PY 370 Exam 4 Study Guide
PY 370 Exam 4 Study Guide PY 370
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mackenzie Diaz on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Wyley Shreves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 217 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Chapter 10: Theoretical and Applied Psychology After the Great War st Francis Cecil Sumner was the 1 African American to get a PhD in psychology Early Chinese psychology in the 2oth century was heavily influenced by Japanese scholars Name at least 3 obstacles that American women choosing a career in psychology faced in the 1920s Social tradition; gender prejudice; and the common practice of allocating women to assisting positions. On the basis of measurements of the Army Testing Proj ect, psychologists wanted to create categories of the recruits according to their ______ mental abilities A particular issue w/which the physicians at Ellis Island had to contend during testing procedure was the identification of cases of mental deficiency Name the difference between the Alpha & Beta tests The Army Alpha Test was designed for literate groups and the Army Beta for those who were illiterate, had very poor English written skills, or were non-English speakers. The Alpha test contained eight subtests on analogies, questions on everyday judgments, understanding of directions given, simple arithmetic problems, and so on. The Beta test included picture completion, drawing, and symbol recognition. What was the popular belief about the sources o f human intelligence? it was believed to be inherited Mental surveys were designed to study mental capacity Psychologists at the Iowa Child Welfare Station studied mainly ordinary children What was the contribution of the Iowa Child Welfare Station t o the nature- nurture debate? IQ could be changed by deliberate effort in a particular social and education environment. Where was the Hawthorne manufacturing plant? Chicago Who is a founder of sports psychology in the US? Coleman Griffith What is the Hawthorne effect? A positive effect of properly organized work relationships on workers’ productivity and satisfaction. What were Vygotsky’s university degrees? Law & history/philosophy What is cultural medication in Vygotsky’s theory of human consciousness? Every psychological function, thinking as an example, appears twice. First, It is an “outside” social activity or learning. Second, this learning is internalized as thinking. Human consciousness therefore should be underst ood in the context of interaction of an individual with the outside world. The essence of human consciousness is in its unity with the cultural environment. What are the practical applications of Vygotsky’s idea of the zone of proximal development? Not only do teachers and parents follow and accommodate children but also challenge, accelerate, improve, and enhance their potential. The formal operations stage according to Piaget develops after age 11 Piaget spent most of his professional life at the University of Geneva What was the essence of Piaget’s interview method? Piaget asked children to solve certain problems or perform educational tasks. First, he would ask a child a standard question and record an answer. Then, he would ask the child additional, nonstandard questions based on the responses. Piaget emphasized the importance of giving full attention to the child, stressing listening, refraining from arguing, paying attention to what the child does, and helping the child say what she or he wants to say. Piaget’s main task was not only to record and interpret the child’s words but also to see how the words and sentences relate to the task that the child performs. What is genetic epistemology? Attempts to explain knowledge (scientific knowledge in particular) from the standpoint of knowledge’s history. A method requiring participants to explore their own internal conflicts through acting out their emotions in front of one another was called psychodrama What is the difference between personality & character? Character is rather a moral category. Personality refers to the objective self, the fundamental adjustment patterns that an individual forms over the course of his or her experience. What is the authoritarian personality? Such individuals are prone to mystical thinking and prejudice against particular social groups. They are obedient to authority figures, resistant to innovation, and prone to anger and violence. These individuals—because of their psychological features—eagerly accept limits on their freedom and accept social injustice. This term was coined by German psychologist William Stern and stood for the branch of applied psychology directed toward treatment of human problems: psychotechnics This was an approach initiated by Allport who argued that personality consists of a potent collection of qualities or traits trait theory In the Vygotsky’s system, the difference between a child’s learning progress with help or guidance and learning achievement without guidance of an adult is called zone of proximal development Vygotsky considered speech a special ________, which our ancestors acquired in the process of evolution tool Vygotsky is remembered as a founder of the field called special education Approximately in the 1920s, American psychologists generally accepted the term character to describe the moral aspect of behavior. Temperament referred largely to biological factors Muzafer Sherif showed in his experiments how people form _______________ or patterns of actions or judgments that influence the behavior of individuals later on. group norms Overall, the results of the Army Testing Project did not bring significant changes to the way the military selected and placed its recruits . True Researchers and practitioners as well as the general public in the United States in the early 20th century believed that human intelligence was socially determined False In collaboration with the National Research Council, the Western Electric Company conducted research at its Hawthorne-Bloomberg manufacturing plant in New York False Chather 11: Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis in the Mid - 20 Century Purposive or operational behaviorism is associated w/ Tolman Explain a cognitive map This is a type of internal processing by which individuals code, store, recall, and decode information about particular elements of their experience Main differences between the views of early behaviorists & ideas of John Watson? The “new” behaviorists introduced many new variables (environmental, biological, and psychological) to the traditional behaviorist S → R (stimulus–response) model What was Skinner’s major book? The Behavior of Organisms What did Skinner call the Skinner box? Experimental space What is the difference between Skinner’s box & Thorndike’s puzzle box? Thorndike timed how fast animals escaped from the puzzle box. Skinner’s experiments allowed him to change the experimental variables in precise terms—for example, the number of pellets given or the frequency of reinforcement. He designed measurable variables of experimental conditions and studied the following responses. What is the main idea in Beyond Freedom and Dignity? Skinner wrote that people are misguided in their overconfident belief in freedom. To solve mounting social problems, human beings have to choose the principles of behavioral conditioning. He argued that the problem was not freedom itself: Human cultures in the past had survived without freedom. The problem is in government institutions and elites that define freedom and make people blindly accept those definitions. Freedom, in fact, should come from scientists. They would show that human evolution was a gigantic exercise in self-control Psychoanalysts argued that in order to practice psychoanalysis, one must Have medical degree Who was Anna Freud? Youngest daughter To which field of child psych did Anna Freud contribute most? child’s clinical psychology Where was Erik Erikson born? Germany How many stages did Erikson propose were in individual development? 8 Who developed the concept of basic anxiety & what did it mean ? Karen Horney; the term to describe a person’s feelings of loneliness, hopelessness, and counterhostility, which is a person’s emotional response to intimidating situations. Such negative feelings originate during childhood and are based on the child’s relationships with parents What is TAT? The Thematic Apperception Test. A person undergoing testing is asked to tell a story about each of these pictures. The pictures are sufficiently vague to leave enough to the imagination of the person taking the test. By studying these stories, a trained psychologist reveals the true nature of the person’s hopes, wishes, or specific psychological prob lems Fromm believed that people followed the destructive paths: authoritarianism, destruction, & _______? conformity What is the main idea of Escape From Freedom? To be free from something or somebody, Fromm wrote, is not to be free completely. To be actually free, human beings have to embrace another kind of freedom: their ability to have power and resources to realize their own potential. Unfortunately, many people cannot embrace their freedom because they cannot cope with countless uncertain elements of freedom and choice. As a result, they try to avoid their freedom and escape from it. In Anna Freud’s system, specific unconscious structures that enable an individual to avoid awareness of anxiety-arousing issues are called: Defense mechanisms A branch of psychoanalysis focusing on a wide variety of facts related to a person’s interaction with the social environment. Ego psych In the Holt’s system, the response reaction that has something to do with the meaning of the situation, that is the way an animal or human interprets the situation, is called: Moral response Skinner trained these animals in a special defense-related project Pigeons Skinner designed and built various learning machines based on the concept of positive reinforcement. His inventions were generally: Card & plastic devices B.F. Skinner claimed that the alleged freedom that Americans thought they possessed was merely a set of conditioned reactions called: Consumerism According to Anna Freud, the defense of the ego is launched automatically and Remains mostly unconscious As Watson before him, Skinner excluded the subjective mental element from his investigation True In Germany, after the Nazi power came to power, psychoanalysis was prohibited as a “Jewish” science, and most therapists were forced to immigrate. True Anna Freud’s most influential book was The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense True Chapter 12: Humanistic & Cognitive Psych What was the main language of research psych after the 1940s? English What was the ‘progressive’ role for the psych envisioned in the 1960s? To make society better through science and its applications. Humanistic psych is referred to as the third force. What were the first two? Behaviorism & psychoanalysis What is existential therapy? This is the healing method based on the assumption that we, as human beings, make our own choices and should assume full responsibility for the outcomes of our behavior and our own feelings Where was Abraham Maslow born? Brooklyn What did B-values stand for? ‘Being Values’ Is it possible for every person to achieve self-actualization? No; many people lack knowledge and skills to achieve this level. What is person-centered therapy? This is an application of the person-centered approach to psychological therapy. Rogers taught therapists to show their clients genuineness, empathy, and unconditional positive regard. On the basis of these basic elements, the therapist creates a supportive, nonjudgmental environment in which clients are encouraged to think about their own problems, discuss them, prepare a course of action, and then reach their full potential A field that tries to understand ideological & psychological causes of war & develops educational programs to reduce the threat of violence is called Peace psychology Explain positive psychology A branch that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive What is narrative psych? It focuses on how published stories and essays shape lives. When was the cognitive revolution taking place? 1950s-1970s The author of Plans and the Structure of Behavior suggested studying ‘mental life’ from the standpoint of information What does T.O.T.E. stand for? test-operate-test-exit” Chomsky published an influential & critical review of which b ook? Verbal Behavior What was the main impact of Alan Turing on cognitive science? The brain has to use information from a variety of sources inside and outside the body. In the process, the brain has to store this information. This information is limited and measurable. Second, the brain uses this information to solve problems. Therefore, mental functions can be viewed as problem-solving operations, programs, or procedures. If the information is finite and measurable, then each and every problem that the brain solves using this information is essentially a mathematical one. Next, each problem-solving method should be based on a particular rule or algorithm. Each algorithm can be viewed as a computable operation. Overall, such computable operations should be sufficient to explain all mental functions that the brain performs What is Searle’s view of consciousness? Consciousness could be studied perfectly by physics or biology. Above all, consciousness is a biological phenomenon. Physiology causes consciousness. In other words, processes at the level of individual neurons and changes on the macrolevel of the whole brain produce consciousness. A complex medical and psychological system of help focusing on palliative and other humane principles of care is called: Hospice care What is the name of a clinical field that helps medical professionals to recognize, absorb, interpret, and be moved by the stories of illness? Narrative medicine George Miller noticed that the memory span of young adults was around 7 elements Alan Turing believed that mental functions can be viewed as Problem-solving operations Searle’s views can be summarized briefly as follows: lower level neuronal processes in the brain cause: consciousness One of the most essential points of criticism was cognitive psychology’s alleged preoccupation with which models of cognition? Digital Cognitive science—an interdisciplinary field that involves studies in neurophysiology, humanistic psychology, and introspection. False Existential psychology is a branch of existential philosophy True Continuously, since the mid-20th century, many psychologists from different countries were choosing the United States to study, work, and settle in. True Chapter 13: Focusing on Contemporary Issues Martin Seligman constructed a therapeutic procedure called positive psychotherapy based on the premise that the human mind is capable of changing itself. True Transpersonal psychology as a theoretical and applied field, focusing on business interactions False The main idea of evolutionary psychology is that certain elements of human behavior should be Biologically useful Psychologist Robert Krueger is developing a new approach to psychopathology based on the concept of Comorbidity A model of an ideal and perfect human society is usually called Social utopia A theory of the mind-body interaction suggesting the quantum nature of neurophysiological and psychological processes is called Quantum mind tradition
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