PSYS 100 Final Exam Study Guide
PSYS 100 Final Exam Study Guide Psys 100
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Final Test Outline I. Book Material a. Greater happiness Ch. 12 p. 484 i. Genes influence our happiness ii. Personal history and culture also influence happiness iii. “Happiness set point” 1. genes, outlook and our recent experiences iv. Happy people have: 1. High self-esteem 2. Optimistic, outgoing and agreeable 3. Have close friendships or satisfying marriage 4. Have work and leisure that engage their skills 5. Have an active religious faith 6. Sleep well and exercise b. Accuracy of lie detectors Ch 12- p. 468 i. Not very accurate ii. Two problems: 1. Physiological arousal is much the same from one emotion to another 2. Many innocent people respond with heightened tension to the accusations implied by the critical questions iii. No FBI spy has ever been caught with a lie detector c. Cannon-Bard Theory Ch 12- p. 460 i. Theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and two the subjective experience of emotion ii. EX: my heart pounded as a I experienced fear. The emotion triggering stimulus traveled to my sympathetic nervous system causing my body’s arousal and my awareness of my emotion 1. Heart pounding did not cause my feeling of fear not did my feeling of fear cause m pounding heart. iii. Researchers now agree that our emotions also involved cognition d. Relative Deprivation Principle Ch. 12 p.483 i. The perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself. e. Adaptation level phenomenon Ch 12. p. 482 i. Our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by out prior experience f. Stressed individuals and health Ch 12- p. 491-492 i. Hypertension ii. Headaches iii. Less able to fight off disease (endocrine hormones) 1. When immune system isn’t functioning properly in can do one of two things a. Attack body’s own tissues b. Or allow viruses o multiple g. Freud and neurons ch13- p. 514 i. Faced patients that made no neurological sense ii. Such as patients who would lose feeling in their hand, but no explanation – no neurological damage iii. Developed these theories from his patient’s unknown 1. Idea that when you’re suppressing your emotions you start to get physiological health (hand goes numb) h. Rorschach Test Ch.13- p. 520 i. Ink blot test where people describe what they see in a series of inkblots ii. Drip paint on a paper, fold it, and then say what they saw in the resulting blot iii. He assessed their responses to determine things like violence or sexual abuse i. Defense mechanisms ch. 13- p. 517-518 (will be a situational question) i. Tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality – function indirectly 1. repression: banishes anxiety-arousing wishes and feelings from consciousness, enables other mechanisms a. reaction formation: switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites b. projection: disguising one’s own threatening impulses by attributing them to others c. rationalization: offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one’s actions d. displacement: shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person e. Denial: refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities j. Neo or post Freudian Ch 13- p. 518-519 i. Accepted Freud’s basic ideas ii. Alfred Adler and Karen Horney believed that childhood social not sexual tensions are crucial for personality formation iii. Carl Jung agreed that unconscious exerts a powerful influence iv. After Freud’s death his ideas have been incorporated into the diversity of perspectives that make up psychodynamic theory k. Self-esteem Ch. 13- p. 545 i. High self-esteem a feeling of self-worth – pays dividends. ii. People have fewer sleepless nights, less easy to conform, more persistent at difficult tasks, less shy, anxious and lonely and just happier. iii. Low self-esteem deflates peoples self-image and they will be more likely to disparage others or to express heightened racial prejudice. 1. Negative about themselves, critical and feel they have to impress others l. Schizophrenia Ch. 15- p. 631-632 i. Means “split mind” ii. Split from reality that shows itself in disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions iii. Neurotransmitters Ch 15- p. 634 1. Dopamine over activity may intensify braining signals to create hallucinations and paranoia 2. Low firing neurons in the frontal lobes m. Anxiety disorders Ch 15-p. 614-617 i. Generalized anxiety disorder: person unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy ii. Panic disorder: person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread iii. Phobias: person is intensely and irrationally afraid of a specific object or situation iv. OCD: person is troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions v. PTSD: which a person has lingering memories, nightmares, and other symptoms for weeks after a severely threatening, uncontrolled event. n. Delusions HC 15- p. 632 i. False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders o. Bipolar disorder Ch. 15- p. 622 i. Mania: mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state. ii. Bipolar: disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and overexcited state of mania p. Psychodynamic therapy Ch 16- p. 653 i. Goals: bring patients repressed or disowned feelings into conscious awareness. By helping them reclaim their unconscious thoughts and feelings and giving them insight into the origins of their disorders, he aimed to help them reduce growth impeding inner conflicts. ii. Techniques: 1. Emphasizes power of childhood experiences and their ability to mold the adult. 2. Freud used free association 3. Resistance: blocking from consciousness of anxiety- laden material 4. Interpretation: dream meanings, resistances and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight 5. Transference: psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships q. Client-centered therapy Ch 16- p. 655 i. Humanistic therapy – carl rogers – therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting empathetic environment to facilitate clients growth r. Classical conditioning Ch. 16- p. 657- 659 i. Counterconditioning: behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning ii. Exposure therapies 1. Systematic desensitization: type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed-state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Used to treat therapies. 2. Virtual reality exposure therapy: anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders or public speaking. iii. Aversive conditioning: type of counter conditioning that associates an unpleasant state (nausea) with unwanted behavior (drinking alcohol) s. Cognitive Therapy Ch 16-p. 660- 663 i. Therapy that teaches people new more adaptive ways of thinking based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reaction ii. Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy: cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis that vigorously challenges people’s illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions iii. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy t. Meta analysis—Smith Ch 16- p. 669 i. Procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies u. Therapy decrease mental hospital Ch 16- p. 676 i. Psychopharmacology: study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior. 1. Minimizes involuntary hospitalizations and support mental health populations a. Antipsychotic Drugs b. Antianxiety Drugs c. Antidepressant Drugs v. Fundamental attribution error Ch. 14- p. 554 i. Tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. w. Stress and performance Ch 14- p. 567 i. Social Facilitation: strengthened performance in others presence – Triplett’s finding ii. On harder tasks, people perform worse when observers or others working on the same task are present iii. Sometimes an audience helps and sometimes it hinders performance iv. We other observe we get aroused 1. Better to do well in front of an audience especially a friendly audience x. Instinct theory of aggression Ch 14- p. 579 i. Aggression emerges from interaction of biology and experience y. Altruism ch 14- p. 593-594 i. Unselfish regard for the welfare of others ii. Kind acts z. Two factor theory of emotion Ch 14- p. 591 i. Emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal plus cognitive appraisal ii. Arousal from any source can enhance one emotional or another depending on how we interpret the label and arousal aa. Prejudice Ch 14- p. 576-577 i. Just world phenomenon: tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get (social inequality) ii. Ingroup: people with who we share a common identity “us” iii. Out group: those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup “them” iv. Scapegoat theory: prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame (emotional root) II. Lecture material a. Personality approaches ch 13 (Essay question – explained at the end) b. Freud’s global theory ch 13 i. Aimed to explain everything about everyone ii. Doesn’t just apply to one type of person, it’s global because Freud is trying to explain everyone c. Free-floating anxiety ch 13 i. Develops when ID, Ego and super ego are out of balance. d. Freud’s death i. Died in 1939 e. Reaction formation ch 13 i. Switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites ii. EX: regressing angry feelings, a person displays exaggerated friendliness. f. Depression symptoms ch 15 i. Feelings of complete worthlessness/hopelessness ii. Believing you are “nothing” iii. Making plans to end the “pain” of living iv. Suicide become a pleasant, wishful, and realistic option g. Major Symptoms of Depression i. Sitting around and stewing on problems (just think) ii. Difficulty concentrating/making decisions iii. Insomnia or lethargy iv. Favorite activates become boring (not interesting in the same things) v. Sex becomes unappealing vi. Weight loss (not weight gain) vii. Loss of energy/feeling “slow” viii. Feel hopelessness and utter loss of control (feel alone) ix. Headaches, muscle pain, bowl/stomach problems h. Oedipus/Electra complex ch 13 i. Oedipal complex (males only) 1. A sexual desire for mother develops 2. A hatred for father develops 3. Fear of castration by father if he should learn of the love for the mother 4. Resolution: boys finally come to grips with the fact that they can’t have their mother sexually, and a warm relationship develops with mom and a “pal” relationship with dad 5. The boy beings to imitate dad’s behavior to get mom’s attention ii. Electra Complex 1. The girl realizes she doesn’t have a penis 2. Develops “penis envy” (jealous of males for having penis) 3. Attaches love to father to “symbolically” attain a penis 4. A desire emerges to marry the father and have children with him 5. Resolution: most girls realize that marrying the father is impossible and begin to imitate the mother’s behavior in an effort to get the father’s attention i. Ideal and real self ch 13 (explained below in essay area) j. Cognitive social learning theory (explained below in essay area) i. These theorists believe that our personalities are determined by our environment influences ii. They emphasize external shaping iii. Good example: “Behavioral approach” iv. Personality = the composite of all our behaviors/attitudes that have been acquired through 1. Classical conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning 3. Observational Learning v. Behavioral theorists believe that personality can be changed (unlike the psychoanalytic and trait theories) k. Characteristics of psychopath (explained below in essay area) i. Primary psychopaths 1. No feelings of anxiety and guilt whatsoever (crimes more severe) ii. Secondary psychopaths 1. Some tendencies toward feelings of guilt and anxiety (crimes less severe) l. Depression ch 15 i. Common cold ii. How prevalent is depression 1. Data shows that as many as 25% of women and 15% of men are clinically depressed at this very moment. 2. The problem is that depression is almost always accompanied by suicidal and self-destructive tendencies. 3. So, depression is the most dangerous disorder not to other people, but to those who have it. m. Depressed people kill themselves i. 75% of all people committing suicide are clinically depressed ii. so, it is very important to treat the disorder before suicide occurs iii. and, for 90% of all people who become depressed, the depression simply goes away within 4 to 6 weeks n. Treatment for depression is keeping people alive until their depression lifts i. If the symptoms last longer that 4 to 6 weeks, the disorder is then considered “clinical” or “major depression” ii. A very serious condition iii. Suicidal thoughts become an obsession iv. Often accompanied by psychotic symptoms 1. Hallucinations 2. Delusions 3. Depressive stupors v. A second possibility is that the depression lifts… and the individual rebounds to the opposite emotional extreme. vi. That is, the patient becomes hyperactive, happy, peppy and talkative (a state called “mania”) vii. For most, the manic symptoms stop entirely after another 4-6 weeks viii. Unfortunately, a very small percentage of patients will experience continued cycles of mania and depression (for sometimes years) 1. “bipolar disorder” ix. In general, anti-depressant drugs are very effective in treating depression, major depression and bipolar disorder. x. All enhance levels of neurotransmitter serotonin 1. Luvox 2. Prozac 3. Celexa o. Biological Predisposition i. Genetics play a significant role in depression ii. Data show clearly that depression runs in families p. Stressful Life Events i. Loss of a loved one ii. Romantic relationship ending iii. Being socially excluded iv. Being overworked/overwhelmed v. Failure at a major life goal (college degree/marriage) vi. Traumatic life experiences q. Schizophrenia ch 15 i. Means “split mind” ii. Split from reality that shows itself in disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions iii. Look for more information from lecture on 4-26-16 r. Freud’s middle name ch 13 – Sigmund Schlomo Freud s. Anti-social personality disorder brain structure (Essay Question) – get more docile as they get older, they might not want to or lose craving, or physically can’t. i. Primary psychopath- feel no guilt. Secondary- feel a little guilt ii. Know characteristics (10 of them) 1. Lie a lot 2. Don’t feel guilt 3. Normally physically attractive 4. Don’t have families (leave them) 5. Don’t have loyalty to others 6. Get bored easily 7. Extroverts 8. Low on neuroticism (don’t get excited easily) – have to go to extreme like kill or rape people 9. Power oriented 10. Punishment doesn’t work- therapy doesn’t work, jail is only way to control them 11. High IQs t. Prader-willi i. is a rare genetic disorder in which seven genes (or some subset thereof) on chromosome 15 (q 11–13) are deleted or unexpressed (chromosome 15q partial deletion) on the paternal chromosome. Characteristic of PWS is "low muscle tone, short stature, incomplete sexual development, cognitive disabilities, behavior problems, and a chronic feeling of hunger that can lead to excessive eating and life- threatening obesity u. Dysthemia ch 15 i. Dysthymia is defined as a low mood occurring for at least two years, along with at least two other symptoms of depression. ii. Examples of symptoms include lost interest in normal activities, hopelessness, low self-esteem, low appetite, low energy, sleep changes, and poor concentration. v. Goal of trait theories i. Define personality in stable and enduring behavior patterns. w. Results of depression after a month ch 15 i. If the symptoms last longer that 4 to 6 weeks, the disorder is then considered “clinical” or “major depression” ii. A very serious condition iii. Suicidal thoughts become an obsession iv. Often accompanied by psychotic symptoms 1. Hallucinations 2. Delusions 3. Depressive stupors x. Electroconvulsive therapy ch 15 i. When these drugs fail to work then next treatment of choice is electro conclusive therapy (ECT) 1. Over 100,000 people receive ECT (sometimes referred to as “shock therapy”) every year in U.S. hospitals 2. Why? a. Because ECT works y. Schizophrenia treatment ch 15 i. This information will be in lecture on 4-26-16 z. Humanistic theories i. Carl Rogers Theory of Personality ii. Adopted an optimistic view of humans iii. Argued that humans are inherently good, helpful, non- deceitful and understanding of one another. 1. A view of completely opposite of Freud iv. Personality is said to develop from the innate desire to better ourselves and achieve self-fulfillment (or self- actualization) v. The theory is structured around…. 1. Self: perceptions we have of ourselves and our relationship to others and the environment. 2. Ideal Self: Perceptions of the self we would like to be or capable of being. 3. Rogers believed that how happy we are in life depends on how close the self is to ideal self. vi. We are happy and content when the two converge. vii. We are unhappy and dissatisfied when the two are discrepant. viii. As personality develops: Self -> ideal self ix. There are no stages of personality development it is a continuous process. aa. Treatment for anti-social personality ch 15 i. There is NO therapeutic cure for the disorder! 1. Diet therapies, behavioral therapies, drug therapies have all been unsuccessful in treating antisocial personality disorder ii. 1950s the medical community reported that they had found a cure for the antisocial personality 1. Lobotomy 2. Lobotomies basically involved drilling holes in the skull of the patient and surgically destroying the frontal-lobe portions of cortex. ab. Big 5 personality factors – OCEAN (explained below in essay area) ac.Personality approach views it as continuous ad. Why was sex so important to Freud ch 13 i. Freud focused primarily on the “life force” or sexual energy. He called this energy “libido” (or libidinal energy) ii. Two instincts: sex and aggression 1. Were all trying to maximize ratifying the two instincts, while at the same time minimizing the possibility of being punished or feeling guilty. ▯ Essay Questions: ▯ ▯ Four general Theoretical Approaches to Personality development 1. Psychoanalytic Approach: these theories assume that personality is shaped by several inner conflicting forces - Freud. a. Sex & aggression is what drives us b. Ego: What’s to give you what you want, but follows morals and norms. c. Id: You want what you want and you want it now d. Superego: Follows all norms, doesn’t want to get in trouble. Parental normative. ch 13 2. Trait/Genetic Approach: these theories assume that our personalities are made up of traits largely inherited form our biological parents and ancestors. Can’t be changed. a. The big 5 personality - OCEAN i. Emotional stability- neuroticism ii. Extroversion – how sociable iii. Openness- how open you are to new experiences iv. Agreeableness- how agreeable you are to other things, wouldn’t argue ever, go with the flow if they’re high on agreeableness v. Contentiousness – how aware you are of your actions and surroundings 3. Humanistic Approach: these theories assume that we all strive for perfection and out of this striving personality develops. a. We do things for a good reason b. Trying to reach self-actualization c. Maslow’s hierarchy of need i. Going up pyramid- developing personality d. Real Self: perceptions we have of ourselves and our relationship to others and the environment. e. Ideal Self: Perceptions of the self we would like to be or capable of being. Rogers believed that how happy we are in life depends on how close the self is to ideal self. 4. Cognitive/social-learning approach: these theories assume that our personalities are shaped by the environment (i.e., that external forces shape personality) a. Personality is consistently changing b. Change with life events such as a family death Some believe that personality is learned Note: No single approach is right or wrong.
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