Exam 1 study guide
Exam 1 study guide BIO102
Popular in Biology 102
Popular in Biology
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Karlee Barcellos on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO102 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Storfer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Biology 102 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/08/15
Bio 102 Exam 1 Study guide Main topics Evolution primarily through natural process of natural selection Natural Selection Animal behavior Social Behavior Origins of life Speciation Concepts Scientific method 0 Observation question hypothesis prediction test result 0 Science is a process that asks questions about natural systems Scientific method uses hypothesis testing to support or refute our ideas as to how things work Descent with modification Darwin 0 Relatedness of life forms 0 Homology similarities that link dissimilar life forms together common descent O Hierarchy current extant forms can be grouped by decreasing similarity 0 Change over time 0 Direct observation change observed in natural pop peppered moth 0 Fossil record documents abundant change I Extinction many fossils represent extinct organisms I Transitional forms Whale pelvis vestigial trait fossils show change in function and change 39 Succession change over time Horse 0 Life on earth is old fossil dating geological processes Natural selection 0 Gradual process by which biological traits become more or less frequent in a population based on the reproductive success of organisms in a surrounding environment Requires 0 Acts on individuals but shapes population 0 Neither progressive or forward looking 0 Adaptations usually benefit individuals not groups pop or species 0 Since individuals with traits more well matched to the environment produce more offspring future generations will have a greater proportion of indv in pop that have better matched traits 0 But environment changes so indv who have high fitness at one time may have offspring in further generations that aren t as fit 0 In a nutshell simply the fact that the most fit individuals have more offspring than less fit indv So these indiv contribute more genes to future generations Population gradually changes to resemble these most fit types Microevolution vs macroevolution 0 Microchange in pop characteristics through time 0 Macrolarger more noticeable changes can result in new species Integrated pest management 0 We in uence evolution 0 Careful use of pesticide alternating types 0 Biocontrol use of natural enemies predators parasites 0 Bioengineering produces resistant crops 0 Without bio control numbers of food loss would be higher Evolution of antibiotic or pesticide resistance 0 We in uence evolution 0 TB bacterial infection normally infects lungs 0 People stop taking drugs when feel better still able to spread then 0 Don t get ab for colds 0 Chimps not ancestors per se Ihare common ape like ancestor only 2 dif 0 Human evolution not a ladder some hominid ancestors overlapped 0 Cultural humans culturally complex but might human behavior have biological and evolutionary basis 0 No genes for behaviors per se not an excuse for some actions but proved useful insights why we may behave way we do mate choice 0 good genes 0 Sexy son hypothesis women cheat more at age 2233 than men 0 Biological basis of female versus male mate choice 0 Male I Youthfulnessattractiveness I Fidelity and dependability I Reproductive success more mating 0 Female I Men with recourses I Dependability I Stability and emotional maturity I Other intelligence and attractiveness I Reproductive success parental care 0 Importance of symmetry both male and female prefer 0 Symmetry in animals scorpion ies sword tails 0 Symmetry implications indicates developmental stability general sign of health and vigor Learned versus innate behavior 0 Leamed response based on past experiences much of human behavior 0 Salmon returning to same stream 0 Innate doesn t depend on past exp instinctive triggered when conditions right 0 EX breast feeding some are stereotyped dog digs on rug 0 Genes control innate fixed behaviors 0 Herring gull chicks peck on red spot on parents to get food 0 Some behaviors have a greater genetic basis and little to no environmental basis others have little genetic and large environment Imprinting learning that occurs quickly during limited time Habituation learning not to continue a response simplest form of learning so a chick cowering Social behavior evolution of sociality cost benefit analysis 0 Group living has cots and benefits socially evolves when benefits outweigh costs 0 Costs recourses must be shared competition predators attracted 0 groups parasite and diseases spread easier 0 Benefits easier to find mate more efficient in obtaining food provides protection detect predators access to scarce recourses Altruistic behavior indv seem to sacrifice opportunities to reproduce for benefit of others or even own safety 0 Genetic relatedness explains it sacrificing life to save family 0 Kin selection share 12 genes with siblings IA with aunts and grandparents 18 with cousins homology versus analogy 0 Homology similar structures due to common ancestry 0 Analogy similar structures due to common environment multiregional versus monogenesis model 0 Multiregional Pre modern humans spread around world came back into contact 0 Monogenesis Out of Africa fossil evidence DNA suggests African Ancestor Biological species concept 0 Groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups 0 KEY reproductive isolation 0 Prezygoticpostzygotic Prezygotic quotbefore eggquot 0 Temporal isolation salmon runs 0 Habitat isolation no contact 0 Behavioral isolation courtship 0 Mechanical isolation parts don t fit Postzygotic 0 Hybrid inviability die 0 Hybrid sterility mule allopatric speciation other Country speciation s 0 Process 0 Barrier blocks dispersal volcanoes river 0 Local environments differ adapt over time 0 If reconnect wont interbreed sympatric speciation together 0 Not particularly common in animals but plants 0 Errors in cell division cause extra sets of chromosomes salmon adaptive radiation evolution of ecological and photypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage include most recent common ancestor node and all its associated descendants tips mark the time when ancestral lineages split 0 Tips demark extant living species 0 Represents most recent common ancestors of species at the tips associated wit it Shared derived characters synapomorphies present in most recent ancestor and its descendants are what are used to distinguish that clade from the others that lack these characters Phylogeneitcs useful in reconstructing evolutionary relationships among species and origins of infectious diseases Definitions Bipedalism walking on two legs Hypothesis vs Theory 0 Hypothesis are falsifiable statements based on observations 0 Theory Predictions based on presumed outcome of experiment Memes sign stimulus specific features that trigger behavior Scala Naturae Aristotle 0 Species fixed don t evolve 0 Created by supernatural forces 0 Organized forms lower to higher Temple of Nature Charles grandfather earliest evolutionary thinkers 0 Life came from one living filament common ancestor Essay on the Principle of Population Thomas Malthus 0 Pop grow faster than food supply Pop growth checked by famine disease and war Systema Naturae Carl Linneaus Father of taxonomy 0 Binomial nomenclature 0 2 naming systems 0 Hierarchical classification kingdom phylum class order family genus spec1es Historical gures Charles Darwin Voyage of the Beagle 0 Galapagos finches 15 species 0 Finches come unique to indv island beaks for feeding on specialized food resembled mainland ancestor 0 Decent with modification Organisms not indv evolve over time 0 Primary mechanism of evolution change is natural change is natural selection 0 Darwinian evolution decent with modification change in pop over time
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