both ways in unison. In Germany right now there are Syrian refugees that are not living the German culture but they are demanding that Germany accommodates them and all of their culture. It is their homeland and the Syrians are new and should accommodate the German culture because they are immigrants. There needs to be accommodations between cultures and we need to help each other. The stereotypes are here, but we don’t care about the origin really in the social world. We wonder how stereotypes are formed in individual’s minds. Prejudice: when someone has a general attitude towards all the people in a certian social group. Discrimination: these are behaviors that are focused on someone because of the group that they are a part of. Stereotype threat: Fearing that you might confirm the stereotypes that are held against your group. Disidentification: When someone tries to lessen the importance of something in their life, only in their mind to improve their selfesteem. Ingroup/Outgroup: In these groups: o For a male, the male in the in group and the female is the out group. o We determine group membership in relation to self. o Consequence: Outgroup Homogeneity Effect: out group members are all the same. The perception leads us to look at all categorize everyone in the out group together. With an exposure to the out group you can better understand them and distinguish them! Ingroup bias: When you have the common tendency to like people from your group more than those of other groups. Outgroup Increased exposure to outgroup= Stereotype is belief Prejudice is attitude Discrimination is behavior o Stereotypes can be positive. o Integration is starting to be the problem again. LGBT with bathrooms. All crouched on religion. o The transgender bathrooms are really becoming a problem now and as of lately if you go into a restaurant that doesn’t wat to host you they can tell you to leave. Now you can be fired because your women, and because you are not who you want everywhere. Wright to protest is going to be taken away on campus. Being done in religion. o desegregation: this is a back slide for progress Catch 22: If you follow the rules you will lose. And if you follow the rules you will lose. This is life. Movie about it. This works for any physical stimulus. Our belief about an entire category or outgroup. But intimate objects will change more when we are exposed to individual cases to that we view as typical rather than if they were not. If an individual outgroup is in encountered we see them as typical and they fit the stereo type then we don’t notice them. Only when they contrast the stereotype do we notice them! No individual can be seen as typical or not typical at the same time. So the stereotype can never be completely broken by this! Under the umbrella of religion they are desegregating us now. Long held on women. This is not an accident. No problem being solved now the history taught us nothing. Drug wat in the 70s was do deal with minority blacks to deal with civil rights. The white old men in power didn’t want to lose control. The prison system is messed up too. Prohibition and drug was a scam LGBT protecting religious freedom Outgroup homogeneity effect: when someone thinks that all members in one group are more alike than they actually are. Social categorization: Determining membership of the groups. Depending on yourself. Exposure to the outgroup makes you see that they are not all the same and you don’t categorize as badly. How do stereotypes work for in in individuals mind? Social categorization: we group objects by similarity. Research done long ago, we as animals take in information and organize it to make judgements and such. o We take in stimuli and organize it to how our minds work. The first breakdown in categorization is male or female then skin/hair color. We have to fit people into boxes and this helps us know how to approach them. Subcategorization: political correctness where by the more categories you operate in the more you are praised. The fewer categories you are in the more you are seen as less favorable. Social comparison: when someone finds their self by comparing themselves to others abilities, attitudes and beliefs. Scapegoating: when someone blames people who are in other groups for their own failures and aggravations. Contact Hypothesis: Research shows that without contact of the out group you don’t know them well. With contact to the out group you don’t see them as the same anymore you can tell the difference and this gets rid of your stereotypes. Chapter 12 Definition of group: Which is two or more people who influence or are similar to one another. A collection of people who are similar. Deindividuation: Losing sense of personal identification, losing yourself. When you get caught up in the masses and group energy you forget who you are. You lose yourself and get caught up with a sense of anonymity. = process of losing your sense of self and losing your individuality. In large groups, in the dark and in costumes and this makes you act any way possible. Riots happen at night with a lot of people. When in a mask you are anonymous and you like it. You think you can get away with stuff. You do more heinous crimes and commit larceny. Study done on Halloween about a bowl of candy on the porch and the kids would dump it into their bags and run. With this bowl and a mirror behind it kids were less likely to dump and run even in costume. Example: Cameras…The big eye in the sky and everyone being watched. Everyone knows they are on camera and being watched. We do see more bad behavior now. Even with the eye in the sky. The anonymity is now giving people the ability to tear others down in the public. As a society we should not be tolerating this. This is even done in newspapers. People pretend to be other people…catfishing. We also call them trolls but it is deindividuation. Everyone can be tracked now, shown on 60 minutes last Sunday. Ruined our society and made us undermine the idea of free speech. This affects us economically and socially. People are less willing to speak up and out now. And less willing to take a stand in various socially acceptable ways in fear of what the anonymous person would do to them. Evil people are allowed to do these things because the good people are silent and don’t stand up to stop them. They are in fear of not being heard. This is brutal and nothing is coming out of this. Another bad thing that is happening now is that in New York parents are teaching the child how to cheat and steal and get ahead at any cost possible. o Facilitating the delinquency! Role: This is an expectation that is held by your group of how the members should act in certain positions or situations. Realistic group conflict theory: stereotypes can come from actual group conflict from our historical past. Talked more in depth above in earlier topic. Evaluation apprehension: worried about people’s judgement of you. When you think people are evaluating you, you will be less likely to speak up! Presence of others change your behavior. What are people thinking? How are they evaluating me? You are worried about being judged. If you don’t care what they think then you are better off. Only when you are worried about what others are thinking about you will you will this be effective. Probable cause of Social facilitation This doesn’t make since because they are not really evaluating you and they don’t care! Zions: research with cockroaches. This makes since for humans but it is also seen in other animals too! This is when people think that other people are judging them on their performance and they become aroused which causes dominate responses. Social facilitation: affect others have on your behavior during a certain task or performance. This performance can be helped or hindered. Conditioning that leads to the contrast effects. Our past conditioning leads us to have expectations even if they are wrong or right. We can see that the contrast effect only occurs when an outgroup member behaves inconsistently with the out group members. Atypical: notice them and don’t think of them as the out group but a subgroup. Typical: you are seeing them as the stereotype and then you will not notice them. (Catch 22 as stated above) Any effect on your performance (No matter what that is) when the presence of others affects that performance Facilitate means to help, improve ad increase. But we are no longer talking about that! Now we are talking about any effect of performance. Get that straight! Drive theory of: Social Facilitation= Performance impairment Dominant response incorrect Presence of others heightens arousal [Enhances our tendency to perform dominant responses] Performance enhanced Dominant response correct A dominant response is your most likely behavior. There can be dominant correct responses like not sweating profusely when speaking. In heightened arousal situations fight or flights can happen! But this is a different beast Sometimes the presence of others help your performance and sometimes they worsen it and this discussion is talking about why. Diffusion of responsibility Social Impact: similar to diffusion of responsibility. (Reason for Social Loafing) o With the tug-a-war people the amount of the force directed at the group is distributed among the members. The larger the group the less force each individual will feel. Then we end up decreasing our expenditure of effort as the group number increases. Social Loafing: reducing your effort when you are in a group setting = the people in the group project that that one person doesn’t do any work. During group projects when you have that one person who is doing less work because they will get away with it. In a group situation then people will put in less effort. To get away from this we make each participant’s contribution to the group identifiable so that no one will be getting away with not doing much. Assigning tasks. Ex: tug-a-war Larger the group the less effort each individual puts forward. Cohesiveness: (group cohesiveness) sticking together and being a unit in things that will make the group stronger and be more of a unit. Strength in a similar group. The strength of the bond of people who are members of the same group. Groupthink: get into a group like in a board room in a club and you are trying to come to a decision you don’t want to rock the boat. You want to be consistent and supportive and not go against the group. You don’t want to point out negative things. You don’t speak up when you should have. Going along with everyone to maintain consistency. This is the group decision making when no one wants to cause disagreement in the group so they all agree and go along with others because they don’t want to be criticized or evaluated by others views or positions on the matter. Group polarization: In a board room discussing an issue you will be more polarized. When discussing and all agree they will make opinions more extreme when the group discussion is all in support of it. When group members get more excited about the side of the issue they were already for because of a discussion with people in their group.
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