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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Emily McIlhattan

Exam 2 Study Guide OBHR 330

Marketplace > Purdue University > OBHR 330 > Exam 2 Study Guide
Emily McIlhattan
GPA 3.72
Organizational Behavior and Human Resources
Christine L. Jackson

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About this Document

This study guide includes-outline of the book chapters, lecture notes (in blue) to go with the chapters, and example questions of what will be seen on the exam
Organizational Behavior and Human Resources
Christine L. Jackson
Study Guide
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily McIlhattan on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to OBHR 330 at Purdue University taught by Christine L. Jackson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 381 views.


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Date Created: 03/08/15
OBHR Exam 2 Study Guide Book Outline Lecture input Examples and some example questions Managing a Global Case 0 Information 0 James Created and manages a 45 member team spread across four countries 0 Limited face time Asynchronous communication 0 Diverse in everything time zone culture size geographic location 0 High interdependence how frequently do they need to interact and how is that the right mode of communication they use audio not visual 0 Little overlap between teams in terms of work hours Performance problem nger pointing Barriers in communication between teams queuing system tension Coordination issues Communication weekly conference calls could possible do independent team calls 0 What went wrong 0 Due to what use relative course concepts 0 Placetime model Adv and Disadvantages Same Time Same Place Face to face 0 Advantages 0 Provides richer cues 0 Less of a psychological distance 0 Best to use when 0 Team initially forms 0 Needs to buildrebuild rapport and trust 0 Needs to resolve con icts 0 Must tackle complex prblems o Commitments to key decisions are needed Disadvantages 0 Not always the best form of communication think back to brainstorming e0e might shy away from expressing their thoughts SameTime Different Place Telephone Video Conference 0 Advantages 0 Better preparation by team members Can reduce micromanaging Increases creativity Accountability can be higher Somewhat convenient for distributed 0000 teams Disadvantages 0 Greater psychological distance Lack of realtime social cues Cohesion is consistently lower Loss of informal communication Out of the loop employees Con icts are less likely to be expressed Can take longer to make decisions Cultural language and location OOOOOOO differences Different Time Different place Email Voice Mail 0 Advantages convenient equalizer open Disadvantages o No visual cues at all 0 People forget etiquette 0 Social norms are not as strong 0 Members contribute asynchronously Social Categorization people distinguish themselves from others by creating ingroupoutgroup categories us vs them rather than we o Ingroup members view other ingroup members as more alike and favorably as opposed to outgroup members 0 Undermines ability to entire team to work as a cohesive unit Example Question is operating when people distinguish themselves from others by creating ingroupoutgroup categories us vs them rather than quotwequot along some common characteristic such as nationality or gender A Groupthink B Hidden pro le effect C Social categorization D Deeplevel diversity Mutual Knowledge Problem without shared experience such as a workplace and shared information team members will nd that they are interpreting tasks and processes very differently members don t know what information others possess nor are they able to know how collegaues will interpret what they say no common context Trust huge willingness to be vulnerable to a party based on positive expectations about the party s actions and intentions Trustworthiness competence benevolence do they care about each other or is it driven by self interest integrity character as humans we always go to the negative 0 Create opportunities to build values 0 Con ict Team inputsdiversity 0 Fault lines members attributes that are correlated within a group instead of cutting across different groups nationality language language 0 Team Identity fault lines decrease identity with overarching team Everest Simulation 0 Common Information Effect teams tend to discuss what everyone already knows focus on shared rather than unique information 0 Hidden Pro le Effect superior decision alternative is hidden from members because each member has only a portion of the information that supports this superior alternative unless groups share information in a complete and nonarbitrary fashion overall harms group decision making 0 Ex Medical Diagnosis Study Chapter 16 Organizational Culture Organizational Culture shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules norms and values that shape the attitudes and behaviors of its employees lncuded in description values attitudes shared beliefs Glass Door EX Zappos CEO s office is right there in with the employees stairway to culture super open environmet Affects everything else within the integrative Model of OB Culture social knowledge among members of the organization employees learn about most important aspects of culture through other employees transfer of knowledge through explicit communication simple observation Shared knowledge members of the organization understand and have a degree of consensus regarding what the culture is Cultures tells employees what the rules norms and values are within an organization Evidence that your individual goals and values will grow over time to match those of the organization for which you work Three major Cultural Components 1 Observable artifactsexternal manifestations of an organization s culture that employees can easily see or talk about supply the signals that employees interpret to gauge how they should act during the workday supply primary means of transmitting an organization culture to the workforce a Symbols corporate logo images on the website i Ex Employee of the month signs Example Question An organization39s corporate logo is an example of a A symbol B belief C value D ritual b Physical structures does top mgmt work in a separate section of the building open work environment i A manufacturer has a cellular layout with groupings of workers and several machines in each quotpodquot c Language jargon slang and slogans used within the organization i Ex Lockhead Martin s slogan is quotWe never forget who we re working forquot d Stories anecdotes accounts legends myths that are passed down from cohort to cohort i Ex Legend has it that a former assembly worker at the company suggested a small improvement in the manufacturing process that saved the company millions of dollars a year and he was rewarded with a 10 bonus on the companies savings Example Question consists of anecdotes accounts legends and myths that are passed down from cohort to cohort within an organization A Rituals Stories C Values D Language e Rituals daily or weekly planned routines that occur in an organization i Ex Every Friday XYZ co is causal Friday and employees are asked to bring in a potluck dish to share in the cafeteria f Ceremonies formal events usually performed in front of an audience of organization members 2 Espoused values explicit beliefs philosophies and norms that a company explicitly states range from published documents vision or mission statement to verbal statements a Ex On LL Bean s website it states their quotGolden Rule Sell merchandise at a reasonable pro t treat your customers like human beings and they will always come back for morequot b EX Patagonia quotLet me people surfquot 0 Organizational culture really comes from the topdown if you want a good idea about the culture of a company talk to the CEO Example Question Quest lnc has a sign hanging in every employee39s cubicle that reads quotTogether we are greater than any one of usquot This is an example of an A ritual B espoused value C enacted value D basic underlying assumption 3 Basic underlying assumptions the core very hard to get at takenforgranted beliefs and philosophies that are so ingrained that employees simply act on them rather than questioning the validity of their behavior in a given situation represent the deepest and least observable part of a culture an may not be consciously apparent even to organizational veterans a EX in companies that value innovation risks will be taken and mistakes will be made General Culture Types 1 U39Ilgt Fragmented culture employees are distant and disconnected from one another low solidarity low sociability Mercenary employees think alike but aren t friendly to one another everyone out for themselves Networked cultures in which all employees are friendly but everyone thinks differently Communal friendly employees who all think alike Zappos Customer Service Culture focused on service quality change employees attitudes and behaviors toward customers higher customer satisfaction and sales Safety Culture reduce accidents and increase safetybased citizenship behaviors car companies a Ex At the entrance to the plant there is a large electronic sign that reads quotThis plant has worked days without a lost time accidentquot 7 Diversity culture a Ex A company s website states quotBy embracing an inclusive culture that supports diverse talent our people collaborate successfully and enable us to compete effectively in the global marketplacequot b Apple individuality and excellence innovation secrecy culture 8 Creativity affect both quantity and quality of creative ideas in an organization a Ex in the design engineering department at Jokhari Designs a sign reads quotAnyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything newquot Culture strength employees de nitely agree about the way things are supposed to happen within the organization high consensus and when their subsequent behaviors are consistent with those expectations high intensity take a long time to develop and are difficult to change not always good 0 Advantages of a strong culture creating stability within the organization facilitating desired behaviors among the employees and differentiating the organization from others subcultures unite a smaller subset of employees exist when the overall organizational culture is supplemented by another culture governing more speci c set of employees more likely to exist in large organizations than they are in small companies 0 Think Krannert difference between undergraduate and graduate students Countercultures values don t match the values of the organization AttractionSelectionAttrition ASA Framework potential employees will be attracted to organizations whose cultures match their own personality meaning that some potential job applicants wont apply due to a perceived lack of t Socialization primary process in which employees learn the social knowledge that enables them to understand and adapt to the organizations culture begins before an employee starts working and doesn t end until an employee leaves an organization 0 Anticipatory Stage prior to an employee starting work starts the moment an employee hears the name of the organization Encounter stage begins the day an employee starts work Reality shock mismatch of information quotworking at this company is not nearly what I expected it to bequot Understanding and Adaptation newcomers come to learn the content areas of socialization and internalize the norms and expected behaviors of the organization important part is change on the part of the employee they have adopted goals and values of the organization understands what the organization has been through and can converse with others in the organization using technical language and speci c terms that only insiders would understand Changes in Organizational Culture 1 Changes in leadership no bigger driver of culture set the tone and sustain or drive change 2 Mergers and Acquisitions a Merger there is no way to tell how the company culture will look after merging two function of both strength and how similar they are hardly ever results in a strong culture b Acquisition in most cases the company doing the acquiring has the dominant culture and expects the other one to adapt Importance of Organizational Culture Fit 0 Personorganization fit degree to which a person s personality and values match the culture of an organization judge t by thinking about the values they prioritize the most then judging whether the organization shares those values 0 Good fit higher levels of job satisfaction less stress higher levels of trust Realistic Job Previews one of the most inexpensive and effective ways of reducing early turnover among new employees in anticipatory stage in recruitment process Newcomer orientation session attended by new employees to get them a better feel for the company Mentoring juniorlevel employees prot g develop a deep and long lasting relationship with a more seniorlevel employee mentor within the organization Chapter 11 Teams characteristics and diversity 0 There is an I in team as many l s as there is team members different personalities backgrounds upbringings values make them unique but also may pose difficulties 0 Team consists of two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some taskoriented purpose 0 In class example the survival game 0 Group decisions are often determined by the most persuasive individual as opposed to the best o It is often the least persuasive person who makes the best decision individual score even a minority can build up support by actively asserting themselves Synergy how cohesive is your team how good was it at coming together and improving the overall situation 0 Conformity tendency to pattern one s beliefs or behavior after others dur to social pressures majority rule desire for consensus evaluation apprehension selfcensorship Dominant members hard to control persuade threaten persist in their point of view usually dominate group Winningavoiding arguments Types determined by degree of member involvement life span of team and purpose of team 1 Work teams designed to be relatively permanent produce goods or provide services and they generally require full time commitment from their members long lifespan high member involvement selfmanaged work team production team maintenance team sales team a Ex Ocean s EIeveIO high task interdependence and high outcome interdependence creates complexities 2 Management designed to be relatively permanent participate in manageriallevel tasks that affect entire organization coordinating the activities of organization subun s 3 Parallel composed of members from various jobs who provide recommendations to managers about important issues that run parallel to the organization s production process only require parttime commitment a The hospital s Grievance Committee is comprised of members from various departments and is responsible for reviewing patient grievances and making recommendations to promptly resolve those compaints 4 Project formed to take on onetime tasks that are generally complex and require a lot of input from members with different types of training and expertise exist only as long as it takes to nish the project 5 Action perform tasks that are normally limited in duration tasks are quite complex and take place in contexts that are either highly visible to an audience or of highly challenging nature 0 They can vary with respect to the degree to which they have autonomy and are selfmanaged 0 Virtual teams members are geographically dispersed interdependent activity occurs through electronic communications Forming members orient themselves by trying to understand their boundaries Storming members remain committed to ideas they bring with them to the team Norming members realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals they begin to cooperate with one another Performing members are comfortable working within their roles team makes progress toward goals Lloyd s new product development team is nally quothitting on all cylindersquot Its members are working together smoothly trust each other and are mutually committed to the objectives of the team Adjourning anxiety and other emotion as they disengage and ultimately separate the team 0 Punctuated equilibrium members make assumptions and establish a pattern of behavior that lasts for the rst half of its life continues to dominate the team s behavior as it settles into a sort of inertia mid way point in project they change the task paradigm When the auction committee was formed they quickly worked out task goals and how they planned to proceed However after a couple of months it became apparent that their original plan was inadequate so they revised their plans and set off In a new direction Task lnterdependence the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for information materials and resources needed to accomplish work for the team Pooed lnterdependence group members complete their work assignments and then this work is simply quotpiled upquot to represent the group s output Sequential interdependence different tasks are done in a prescribed order and the group is structured such that the members specialize in these tasks a EX a relay race in which each runner must pass the baton to the next runner on the team Reciprocal Interdependence members are specialized to perform speci c tasks instead of a strict sequence of activities members interact with a subset of other members to complete the team s work Comprehensive interdependence requires the highest level of interaction and coordination among members as they try to accomplish work each member has a great deal of discretion in terms of what they do and with whom they interact in the course of the collaboration involved in accomplishing the team s work Goal interdependence team members have a shared vision of the team s goal and align their individual goals with that vision as a result mission statements a To inspire team spirit the new product development team had tshirts printed with the motto quotWhen we dream alone it is only a dream When we dream together it s the beginning of realityquot Outcome interdependence linked to one another in terms of feedback and outcomes they receive as a consequence of working in the team tea m extra Team members share in the rewards the team earns pay bonuses time off etc Inputoutput model team inputs l team process loss team output l team process gain 0 Production blocking coordination loss everyone talking hurts the ow of information Synergy what can be gained by interacting with each other above the average of the group members process gain Taskwork Processes 0 Performance on Production tasks productivity quality efficiency Decision tasks sound accurate decisions Creativity tasks new and innovative ideas Satisfaction are team members more satis ed than frustrated with experience Viability does the team break itself in completing the process Could they function going forward on different projects Learning dud the team experience provide growth and development and opportunities for the individual common to put new employees on a team for training and development new employees to learn from olderseasoned employees Composition The mix of people who make up the team knowledge skills abilities and personalities Sixe one of these most important factors if its political teams are much larger than needed 5 aspects 1 Role pattern of behavior that a person is expected to display in a given text taskfocused activities that de ne what the individual members are supposed to do a Leaderstaff teams the leader makes decisions for the team and provides direction and control over members who perform assigned tasks so this distinction makes sense in that the responsibilities of the leader and the rest of the team are distinct b Team task roles behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of team tasks i Orienter ii Devil s advocate iii Energizer c Teambuilding roles in uence the quality of the team s social culture i Harmonizer ii Encourager iii Compromiser iv GatekeeperExpeditor During the team meeting Mark spoke up quotI m noticing that we haven t heard from Devon this morning Devon what are your thoughts on our proposal d lndividualistic roles bene t the individual at the expense of the team i Aggressor ii Recognition seeker iii Dominator 2 Member ability both physical and cognitive a Disjunctive tasks tasks with an objectively veri able best solution the member who possesses the highest level of the ability relevant to the task will have the most in uence on the effectiveness of the team b Conjunctive teams performance depends on the weakest link c Additive contributions from all team members 3 Member personality 4 Diversity degree to which members are different form one another in terms of any attribute that might be used by someone as a basis for categorizing people a Value in diversity problemsolving approach diversity is bene cial and positive larger pool of knowledge and resource and perspectives b Similarityattraction approach diversity has detrimental effects because people are drawn to people similar to them i Surfacelevel diversity race ethnicity sex age fault lines informal subgroups develop from these ii Deeplevel diversity diversity with respect to attributes that are less easy to observe initially but that can be inferred after more direct experience attitudes values personality 5 Team Size really depends on the team a Management and project teams could bene t from additional resources b Production teams would become more dif cult and more miscommunication with additional members Team viability likelihood that the team can work together effectively into the future members of a team with low viability are more apt to be looking ahead to the team s ultimate demise Hybrid outcome interdependence members receive awards that are dependent on both their team s performance and how well they perform as individuals Chapter 12 Team processes and communication 0 Team process term that re ects the different types of communication activities and interactions that occur within teams that contribute to their ultimate end goals rst nd the critical members than create the team around them 0 Process gain getting more from the team than you would expect according to the capabilities of its individual members Synergy most critical in situations in which the complexity of the work is high or when tasks require members to combine their knowledge skills and efforts to solve problems EX in class survival exercise 0 Process loss getting less from the team than you would expect based on the capabilities of its individual members Coordination loss coordinating activities consumes time and energy that would otherwise be devoted to task activity Production blocking occurs when members have to wait on one another before they can dot their part of the team task Motivational loss loss in team productivity that occurs when team members don t work as hard as they could 0 When the RampD department was small Rom felt he was really contributing to the success of the company s products Now there are so many people involved that he no longer feels he s making a difference and his performance suffers Social Loa ng feelings of reduces accountability cause members to exert less effort when working on team tasks that they would if they worked alone on those same tasks 0 Delphi Technique 0 Variant of NGT Whole processes proceed through questionnaires followed by feedback that can be computerized Take away that facetoface can be time consuming Example Question The technique is a group process that proceeds through questionnaires and is ideal for teams whose members are geographically dispersed or have high levels of con ict with the main disadvantage being that it is time consuming A Electronic Brainstorming B Stepladder C Nominal group D Delphi 0 Divergent vs Convergent thinking 0 Teams are much less pro cient at divergent thinking because of conformity pressures Brain writing jot down all your ideas before the meeting starts stops chaos l Nominal Group Technique Teams excel at convergent thinking because teams are better at judging the quality of ideas Effective design would be to separate the generation of ideas as individuals form evaluation and discussion of ideas as a team Taskwork Processes activities of team members that relate directly to the accomplishment of team tasks occurs any time that team members interact with the tools or technologies that are used to complete their work 0 Creative behavior focused on generating novel and useful ideas and solutions drive in part by the individual members 0 Brainstorming facetoface meeting of team members in which each offers as many ideas as possible about some focal problem or issue Express all ideas that come to mind Go for quantity over quality Don t criticize or evaluate the ideas of others Build on the ideas 0 Lecture rules 0 No criticism 0 Encourage freewheeling o Piggyback ideas 0 Encourage many ideas EX IDEO brainstorming other companies hire them to teach them how to brainstorm uency and exibility build a brainstorming culture and create energy 0 Nominal group technique Solution to adverse effects of brainstorming process starts off by bringing the team together and outlining the purpose of the meeting the next step takes place on an individual level then team then individual etc Example Question The nominal group technique incorporates both and activities in generating ideas and deciding on the best alternative A groupthink social loa ng B decision informity production blocking C transactive memory transformative memory D individual team 0 Decision making decisions result form interaction among team members work together to reach a consensus or general agreement among members in regards to the nal solution 0 Discussions are usually unstructured ideals which are generated and evaluated simultaneously a tendency to search for a solution before the problem is clearly understood Decision informity ability to make effective decisions re ects whether members possess adequate information about their own task responsibilities Staff validity degree to which members make good recommendations to the leader Hierarchical sensitivity re ects the degree to which the leader effectively weighs recommendations of the members 0 Boundary Spanning involves three types of individuals and groups other than those part of the team Ambassador activities communications that are intended to protect the team persuade other to support the team or obtain important resources for the team typically communicate with people who are higher up in the organization Task coordinator activities communications that are intended to coordinate taskrelated issues with people or groups in other functional areas Scout activities things team members do to obtain information about technology competitors or broader marketplace Teamwork Processes interpersonal activities that facilitate the accomplishment of the teams work but do not directly involve task accomplishment itself behaviors that create the setting or context in which task work can be carried out 0 Transition focus on preparation for future work Mission analysis analysis of teams task challenge that faces the team and resources available Strategy formulation development of course of action and contingency plans then adapting the plans Goal specification development and prioritization of goals related to the team s mission and strategy 0 Preparation stage 0 Action important as taskwork is being accomplished most of the team work should be done outside of the team meetings Monitoring progress toward goals charting the teams performance relative to goals 0 Ex Mark posts a chart in the lunchroom that shows the team s headway in meeting its productivity objectives Systems monitoring keep track of things that the team needs to accomplish its work 0 Karen carefully keeps tracks of the teams progress to makes sure that the project will be completed on time Helping behavior members going out of their way to help or back up other team members feedback or coaching Members of the team know tat if they run into trouble with a task their team members are always ready to offer assistance Coordination refers to synchronizing team members activities in a way that makes them mesh effectively and seamlessly Perry makes sure that everyone on the team has constant access to the information and resources they need to do their part of the team s work 0 Interpersonal important before during or between periods of taskwork related to the manner in which team members manage their relationships be dynamic communicate Motivating and con dence building Affect Management foster a sense of emotional balance and unity Con ict management involves the activities that the team uses to manage con icts that arise in the course of its work 0 Relationship con ict disagreements among team members in terms of interpersonal relationships or incompatibilities with respect to personal values or preferences 0 Task Con ict disagreements among members about the teams task Communication process by which information and meaning gets transferred from a sender to a receiver Sender source of information may use verbal or written language as well as nonverbal language and cues to Encode created into a Message which is transmitted to the Receiver and Decoded or interpreted 0 Issues lack of communication competence the skills involved in encoding transmitting and receiving messages Emotions and emotional intelligence impact how people express themselves and can also cloud their interpretation of information receive from others Noise interferes with the message being transmitted Information richness amount and depth of information that gets in a message transmitted through facetoface channels have their highest level of information richness conveying the message through body language and tone of voice Network structure pattern of communication that occurs regularly among each member of the team Centralization degree to which the communication in a network ows through some members rather than others more the communication ows through fewer members of the team the higher the degree of this All channel highly decentralized every member can communicate with every other member Wheel highly centralized all communication ows through a single member Circle and Y Team States speci c types of feelings and thoughts that coalesce in the minds of team members as a consequence of their experience working together Psychological safety sense that it is OK to do things that are interpersonally risky or that expressing opinions and making suggestions that challenge the status quo wont be met with embarrassment and rejection at the hands of teammates Cohesion emotional attachment high levels of motivation and commitment however members might try to maintain harmony above all else which can be detrimental o Groupthink drive towards conformity no one wants to challenge the status quo Potency degree to which members believe that the team can be effective across a variety of situations and tasks members are con dent in themselves and teammates and when the team has experienced success in the past Mental Models level of common understanding among team members with regard to important aspects of the team and its tasks when member shave shared understanding of which processes are necessary to help the team be effective 0 The heart transplant team at a regional hospital has been working together for so long that they seem to be able to anticipate one another s moves They know each other s capabilities and have a mutual understanding of the roles each member must perform during a successful transplant surgery Transactive Memory how specialized knowledge is distributed among members in a manner that results in an effective system of memory for the team Research indicates that teamwork processes have a strong positive relationship with team commitment 1 Transportable teamwork competence trainees can transport what they learn about teamwork from one team context and apply it in another 2 Crosstraining training members in the duties and responsibilities of their teammates develop shared mental models of what is involved in each of the roles in the team and how the roles t together to form a system 0 Personal clari cation shallowest members simply receive information regarding the roles of the other team members 0 Positional Modeling involves team members observing how other members perform their roles o Positional Rotation deepest level of crosstraining members are given actual experience carrying out the responsibilities of their teammates 3 Team process training occurs in the context of a team experience that facilitates the team being able to function and perform more effectively as an intact unit a Action learning team is given a real problem that is relevant to the organization then held accountable for analyzing the problem developing an action plan and nally carrying out the action plan b Team building conducted by a consultant intended to facilitate the development of team processes related to goal setting interpersonal relations problem solving and role clari cation like a ropes course Chapter 14 Leadership style and behaviors Leadership use of power and in uence to direct the activities of follower toward goal achievement can affect follower interpretation of events Leadermember exchange theory describes how leadermember relationships develop over time on a dyadic basis can explain why those difference exist Example Question In the leadermember exchange theory the dyad is marked by the frequent exchange of information in uence latitude support and attention A role taking B lowquality exchange C intrinsic D highquality exchange 0 Role taking manager describes role expectations to an employee and the employee attempts to ful ll those expectations with his or herjob behaviors 0 Role Making the employer s own expectations for the dyad get mixed with those of the leader 0 Leader effectiveness degree to which the leader s actions result in the achievement of the unit s goals the continued commitment of the unit s employees and the development of mutual trust respect and obligation in leadermember dyads Leader emergence who becomes the leader in the rst place many traitleadership correlation are weak in magnitude particularly when leader effectiveness erves as an outcome and focus on leader traits hold less practical relevance than a focus onleaderacUons Styles of Leadership Autocratic leader makes the decision alone without asking for the opinion or suggestions of the employees in the work unit Example Question In the timedriven model of leadership which style is reserved for decisions that are insigni cant or where employee commitment is unimportant or when the leader s expertise is high and the leader is trusted A Autocratic B Consultative C Delegative D Facilitative Consultant leader present the problem to individual employees or a group of employees asking for their opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decision him or herself Facilitative leader present problem to a group and seeks consensus on a solution making sure that their opinion receives no more weight than anyone else s Delegative gives an individual or group of employees the responsibility for making the decision within some set of speci ed boundary conditions leader play no role in the deliberation process Timedriven Model of Leadership suggests that the focus should shift away from autocratic consultative facilitative and delegative leaders to these but situations seven factors Decision signi cance Importance of commitment Leader expertise Likelihood of commitment Shared objective Employee expertise Teamwork skills FP P FP NE Autocratic styles are reserved for decisions that are insigni cant or for which employee commitment is unimportant only exception is when the leader s expertise is high and the leader is trusted Delegative reserved for circumstances in which employees have strong team work skills and are not likely to commit blindly to whatever decision the leader provides Consultative and Facilitative more nuanced and requires a more complete consideration of all seven factors Leaders send their time engaging ina mix of initiating organizing producing socializing integrating communicating recognizing and representing behaviors 1 Initiating structure re ects the extent to which the leader de nes the structures the roles of employees in pursuit of goal attainment leaders who have high of this play a more active role in directing group activities and prioritizing planning scheduling and trying out new ideas 0 Strong positive relationship with employee motivation and moderate positive relationships with perceived leader effectiveness employee job satisfaction and overall unit performance 2 Consideration re ects the extent to which leaders create job relationships characterized by mutual trust respect for employee ideas and consideration of employee feelings climate of goof rapport Consideration had a strong positive relationship with perceived leader effectiveness employee motivation and employee job satisfaction and moderate positive relationship with overall unit performance 0 Life cycle theory of leadership situation model of leadership argues that the optimal combination of intiatiing structure and consideration depends on the readiness of the employees in the work unit o Readiness the degree to which employees have the ability and willingness to accomplish their speci c tasks 0 Telling the leader provides speci c instructions and closely supervises performance 0 Selling high initiating structure and high consideration leader supplements his or her directing with support and encouragement to protect the con dence levels of the employees employees have learned to work together well though they still need support and collaborating o Participating low initiating low consideration leader turns responsibility for key behaviors over to the employees 0 Transformational Leadership inspiring followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work while also serving as a role model who helps followers develop their own potential and view problems from new perspectives the way followers view their work is what gets transformed causing them to focus on the collective good more than just their own shortterm selfinterest o More motivational approach to leadership Laissezfaire handsoff avoidance of leadership all together Transactional occurs when the leader rewards or disciplines the follower depending on the adequacy of the follower s performance 0 Carrot and stick approach Passive mgmt by exception leader waits around for mistakes and errors then takes corrective action Active mgmt by exception leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively then takes action Contingent reward more active and effective brand of transactional leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be done using promised or actual rewards in exchange for adequate performance 0 ldealized in uence behaving in ways that earn the admiration trust and respect of followers causing followers to want to identify with and emulate the leader quotThe leader instills pride in me for being associated with himherquot Charisma Example Question Which of these involves behaving in ways that earn the admiration trust and respect of followers causing followers to want to identify with and emulate the leader A ldealized in uence B Inspirational motivation C D Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration 0 Inspirational motivation behaving in ways that foster an enthusiasm for and commitment to a shared vision of the future meaningmaking process in which the negative features of the status quo are emphasized while highlighting the positive features of the potential future quotthe leader articulates a compelling vision of the futurequot Intellectual stimulation behaving in ways that challenge followers to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions and reframing old situations in new ways quotthe leader gets others to look at problems form different anglesquot Individualized consideration behaving in ways that help followers achieve their potential through coaching development and mentoring treating employees as unique individuals with speci c needs abilities and aspirations that need to be tied into the unit s mission quotthe leader spends time teaching and coachingquot 0 Employees with transformational leaders have higher levels of motivation stronger sense of psychological empowerment and are more selfcon dent o Substitutes for leadership model certain characteristics of the situation can constrain the in uence of the leader making it more dif cult for the leader to in uence employee performance 0 Can be used to explain why a leader who does the right things doesn t seem to be making a difference 0 Explain what to do if an ineffective person is in a leadership role with no immediate replacement Substitutes reduce the importance of the leader while simultaneously providing a direct bene t to employee performance task feedback professionalism group cohesion Example Question reduces the importance of the leader while simultaneously providing a direct bene t to employee performance A Substitutes B Transactions C Neutralizers D None of the above Neutralizers reduce the importance of the leader they themselves have no bene cial impact on performance task stability formalization in exibility spatial distance 0 Leadership Training focuses on transformational leadership content 0 Despite cutbacks rms invest in leadership training httponlinewsjcoma rticleSB123395874246058397html o In times of crisis it s imperative to identify and groom high potential HP employees Costcutting actions decreasing morale and commitment esp for top performers Leadership training gains urgency amid stronger economy httponlinewslcomarticleSB1000142405274870331490 4575399260976490670htm 0 Firms scramble to develop HP employees for management positions Shortage due to layoffs turnover retirement


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.