Final exam study guide
Final exam study guide PSY 2012
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Race on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2012 at Florida State University taught by Erica Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Psychology unit 1 study guide Psychology spans multiple levels of analysis Top Social Behavioral Mental Neurological Bottom neurochemical Molecular/ genetic effects Scientific skepticism- the approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them Correlation vs. causation- the lack of consistency between two events example emotions and the human heart Falsifiability- for a scientific claim to be meaningful, it must be capable of being disproven Hindsight bias- saying you knew something was going to happen after it already did The difference between pseudoscience and science - Pseudoscience lacks the safeguard against cognitive biases that characterize science The availability heuristic- estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds Scientific theory- explain observations about the experiment and predict new findings about the experiment Occam’s razor- a good theory is one that is the most simple explanation for the available data Naturalistic observation designs - observing and describing behavior in the real world setting Case study designs- studying one person for an extended period of time Experimental designs- allows one to make cause- and – effect inferences Important parts of a good experiment 1. Random assignment of participants - Experimental group - Control group 2. Independent variable and dependent variable Correlational designs- examine how two variables are related - Correlations vary from -1 to 1 and can be Positive= as one increases, so does the other Negative= as one increases, the other decreases Strongak Zero= no relationship between each other Confirmation bias- tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypothesis and neglect or distort contradicting evidence Belief perseverance- tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them Descriptive statistics- numerical characteristics of the nature of the data set. Institutional review board (IRB) – informed consent, protection from harm and discomfort, justification of deception, and debriefing. These things are sent in place to protect the participants of the experiment. Four levels of language analysis- 1. Phonemes, 2. Morphemes, 3. Syntax, and 4. Extra linguistic information Language development stages- babbling, one-word, and two-words Linguistic determinism- view that all thought is represented verbally and that, as a result, our language defines our thinking. Linguistic relativity- view that characteristics of language shape our thought processes Thinking is any mental activity or processing of information. Heuristics- mental shortcut to increase our thinking efficiency. It simplifies what we attend to do. Framing has an impact on decisions even when the underlying information relevant to these decisions is identical. Naïve realism- the belief that we see the world precisely as it actually is in truth-“seeing is believing” Unit 2 Reuptake- means of recycling neurotransmitters Plasticity- allows the structure and function of brain cells to change to adjust to the trauma Motor cortex- part of the frontal lobe responsible for movement Prefrontal cortex- associated with personality responsible for thinking, planning, and language Wernicke’s area- responsible for speech comprehension Amygdala- plays key roles in fear, excitement, and arousal Cerebellum- controls balance and coordinated movement Somatic nervous system- part of the nervous system that conveys info between the CNS and the body, controlling and coordinating voluntary movement. Parasympathetic nervous system- division of autonomic nervous system that controls rest and digest If the heritability of a particular trait is found to be 60%, then by definition the other 40% is due to differences in the persons environment Sensation- the detection of physical energy by our sense organs, which sends that info to the brain Transduction- process of the nervous system converting sensory info into electrical signals in neuron Sensory adoption- activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected Parallel processing- we attend to multiple senses at once Top-down processing- we impose our beliefs and exceptions on the stimuli we perceive A disorder of the inner ear would be most likely to impact our equilibrium Melatonex- affects one’s ability to sleep “melatonin” What does your body do while dreaming? Nothing Narcolepsy- the rapid and often unexpected on set of sleep Stimulants- a psychoactive drugs which increases activity within the nervous system Psychedelics- called hallucinogenic, produce dramatic alterations in perception, mood, and thought Behaviors such as flirting while using alcohol result primarily from an individual’s expectancies about the effects of alcohol The sequence of parts of a neuron that the impulse travels during conduction- dendrites, soma, axon, and axon terminal Sympathetic nervous system- division of the autonomic nervous system engaged during a crisis or after actions requiring fight or flight All the brain areas become active on brain scans at one time or another as we think, feel, and perceive Proprioception- the sense of our body position. Broca’s area- language production, written and spoken Parietal lobe- touch and perception Somatosensory cortex- sensitive to pressure, pain, and temperature Temporal lobe- hearing, understanding language, and store auto biographical memories Auditory lobe- sound/hearing Occipital lobe- vision Visual cortex- allows us to process what we see Basal ganglia- helps control movement Limbic system- the emotional center of the brain; also has a role in smell, motivation, and memory Thalamus- relay info from the sense organs to primary sensory cortex Hypothalamus- regulates and controls internal bodily states Hippocampus- plays a role in spatial memory Brainstem- connects the cerebral cortex and spinal cord; serves as a relay station between the cortex and nest of nervous system Mid brain- movement, tracking visual stimuli, sound reflexes Pons- connect cortex and cerebellum Medulia- basic function Spinal cord- conveys signals between brain and body Endocrine system- consist of glands that release hormones Hormones- molecules that influence particular organs Perception- the brains interpretation of the sensory Bottom up processing- construct a whole image from its parts Perceptual sets- occurs when our expectations influence our perceptions Selective attention- process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others Inattentional blindness- failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused else where Subliminal perception- the processing of sensory info that occurs below the level of conscious awareness Somatosensory- touch and pain Vestibular sense- equilibrium and balance Mechanoreceptors- specialized nerve endings in the skin Free nerve endings- touch, temperature, pain Consciousness- your awareness of yourself and your environment Circadian rhythm- our daily cyclic rhythm that lasts 24 to 25 hours, light triggers the increase or decrease of melatonin Insomnia- difficulty falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea- a blockage of the airway during sleep, resulting in daytime fatigue Stage 1- very drowsy, transition quickly to stage 2, theta waves Stage 2- brain waves and heart rate slows down, body temperature decreases, muscles relax Stage 3 and 4- large-amplitude delta waves became more frequent Rem sleep- stage 5, vivid dreams, quick eye movement, no body movement Nrem dreams- shorter, more thought like Rem dreams- emotional, illogical, biologically crucial Psychoactive drugs- chemicals that change perceptions and mood through actions at the neural synapses Depressants- alcohol and sedative Sedative-hypnotics- often prescribed to assist with anxiety or insomnia Narcotics- opiates that relieve pain and induce sleep Unit 3 Learning- change in an organism’s behavior or thought as a result of experience The two basic types of learning are: habitation and sensitization Associative learning- learn that 2 events occur together Ivan Pavlov- Russian physiologist and 1904 Nobel prize winner Unconditioned stimulus- stimulus that elicits an automatic response Conditioned stimulus- initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response – response previously associated with a non-neutral stimulus that is elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning Acquisition- the phase during which a Conditioned Response is established Extinction- the reduction and elimination of the conditioned response after the condition stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus Stimulus generalization- when similar conditioned stimulus’s elicit a conditioned response Stimulus discrimination- when we exhibit a conditioned response only to certain stimuli, not similar others Higher-order conditioning- developing a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus by venture of its association with another conditioned stimulus. Operant conditioning- learning controlled by the consequences of the organism’s behavior The law of effect- if we are rewarded for a response, we are more likely to repeat that response in the future E.L Thorndike- discovered principles of the law of effect after experimenting with cats in puzzle boxes B.F. Skinner- followed up on Watson’s and Thorndike’s work on behavior. Designed the skinner box to more effectively record activity. Reinforcement- outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior - Positive reinforcement- presentation of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior - Negative reinforcement - removing a stimulus that the organism wishes to experience Punishment- outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens the probability of the behavior - Positive punishment- administering a stimulus that the organism wishes to avoid - Negative punishment- removing a stimulus that the organism wishes to experience Does punishment work? – not as well as reinforcement, say many. Disadvantages of punishment- tells what not to do, creates anxiety, encourages subversive behavior, and may provide model for aggressive behavior. Schedule of reinforcement- refers to the pattern of delivering reinforcers Continuously reinforcement- the simplest, it happens every time Partial reinforcement- occurs when we reinforce responses only some of the time Applications of Operant conditioning- animal training using shaping by successive approximations and chaining; overcoming procrastination via the Premack principle Two-process theory of anxiety- begins by classical conditioning but is maintained by negative reinforcement Skinner’s view of cognitive models of learning- cognitive psychology invokes unobservable and ultimately meaningless concepts – like “mind” – to explain behavior Most psychologist view now of cognitive models of learning- the story of human learning is incomplete without at least some role for cognition Latent learning- learning that is not directly observable Observational learning-learning by watching others Mirror neurons- become activated when an animal observes or performs an action; may play a role in observational learning and having empathy for others Observational learning of aggression- media violence may contribute to aggression but it is not the only contributor Insight learning- sudden understanding of the solution to the problem example Kohler’s chimpanzees Conditioned taste aversions- classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food example food poisoning Memory - the retention of information over time Paradox of memory- the same mechanisms that serve us well most of the time can casue us problems in others Memories are not passively reproduced they are actively reconstructed Sensory memory- function: initially processes sensory input; duration: very brief Short-term memory- memory system that retains information for limited durations; Function : keeps info active and accessible Span: 5-20 seconds Decay- our short-term memory fades over time Interference- loss of information due to competition of new incoming information in short term memory Elaborative rehearsal - linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way The three levels of processing- visual: most shallow, Phonological: sound related, semantic: deepest Long-term memory- relatively enduring store of information, includes facts, experiences, and skills we’ve developed over lifetime. Capacity: unlimited, Duration: decades Explicit memory- the process of recalling information intentionally Semantic memory- knowledge of facts Episodic memory- events in our lives Implicit memory- recalling information that we don’t remember deliberately Procedural memory- refers to motor skills and habits Priming- affects our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we’ve encountered similar stimuli Encoding- to encode it, we must first attend to it. most events we experience are never encoded in the first place Storage- our interpretations and expectations influence how our experiences are stored Schemas- are organized knowledge structures. Gives us frames of reference for new experiences Retrieval- many types of forgetting are failures of retrieval; using retrieval cues can help to access information in long term memory Context-dependent learning- superior retrieval when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context State-dependent learning – better retrieval when the organism is in the same physiological or psychological state as it was during encoding Retrograde amnesia- loss of memories from our past Anterograde amnesia- inability to encode new memories from our experiences False memories- weak correlation between eyewitness confidence in theirs testimony and accuracy Intelligence- the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations General intelligence- hypothetical factor that accounts for overall differences in intellect among people Specific abilities- particular ability level in a narrow domain Fluid intelligence- capacity to learn new ways of solving problems Crystallized intelligence- accumulated knowledge of the world acquired over time Analytical intelligence- the ability to reason logically Creative intelligence- our ability to come up with novel and effective answers to questions Practical intelligence- the ability to solve real world problems, especially those involving other people Brain size and intelligence- are moderately positively correlated in humans Lewis Terman calculate IQ – establish a set of norms, baseline scores in the general population from which we can compare each individual’s score Wilhelm Stern Calculate IQ- invented the formula for intelligence quotient (IQ) AKA: “RATIO IQ” Modern Researchers Calculate IQ- almost all rely on a statistic called deviation IQ, the expression of a person’s IQ relative to his or her same-aged peers Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- the most commonly used IQ test for adults, consists of 15 subtests that gives an overall IQ score composed of 4 indexes: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. Culture-fair IQ tests- consist of abstract-reasoning items that don’t depend on language Reliability- IQ scores over time: reasonably stable in adulthood and not especially stable in infancy or early childhood Validity- IQ scores predict: grades/school performance, job performance, and physical health The bell shaped curve of IQ- the bell curve roughly approximates of IQ scores in the general population Mental Retardation- characterized by childhood onset of low IQ and inability to engage in adequate daily functioning Genius and exceptional intelligence- refers to the top 2% of the IQ scores, large portion occupy certain professions, such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, and professors. Genetic influences on IQ- IQ tends to run in families Environmental influences on IQ- schooling is related to high IQ scores and research suggests that both poverty and nutrition are causally related to IQ. Emotional intelligence- ability to understand our own emotions and those of others, and to apply this information to our daily lives. Is probability a mixture of personality traits Developmental psychology- the study of how behavior changes over the life span Gene-environment interaction- impact of genes on behavior depends on the environment where behavior develops Nature via nurture- children with certain genetic predispositions often seek out and create their own environments Zygote- formed when a sperm cell fertilizes an egg The three stages of prenatal development- germinal stage, embryonic stage, and the fetal stage Brain development- between day 18 and the 6 month, neurons grow at an incredible rate, up to 250,00 neurons per minute at times Teratogens- environmental factors that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development Genetic disruptions- can be from disorders or random errors in cell division Prematurity- being born prior to 36 weeks, can result in numerous problems Survival instincts: infant reflexes- newborns are born with a large set of automatic motor behaviors that help them to survive, including: grasping, sucking, and rooting The progression of motor development- influenced by: physical maturity, cultural practices, and parenting practices Physical development in childhood- the relative size of our body parts changes dramatically during first 20 years Physical development in adults- most of us reach our physical peaks in early 20s and it begins to decline shortly after, including muscle, sensory processes, and fertility Physical changes in middle adulthood in men- sperm production and testosterone levels gradually decline and rise of having children born with developmental disorders. Physical changes in middle adulthood in women- menopause occurs, fertility declines, and risk of serious birth defects rise Cognitive development- the ability to learn, think, communicate, and remember over time Assimilation- absorbing new experiences into current schema Accommodation- altering schema to make it more compatible with experience Piaget’s stages of cognitive development- sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational Sensorimotor stage- birth to 2 yrs; experience the world through their senses and actions Mental representation- the ability to think about things that are absent from immediate surroundings is a major milestone in sensorimotor stage Preoperational stage- 2-1 yrs; construct mental representations of experience, can use words, images, and symbols, can not perform mental operations Concrete operational stage- 7 to 11 yrs; can perform mental operations but only ofr physical events Inductive logic- specific experience becomes general principle important to concrete operational stage Formal operational stage- 11 yrs and up; hypothetical or abstract reasoning beyond the here and now Lev Vygotsky- theory focused on social and cultural influences on cognitive development Scaffolding- structured environments for learning that are gradually removed Zone of proximal development- phase of learning when children can benefit from instruction general cognitive accounts- experience-based knowledge and learning is gradual sociocultural accounts- child’s interaction with the social world modular accounts- separate areas of knowledge in different domains cognitive changes in adolescence- adolescents are confronted with more adult-like opportunities and decisions that their brain’s relatively immature frontal lobes aren’t always prepared to handle cognitive function in adulthood- still remember pertinent material and the ability to recall info decreases after age 30. Stanger anxiety- starts at 8-9 months and peaks at 12-15 months Temperament- the child’s social and emotional style that is early appearing and largely genetic Attachment styles- refers to how infants react when separated from primary caregiver, these include secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-anxious, and disorganized Permissive parenting style- tend to be lenient, little discipline, and very affectionate Authoritarian parenting style- very strict, punishing, and little affection Authoritative parenting style- supportive but set clear and firm limits Uninvolved parenting style- neglectful and ignoring Self-control- the ability to inhibit our impulses, crucial ingredient of social development and a good predictor of later social adjustment Biological influences of development of gender identity- for females: prenatal testosterone exposure linked with preference for “male” toys Social influences of the development of gender identity- encouragement of types of behavior and expectations of behavior Erikson’s stage 5 identity vs. role confusion- adolescence, achievement of a stable and satisfying sense of role and direction Erikson’s stage 6 intimacy vs. isolation- young adulthood, development of the ability to maintain intimate personal relationship Kohlberg’s level preconventional- marked by a focus on punishment and reward Kohlberg’s level conventional- marked by a focus on societal values Kohlberg’s level Postconventional- marked by a focus on internal moral principles that transcend society Personality- ways we think, feel, behave Traits- relatively enduring predispositions that influence our behavior across many situations Sigmund Freud- most influential contributor to the field of personality and therapy Psychic determinism- everything that meaning, purpose, significance Freudian slip Freudian slip- there are no accidents or mistakes, these things are the conscious expression of unconscious wish Unconscious motivation- the cause of disturbed behavior Symbolic meaning- no action is meaningless, every action has meaning Manifest content- what actually happens in the dream Latent content- the symbolic meaning behind what happened in the dream Ego- rational, planful, mediating dimension of personality/ conscious Superego- moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist dimension of personality/ preconscious Id- irrational, illogical, impulsive dimension of personality/ unconscious Defense mechanisms- strategies used by the ego to stave off threats originating internally, from one’s id or superego Repression- basic ego defense; banishment of threatening material from consciousness Reaction formation- unconscious impulse is consciously expressed by its behavioral opposite Regression- return to a stage that earlier provided as great deal of gratification Projection- when one’s unconscious feelings are attributed not to oneself but to another Self-actualization- to drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent Carl Rogers- three major components of personality: organism, self, and conditions of worth: expectations we put on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior. Abraham Maslow- Focused on Self-actualized individuals; peak experiences: transcendent moments of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world Behavioral views of the causes of personality- our personalities stem from our learning experiences Social-learning theories of personality- theory that emphasizes thinking as a cause of personality Reciprocal determinism- personality, cognitive, behavioral, environment factors influence each other Observational learning- learn by watching Locus of control- internal vs. external Trait theories- interested in describing and understanding the structure of personality and use factor analysis to identify groups of personality features that tend to correlate with each other Unit 4 Emotion-mental states or feelings associated with our evaluation of our experiences Primary emotions identified by Ekman: fear, joy, disgust, contempt, anger, sadness, surprise, and pride James-Lange Theory of Emotion: proposes that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli. Stimulus -> physiological change -> emotion Cannon-Band Theory of emotion: proposes that an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions. Stimulus -> physiological change & emotion Two-factor theory- states that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated arousal, with an attribution of that arousal Motivation- psychological drives that propel us in a specific direction Drive reduction theory- theory that certain drives, like hunger, thirst, and sexual frustration motivate us to act in ways that minimize aversive states Intrinsic motivation: people are motivated by internal goals Extrinsic motivation: people are motivated by external goals Physical and psychological urges- Maslow -> our needs are arranged in a hierarchy, with the most “basic” at the bottom Interpersonal Attraction- influenced by a number of social factors: proximity and nearness, similarity, reciprocity, level of physical attraction Stressed- any circumstance that threatens a person’s well-being Stress in not merely a stimulus or a response. It is a process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges General Adaption Syndrome – according to Selye, a stress response to any kind of stimulation is similar. The stressed individual goes through three phases; alarm, resistance, and exhaustion Alarm- “fight-or-Flight” reaction: body mobilizes resources to combat threat; activates the sympathetic nervous system Resistance- enhanced ability to fight stressor via moderate physiological arousal; ability to withstand additional stressors is reduced Exhaustion- depletion of resources bring on diseases and disorders Catastrophic events: catastrophic events like earthquakes, combat stress, and floods lead individuals to become depressed, sleepless, and anxious. Type A personality- a term used by Meyer Friedman for competitive, hard- driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people. These people have a higher chance of coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease- a clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle Type B personality- refers to easygoing, relaxed people A psychopsychological illness- any stress- related physical illness such as hypertension and some headaches Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) - a developing field in which the health effects of Psychological, neural, and endocrine processes on the immune system are studied. Behavioral Medicine- Psychologist and physicians have developed an interdisciplinary field of behavioral medicine that integrates behavioral knowledge with medical knowledge Need-to-belong theory- humans have a biologically based need for interpersonal connections Social comparison theory- we seek to evaluate our abilities and beliefs by comparing them with these of others Fundamental attribution error- tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people’s behavior Dispositional attribution- the explanation of individual behavior as a result caused by internal characteristics that reside within the individual, Situational attribution- the explanation of individual behavior as a result of external causes or situation Conformity- tendency of people to alter their behaviors as a result of group pressure (ash study) Deindividuation- tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities Groupthink- emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking Group polarization- the tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions of individual group members The Milgram Paradigm- predictors of obedience: greater psychological distance between teacher and learner and greater authoritarianism; predictors of disobedience: more morally advanced, less physical distance between the teacher and learner, and greater psychological distance between teacher and experimenter Prosocial behavior- behavior that is intended to help others Bystander nonintervention- why we don’t help: pluralistic ignorance and diffusion of responsibility Cognitive dissonance theory- a discrepancy between two beliefs leads to an unpleasant state of tension that we’re motivated to reduce Self-perception theory- we acquire our attitudes by observing our behavior Impression management theory- we don’t really change our attitudes, but report that we have so that our behaviors appear consistent with our attitudes Stereotype- a belief, positive or negative, about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group Prejudice- during negative conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior or evaluating the evidence Discrimination- negative behavior toward members of out- groups differently from members of in-groups Scapegoat hypothesis- arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes Just-world hypothesis- implies that we have a need to see the world as fair, even if not Psychopathology- a disruption in the way one thinks/feels/behaves and often seen as a failure of adaption to the environment DSM-5- classifies psychological disorders by categories an provides a check list of observable symptoms for diagnoses The reliance on categorical rather than dimensional model of psychopathology Mental disorders- Anxiety disorders, obsessive- compulsive disorder, personality disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder are just a few. Anxiety disorder- defining features are exaggerated fear and threat and results in distressing persistent anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder- excessive and uncontrollable worry Social anxiety disorder- fear of social situations and fear of negative evaluation Specific phobia- intense fear of a particular animal, object, or situation Panic disorder- recurrent panic attacks with intense fear and freighting physiological symptoms Agoraphobia- fear of public spaces due to fear of not being able to escape and results in avoidance of these places Obsessive- compulsive disorder- involves having an obsession and a compulsion to act on Obsessions- recurrent and persistent distress-causing thoughts Compulsions- repetitive behaviors driven by the obsession Posttraumatic stress disorder- exposure to traumatic event; symptoms include intense fear, helplessness, or horror, re-experiencing, avoidance, increased arousal, and negative mood or thoughts Personality disorders- maladaptive patterns of behavior that have the ability to severely impact the way a person communicates and behaves in social situation Antisocial personality disorder- long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others, must meet diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder as a child; key symptoms include law breaking behavior, impulsive behavior, physical fights, stealing/ lying, and breaking and entering Borderline personality disorder- marked by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships; people with BPD often have: problems regulating emotions and thoughts, impulsive and reckless behavior, and unstable relationships with other people; comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse, eating disorders, self-harm, suicidal behaviors, and completed suicides. Mood disorders- impairing disturbance in mood: psychological disorders characterized by lasting disturbance in mood Major depressive disorder- involves having depressive episodes about once a year or less Depressive episodes- major changes in sleep patterns, weight level, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activates Behavioral model- sees depression resulting from a low rate of positive reinforcement in the environment Cognitive model- negative thoughts -> negative moods ; cognitive triad Cognitive triad- depressed thinking stems from negative thoughts about self, world, and future Learned helplessness- tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we cannot control or feel we cannot control Bipolar disorder- characterized as an alternating between depression and mania Manic episode- the opposite emotional extreme of depression; typically characterized by euphoria, grandiose self-esteem, and over-activity Suicide- MDD and Bipolar disorder are at higher risk for suicide than most disorders; more than 30,000 people die by suicide in the us each year Interpersonal theory of suicide- 1) perceived burdensomeness, 2) thwarted belongingness, and 3) acquired capability Schizophrenia- severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality; symptoms include disturbances in attention, thinking, language, emotions, and relationships; most people have delusions and hallucinations Delusions-strongly held, fixed beliefs with no basis in reality Hallucinations- sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of external stimuli Autism spectrum disorder- deficits in social communication and social interactions and is present in early development Diathesis- stress models- disorder onset results from a combination of one’s biological disposition + stressful events -> disorder onset Psychotherapy- a psychological intervention designed to help people resolve emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems and improve the quality of their lives Insight therapies- psychotherapies where the goal is to expand awareness or insight Psychodynamic therapy- causes of abnormal behaviors stem from traumatic or adverse childhood experiences Humanistic psychotherapy- therapies that chare an emphasis on the development of human potential and belief that human nature is basically positive ; stresses the importance of assuming responsibility for our lives and living in the present Person-centered therapy- centers on the client’s goals and ways of solving problems; to ensure positive outcome, therapist must be authentic an genuine, express unconditional positive regard, and show emphatic understanding Strategic family interventions- designed to remove barriers to effective communication Structural family therapy- has the therapist immerse herself in the family you make changes Behavior therapies- maladaptive behaviors must be directly confronted Systematic desensitization- carefully controlled, gradual exposure to anxiety- provoking stimuli Aversive conditioning- creating an aversive response where the absence of one is causing problems Cognitive therapies- our cognitive assessment of events is often the source of our distress Cognitive-behavior therapy- CBT explores problematic patterns of both thinking and behaving Psychopharmacotherapy- use of meds to treat psychological problems
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