KIN 527 QUIZ TWO study guide
KIN 527 QUIZ TWO study guide KIN 527
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Xxxxxxx on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 527 at University of New Hampshire taught by Eric Morris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Scientific Foundations of Health and Fitness in Kinesiology at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Quiz #2 Study Guide▯ ▯ Key Concepts:▯ • Exercise in a hot environment: Since the muscles already produce heat as a byproduct of muscular contraction; when exercising in heat, the body produces excess heat that it must release in order to prevent a dangerous rise in body temperature.▯ • At high altitudes: lower barometric pressure limits the amount of oxygen transported in blood— less oxygen reaches muscles, therefore, exercise tolerance and VO2max are reduced and breathing gets deeper and faster, heart rate rises, the body will decrease its water content as a way of coping with the stress of altitude exposer.▯ • exercise has numerous beneﬁts for pregnant women (less weight gain, fewer discomforts, shorter labor) but do not participate in high risk injury sports, don’t lie on back.▯ • Fitness during older adulthood beneﬁts bone and joint health, since body fat increases with old age, exercise will keep it down.▯ • Chronic conditions associated with overweight and obesity: creeping obesity: a slow increase in body weight and percentage of fat over several years, and diabetes.▯ • Beneﬁts of a health weight: physical activity and everyday activities are easier, higher self-esteem, and lower risk of developing major chronic illness▯ • Health effects of too little body fat: malnutrition, loss of muscle mass and strength, increased risk of: osteoporosis, menstral abnormalities, anorexia nervosa and bulimia.▯ • Beneﬁts of ﬂexibility: increased joint mobility, efﬁcient body movement, good posture. Stretching DOES NOT protect muscle injury.▯ • Five factors that limit movements:▯ • 1) shape of bones▯ • 2) a stiff muscle▯ • 3) the connective tissue▯ • 4) tendons▯ • 5) tight skin▯ ▯ Vocabulary :▯ • Homeotherms: animals that regulate their body temperature to remain close to a set point. Humans regulate their body temperature around the set point of 98.6 F▯ • Heat cramps: muscle spams, twitching.▯ acclimatize: to undergo the physiological adaptations that help the body adjust to environmental • extremes.▯ • Convection: heat loss by the movement of air or water over the surface of the body▯ • Evaporation: the conversion of water (sweat) to a gas (water vapor); the most important means of releasing heat from the body during exercise.▯ • Humidity: the amount of water vapor in the air.▯ • Hypothermia: a signiﬁcant decline in body temperature due to exposure to cold. (results in: loss of judgement)▯ • Acute mountain sickness (AMS): headaches, nausea, weakness, dizziness▯ • ozone: a gas produced by a chemical reaction between sunlight and the hydrocarbons emitted from car exhausts. This is irritating to lungs and airways causing tightness in the chest, coughing, headaches, nasuea, throat and eye irritation, and bronchoconstriction.▯ • carbon monoxide: a gas produced during the burning of fossil fuels such as gasoline and coal; also present in cigarette smoke. Reduces blood’s oxygen carrying capacity ▯ • Sarcopenia: loss of skeletal muscle mass that occurs with aging▯ • Presbyopia: farsightedness that results from weakening of the eye muscles.▯ • Body composition: the relative amounts of fat and fat-free mass in the body▯ • Overweight: a weight above the recommended level for health.▯ • Obese: an excessive amount of fat in the body typically above 25% for men and 35% for women▯ • essential fat: body fat that is necessary for physiological functioning▯ • storage fat: excess fat reserves stored in the body’s adipose tissue▯ • adipose tissue: tissue where fat is stored in the body▯ • visceral fat: fat stored in the abdomen and around the organs▯ • subcutaneous fat: fat stored just beneath the skin▯ • android pattern: a pattern of fat distribution characterized by fat stored in the abdomen region; more common in men▯ gynoid pattern: a pattern of fat distribution characterized by fat stored in hips and thighs; more • common in women▯ • Body mass index (BMI): a ration of body weight (kg) divided by a height squared (m^2) used to determine whether a person is at a health body weight; BMI is related to the percentage of body fat.▯ • skinfold test: a ﬁeld test used to estimate body composition, representative samples of subcutaneous fat are measured using calipers to estimate the overall level of body fat.▯ • waist-to-hip ratio: a ratio of the was it and hip circumferences used to determine the risk for disease associated with the android pattern of obesity▯ duel energy X-ray absorptionmetry (DXA): a technique for assessing body composition using a low- • radiation X-ray; it is typically used in research or clinical settings and is considered a gold-standard measure.▯ • Hydrostatic weighing: a method determining body composition that involves weighing an individual on land and in a tank of water▯ • air displacement: a technique used to assess body composition by estimating body volume based on air displaced when a person sits in a chamber▯ • bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): a method of assessing body composition by running a low- level electrical current through the body▯ • Flexibility: the ability to move joints freely through their full range of motion▯ • Ligaments: connective tissue within the joint capsule that hold bones together▯ • Cartilage: a tough connective tissue that forms a pad on the end of long bones such as femur, tibia, humerus. Cartilage acts as a shock absorber to cushion the weight of home on another and to provide protection from the friction due to joint movement.▯ • Stretch reﬂex: involuntary contraction of a muscle due to rapid stretching of that muscle▯ • Muscle spindles: the type of proprioceptor found within muscle▯ • Proprioceptor: specialized receptor in muscle or tendon that provides feedback to the brain about the position of body parts▯ • Golgi tendon organs: the type of proprioceptor found within tendons▯ • Hypokinetic disease: a disease associated with a lack of exercise — lower back pain.▯ • Sit-and-reach test: a ﬁtness test that measures the ability to ﬂex the trunk. (lower back and hamstrings)▯ • Shoulder ﬂexibility test: a ﬁtness test that measures the ability of the shoulder muscles to move through their full range of motion.▯ • Dynamic stretching: stretching that involves moving the joints through full range of motion to mimic a movement used in a sport or exercise.▯ • Ballistic stretching: a type of stretch that involves sudden and forceful bouncing to stretch the muscles.▯ • Static stretching: stretching that slowly lengthens a muscle to a point where further movement is limited.▯ • Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF): a series of movements combining stretching with alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles.▯ • Antagonist: the muscle on the opposite side of a joint. (stretching this promotes a reﬂect reaction of the muscle)▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Creating your total ﬁtness and wellness plan▯ TOTAL FITNESS▯ • Step 1: Set your goals ▯ • short term goals, intermediate and long term goals, establish goals that can be measured, establish a reward system for achieving goals▯ • Step 2: select exercise for your ﬁtness program▯ • Cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, ﬂexibility, body composition▯ • Step 3: plan your weekly ﬁtness routine▯ • FITT Principle (Frequency, intensity, time, and type)▯ • Step 4: monitor your progress▯ • training log & charts▯ TOTAL WELLNESS▯ • Step 1: establish your goals (SMART)▯ • Step 2: select wellness concepts to build your wellness program▯ • diet, stress management, sexually transmitted infections, addiction and substance abuse, health-care choices▯ • Step 3: plan your behavior changes for wellness▯ • Step 4: monitor your process▯ keep a log & chart •
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