Py 370 Exam 2
Py 370 Exam 2 PY 370
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sheila Black in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 187 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/08/15
PY 370 Exam 2 Chapter 6 German Psychologists of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries 1 Psychophysics the relation between the mental and material world a b C 2 VVeber a b c d Fechner s Epiphany October 22 1850 a great idea occurred before getting out of bed Fechner developed formulas to predict IND and intensity of sensations based on the original intensity of the stimulus Absolute Threshold Tested the ability to distinguish between two tactile stimulations two point discrimination threshold Iust noticeable difference Weber s law 3 Ebbinghaus qorhrbposriv In uenced by Fechner Could higher mental processes be measuredquot Had to use himself as a participant Knew about familiarity invented nonsense syllables Very rigorous scientist published book praised Very systematic in the way in which he varied conditions The results of his experiment are still cited i Forgetting curve after you learn something you forget the information initially However after losing the info it levels off ii Savings Score To the extent that you learn something the first time and then you learn it again Your performance the 2nd time will not be as good as it will the 1St time after being exposed to it the first time Fewer repetitions to regain your earlier performance then 1St time around 4 Bartlett War of the Ghostsquot new Showed the importance of Schemas False memories Ecologically valid Neisser vs Crowder and Banji Criticized Ebbinghaus 5 Brentano s Contribution to Psychology a b Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint Act Psychology c Criticized Wundt attention to sensation he was interested in mental processes mental acts 6 Stumpf a Musical background made him better able to evaluate research concerning tones Stumpf mentor Brentano c Student of Brentano and an observer of Fechner and Weber i Work on golden sectionquot appealed to Stumpf Pythagorean theorem used for tone d Stumpf Work and Contribution to psychology i Natavistic view of depth perception rationalism ii Tone Psychology iii Phenomenology notion that something should be considered in its entirety instead of breaking it down in small components 1 In music you will not appreciate a tone by itself but the whole thing will be appreciated Stumpf cofounded Society for Child Psychology Tracked his own children s development Stressed the importance of directly observing children Studied child prodigies in music and children with phenomenal memories warm 7 Clever Hans and Stumpf a Van Osten s claims told people he had a brilliant horse he trained could do math all he had to do is put up a card an d the horse would do math in head stump his feet for the right answer Head of Investigative Commission c Pfungst i With knowledge vs without ii Gestures and cues iii Horse learned to read gestures and cues of trainer HOAX horse name is Clever Hans 8 Stumpf amp WWII a Ties severed with many collaborators research not ourishing b Student ed the university turmoil turned student away c Important discoveries lost 9 Phenomenology a Stumpf s phenomenology experience just as it occurs it doesn t have to be broken down into elements 10 Oswald Kulpe a Mentor was Muller b Muller was interested in memory interference can have a negativity in uence on memory c Iost s Law When 2 memories are of equal strength the newest memory will have most impact from repetition d Kulpe challenged assumptions of Wundt and Titchener 11 Logical Positivism a Positivism believes science should focus on what is observable 12 Research at the University of Wurzburg a Free association b Bryan and Apprehension give people a card w instructions for memory remember all letters what are the numbers c Watts and Volition and Cognitive Set d Marbe and Weight Iudgment 13 WWI a Kulpe was convinced that Germany was right b Supporter of Germany c No more research at Wurzburg b c of destruction d End of friendships and collaborations among other psychologists e Many Germany psychologists fell into obscurity during WWI f The political situation prevented communication between German and American psychologists g Functionalism and behaviorism dominated in America 14 Cognitive Psychology a Cognitive Psychology has some similarity to the work of Stumpf and Kulpe b Cognitive Psychology might have ourished earlier in America had it not been for 2 world wars Chapter 7 Gestalt psychology in Germany and the United States 1 Gestalt Psychology a The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with selforganizing tendencies b This principle maintains that when the human mind perceptual system forms a percept or gestalt the whole has a reality of its own independent of the parts c Behaviorism is another school of though that is beginning to gain attention 2 Wertheimer s Discovery a Father of gestalt b Stroboscope experiments at the correct projection rate the stationary child walked and the stationary horse began to trot c Tachistoscope projected light through two slits d Sometimes light projected ZOOms between the two lights people saw 2 distinct lights and then he decreased time interval between two lights 60 ms he did get apparent movement one light was moving back and forth not two cant perceive it 3 Phi Phenomenon a Introspection could not explain Phi Phenomenon b See two lights as one continuous light bouncing back and forth c The whole experience the apparent movement of one line from one sit to another differed from the sum of its parts 4 Principles of Gestalt Psychology Holistic thinking Phenomenological basis experience in itself Methodologystimulate real life Isomorphism psychology processes are directly related to biological 9962 5 Gestalt Principles of Perception a Grouping principles i Proximity if 2 items are close together people will group them together ii Similarity if items are similar you are likely to group them together share same color shape etc iii Closure when something resembles a shape even with breaks it will look like a shape even though incomplete iv Figure ground see something as main focal point background image illusion Generalizability of Gestalt Principles 6 Zeigarnik Effect a German waiters remember billuntil paid table is your responsibility until paidnot closed i Lack of closure tension forefront of memory b Zeigarnik had people perform a variety of tasks that were left uncompleted i Participants recalled unfinished tasks better than finished tasks ii CLOSURE MATTERS c Media takes advantage of Zeigarnik Effect 7 Alpha the Chimpanzee and Closure Schiller Chimpanzee named Alpha would be given crayons to draw Wanted to see if Alpha had a need for closure He gave her a pie w a slice out She scribbled and tried to close it All drawing that were incomplete she tried to cerate closure 99962 8 The Gestalt Completion Test a Right hemisphere that is creative b Test to examine right hemisphere c If an individual is able to recognize the figures that seem incomplete they passed the test i Man dog horse w rider 9 Gestalt Psychologists wondered if we ever truly perceive reality a You bring your own bias and experiences to any situation b These can prevent us from seeing what is actually there objectively i Vertical horizontal T s same length even though vertical looks longer 10 Kohler succeeds Stumpf as director of the Berlin Psychological Institute a Gestalt Psychology at its peak b Hitler said all Iewish professors psychologists etc be excused c In 1933 Jews were expelled from civil service which included all professional positions in Germany i 12 of faculty were Iews ii Some faculty ed to the US including historically black colleges in the US 11Wertheimer s work in the US a Wertheimer removed from position in 1933 and expelled from Germany b Wertheimer began teaching at New School for Social Research in NY city c Wanted to teach children critical reasoning and actually learn NOT memorize d Productive Thinking wrote book but died before it was published by his son 12 Wertheimer s views on Education a Wrote 100 philosophers and how they were able to create their scientific discoveries Einstein Freud etc 9 41 responded what common principles did they share i Part of making discoveries involves being able to be exible look at something from all angles being open to novelty Opposed rote memorization c He thought it was possible to instill productive thinking in all children d He believed that creativity involved exibility and novelty 13 Kohler s insight learning a Thorndike was arguing that animals not capable of higher reasoning just S R connections i Teach animals certain behavior result in reward that s it Kohler felt that the proper tasks had not been used to examine reasoning Kohler developed his famous insight learning tasks i Thought animals could reach different goals believe they were capable worked with chimpanzee ii Be capable of more insight complex learning Results of Kohler s Studied i Chimpanzees capable of using insight and problemsolving to obtain bananas ii One stick couldn t reach banana but if they were given two sticks they would put 2 sticks together as 1 so that they could reach banana problem solving What did Kohler do differently from Thorndike i Animals in home enclosures ii Tested animals in presence of others iii He described results statistically 14 Properties of Insight Learning a d Animal sees or perceives solutionAha quick all of a sudden whereas Thorndike s trial and error is slow and gradual Insight learning does not depend on rewards Insight learning involves positive transfer if they learned concept of problem solving they could transfer information in variations stool to get banana sticks to get bananas Once they found something that helped reached their goal they applied it to reach new goals 15 Kurt Lewin a b Interested in motivation and action One of the founders of Social Psychology and the study of Group Dynamics Topological fields to depict psychological phenomena Life spacedepicted someone s life in an eggshaped structure i Child might have a simple life space adult may have a more complex one because of all life s obstacles B fPE Inside of a life space is the contents of someone s life goals and personality He was a very personable person and was obsessed with drawing these eggshaped structures Something inside a life space seen as a goal has symbols next to it a barrier borders the goal with negative symbols i A child who wants to go a movie the movie is a goal and has and is shielded by symbols because the parents not wanting to take the child to see the movie is the barrier Believed a life space represents how people view their world at that exact moment in time 16Advocate of Applied Research a Cafeteria study noticed people would reach for items that were far away from them possibly to get the freshest one b He noticed this trend so he wanted to document by putting a hidden camera in the cafeteria He even consulted with the cafeteria workers to slice pie the exact same for each piece so each food was equal c He attributed this trend to people feeling proud of working harder to get the further piece of food i If something requires work it must be valuable 17 Frustration Toys and Regression Study a Raggedy Ann vs Doll House b Children ages 29 c Children were first given conventional toy of Raggedy Ann They recorded how each child played with the toy d Afterward they exposed the children to a more exciting toy of the doll house They then wait until the kid is absorbed in the toy then escort the child out of the room and make them go back to playing with the less exciting conventional toy e Their behavior digressed after this i The children may at first play with blocks and build structures become exposed and withdrawn from the cool toy then go back to the blocks conventional toy and throw them 18 Studies Involving 10 Yr Old Boys a Boys in democratic group gets to vote and voice opinions b Another autocratic group of boys told by an adult left the room and the boys would bully each other c All children preferred a Democratic governing style 19 Action Research Lewin engages in what would not be called Industrial Psychology Virginia Plant Underperforming Employees paid well Poor self efficiency Lewin ensured success Gradually improved performance wwpogg 20 Mead Lewin and Campaign to Persuade Americans to Eat Visceral Meat a Shortage of fresh meat in the USA b Margret Mead is introduced as a nutritionist she addressed to people in the group the advantage of eating visceral meat eating the heart kidney etc vs group discussion no real professional present people discussing casually why they should eat visceral meat c Group discussion was more effective d Importance of attitude change 2 1 Work at MIT Group productivity Spread of rumors Social perception and interpersonal relations Leadership training Commission of Community Interrelations CCI for the American Jewish gangs 22 Congress a AntiSemitism b Blacks not hired in department stores because owners thought people would not buy their products if they employed blacks c Sanger and Gilbert interviewed customers after purchase there was no decline in purchases in stores that did employ blacks d Connecticut State InterRacial Commission s sensitive training 23 Housing Project Study Segregated and integrated housing and racial attitudes 2 completely integrated 2 partially segregated Most cordial relations in integrated projects with 70 African American occupancy i Segregated ones were more hostile and racist e Studies plays an important role during Civil Rights Movements f Gestalt Therapy is not related to experimental Gestalt Psychology 9962 24 Gestalt Psychology in Perspective a Made important contributions in sensation and perception b Important contributions in Cognitive Psychology and animal cognition insight learning Chapter 8 The History of Clinical Psychology and the Development of Psychoanalysis 1 Mental Illness a Since the beginning of recorded hx there have been accounts of mental illness since long before b Clinical Psychology is the newest subdiscipline of psychology 2 Girls Attribute Behavior to Bewitchment a Hippocrates Antiphon and Galen were fairly enlightened with respect to mental illness but individuals in the dark ages were not so open b In December 1691 8 young girls developed disorderly speech hallucinations odd postures bizarre gestures and convulsive fits Girls accused a number of individuals in Salem of bewitching them 115 people charged Accused tried in the summer and spring of 1692 Some of the individuals of witchcraft were put to death rhan 3 Salem Witch Trials Over a Governor of Massachusetts released 150 accused witches b Witchcraft laws were rewritten c What caused this i Anything that looked odd or happened all of a sudden was a witch ii Hysteria iii Convulsive ergotism fungus poison crops were exposed to moisture iv People were overactive because they were so frightened by all of this 4 Plight of the Mentally 111 a St Mary of Bethlehem institution for the mentally ill in England b Patients put on display for amusement c Patients subjected to whippings bloodlettings vein was injured d Those patients who were not good for amusementsent to streets with badges to beg for food i Depressed patients not amusing 5 Typical Accommodations for Patients in Mental Health Hospitals a Chained to the wall b Naked except for a blanket c No shoes 6 Cure Mental Ilness a Water pour ice cold water onto people chained to the wall b Whirling sitting in chairbed whirl them fast spin c Bloodletting let the person bleed out in hopes to calm them cure them d Benjamin Rush Father of Psychiatry 7 Reformers a People who saw conditions and appalled by them 8 Philhipe Pinel a Paris France Reformer b Attempted to provoke a revolution in the care of the insane c Started to read Daquin in which he believed insanity was a disease and must be understood by the methods of natural science Hated that the rich were treated differently from the poor The insane should be treated humanely Became the director for the Bicetre Asylum in Paris Pinel reforms the Bicetre Asylum Orequot99 i Current conditions chaos ii Approached revolutionary council over medical treatment in asylums iii Pinel met with ridicule wanted them to be treated better iv Pinel approaches patients 1 Went to person known to violent in just asked him what would happen if unchained 2 Patient agreed 3 Unchained no more angry outbursts everyone improved when unchained h Reductions in death i In 1792 110 admitted and 57 died ii After Pinel implemented changes dropped 12 and only 1 in 8 died i La Salpetriere Asylum for insane women i Pinel also put in charge of women s asylum ii Conditions just as bad as men dirty naked punishment iii Women abused sexually on daily basis rape iv Pinel unchained the women as well j The Wild Boy of Aveyron i Hunters found boy in woods ii Didn t speak crawled on all 4 s and living with animals iii Itard Pinel assistant attributed child s problems to social isolation iv He attempted rehabilitation some success but boy unable to learn to talk v Was unable to teach boy had to talk 9 William Tuke a England Reformer b Quaker disturbed because he heard that Quakers couldn t receive visitors c Quakerress that had been admitted died d William Tuke appalled when visited asylum e Established a Retreat for Persons Af icted with disorders of the mind i Called it a retreat instead of an asylum ii Wanted to see what would happen when people were treated humanely f Retreat for Persons Af icted with Disorders of the Mind i Patients were not chained ii Patients given freedom respect kindness good food etc iii Patients and staff were family iv Model for other enlightened institutions 10 Dorthea Lynde Dix 18021887 a Taught in a women s prison b Many in the prison were mentally ill The mentally ill were treated worse than other prisoners Dix motivated to improve the lives of the insane Started movement to reform hospitals Dorthea Dix s Method of Reform i Go before Congress ii Obtained facts going on in psychiatric hospitals iii Enlisted support from legislators iv Told Congress of the deplorable conditions v Visited Europe lectured Queen Victoria and Pope 1 Talked about maltreatment in institutions 2 They were outraged rhg39DQO 11 Mental Hospitals in the USA a In 1770 the Virginia House of Burgesses enacts law providing for the support of persons with unsound mind b In 1773 the first treatment facility for the insane was established 12 Clifford Beers Mental Hygiene Movement Hartford Retreat 1901 a mind that found itself Actually had mental illness Courageously spoke out and used himself as an example of mentally ill person who improved able to function in society People were impressed moral movement Unfortunately WWII resulted in a decline of financial support i As time went on budget cuts resulted in mental hospitals being under staffed and created poor conditions once again 9962 E39th 13 Lightner Witmer 18671956 a Founded the first psychological clinic in the USA b Trained as Experimental Psychologist c Founder of Clinical Psychology d Felt that psychology should be used to help people i Must use knowledge gained from human behavior to help people ii Most of the individuals he focused on were children e Witmer s Clients i Charles Gilmer Witmer s client 1 Helped him with reading worked with his teachers ii Other clients included children with developmental delays iii Founded journal Clinical Psychologyquot iv Contributed to comparative psychology 14 Radical Treatment of Mental Illness a Lobotomies lobe in your brain would be removed frontal lobe to reduce misbehaviors Electric shock loss of symptoms but high risk Side effect can affect memory Psychoactive medications help individuals w their symptoms Antidepressants 15 Mesmerism amp Hypnosis a b d Mesmerism and hypnosis used to treat mental and physical illnesses Mesmer claimed that patients fell into trances when he waved a magnet over their bodies Commission of eminent scientists report that mesmerism is dangerous and useless Mesmer took advantage of young women possibly when they were under the in uence of magnetism Iohn Elliotson i Famous for mesmerism ii Also first person in England to use stethoscope iii Was with Mesmer when put on shows iv Found as mesmerism worked especially for pain Harriett Martineau i Diagnosed with cancer ii Patient to mesmerism and went into remission iii Gave mesmerism credit Esdaile British East India i Used mesmerism to numb pain in surgery ii Cloquet used mesmerism when performing mastectomy no anesthesia Horace Wells and anesthesia i Invented anesthesia ii Didn t need anymore mesmerism so it lost favor Iames Braid coined termed hypnosis and brought back mesmerism kind of Braid demonstrated the importance of fixation and suggestion in including trance instead of a magnet i Describe hypnosis as sleep induced by suggestion and narrowing of attention ii All psychological limit the persons attention and heightening suggestibility Braid described how hypnosis had relieved illness and suffering AmbroseAugste Liebault and Hippolyte Berhnheim i With the assistance of a chemist they combined hypnosis with drugs ii Nancy became important for the treatment of psychosomatic illness iii Making suggestions helped people with illness 16 Sigmund Freud a Became a physician and during his training took a course from Franz Brentano b Breuer physician and Anna 0 patient i Anna was showing signs of hysteria she was very intelligent amp in nursing training to her father ii Experienced symptoms but no physical reason for symptoms iii Breuer said root to these symptoms was psychological and the stress was associated with this iv As she began to talk to therapist she began to feel better all symptoms went away V Breuer thought when Anna expressed herself she was processing herself to her issues 9 talking curequot c Intrigued Freud his patients had same issues Believed in talking curequot and could be used on his patients d Freud s Drug Use i Cocaine 1 Death of friend from becoming an addict 2 Helped him relieve his depression and gave out cocaine to friends girlfriend ii Nicotine smoke all day long even after cancer amp surgeries iii Cancer 17 Freud and Charcot a Freud received a grant to study hysteria and hypnosis under Charcot in Paris Freud captivated by Charcot c Freud overheard a comment by Charcot that everything could be reduced to sexuality d What hysteria according to Freud i Psychosomatic illnessesphysical symptoms with psychological causes ii Hysteria could arise because of upbringing iii Often there were environmental triggers 1 Provoking agentquot iv Freud publicizes his views of male and female hysteria 1 Male hysteria 9 impossibility Theory of Psychoanalysis Freud 1 Talk Therapyquot better than psychoanalysis a Freud abandons hypnosis b Frau Emmy von N c Freud s Psychoanalysis i Free association recall memories from years ago ii Transference and counter transference transferred feeling to others d Freud s seduction theory i Psychological constructions ii Neurosis due to childhood sexual abuse iii Later said neurotic women imagine sexual abuse iv Finally developed Oedipus complex e Dreams and Everyday Life i Dreams are road to the unconsciousquot ii Slips of the tongue also reveal unconscious f Personality and Psychosexual development 1 Oral ii Anal iii Phallic Oedipal complex and Electra Complex iv Genital v Each stage represents a con ict between gratification and limitations of the external world g Structure of Personality i ID pleasure and desires ii Ego reality iii Super ego needs 2 Vienna Psychoanalytic Society a Adler critiqued Freud s sexual theory forced to resign from the society b Carl Jung became estranged from Freud c Anna Freud developed psychoanalytic techniques for children 3 Personal Facts about Freud a Therapist against willquot b AntiAmerican c Refused to leave Germany d Finally left Germany and fortunately got out alive
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