Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Comm 2321
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Rickard on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 2321 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Hillary Schulman in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Writing for Strat Comm in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/08/15
Exam 2 Study Guide Lecture 7 amp 8 Writin2 Leads and Releases Be able to define identify and apply different types of leads w statement that leads you into a story Summary lead short summary of the story in a sentence 30 or less words to the point factual SingleItem lead one or two points of a summary lead for a bigger punch Delayed Identification lead don39t want to identify the subject right away not lots of name recognition gt descriptive pronoun Creative lead more creative approach to reel in readers Short sentence one wordshort phrase acts as teaser gimmicky not good to use a lot Analogy make a comparison between what you39re talking about and something familiar to the average reader works well with complex issues Wordplay clever turn of phrase name word use with caution gt clever not misleading Scenic description of scene surrounding an event typical for stories where setting is prominent Storytelling narrative style drama to entice readers Startling Statement arouse reader interest by startling them Opposite lead cite first one point of view and then follow with opposite List lead preview a list Top 10 things clickbait Tips and Tricks for successful lead writing Know your Audience knowledge aids in defining the task of lead development identify items of importance to your target and rank them in order of substance inverted pyramid Establish your goal define concept you want to support or establish define the desired image or outcome you wish to create Brainstorm list of wordsphrases that convey what you want to communicate dictionariesthesaurus but be careful of uses of words in different context Support Vour theme or visual write down words that connect with your logo of visual you are trying to create Distill your message simplicity adds power Understand why lead writing is so important Good PR boils down to Good Writing Be able to define press releases and understand this release process Press release written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy The release Drocess company has news to share gt hires a PR firm to share said news gt PR firm releases news to outlets gt If deemed newsworthy story is published Be able to match up release type to media type Press release gt newspaper or magazine outlet Socipl Medip Relez gt online publication Video Release TV outlet Understand necessary considerations based on release type Press written quotes embedded in text sources named M hyperlinks included format appropriate m professional quality acceptable actors Be able to define identify and apply all parts of the standard format categories in a release Headline Dateline Introduction lead paragraph addresses 5 W39s Body further explanation stats background quotes or other details Boilerplate Close 30 or signals end of release Media Contact Information name phone email mail and anything else needed Difference between PR writing and creative writing 1 Take advantage of tools that make your writing FASTER to reader HeadingsSubheadings that are boldface Lists that are bold faced 2 Provide hyperlinks No unncessary detail points reader in right direction Provides richer story experience without overdoing Must use correctly to enhance credibility substantiate argument Make sure links work 3 Be clear in your writing simplicity is king Inverted pyramid style Most important Audience interest is low gt Next gt Next by the time you get here audience interest is high Stovall Chimter Be able to define these terms lexicon semantics phonology subject inverted sentence modifier parallelism Lexicon deals with the words that form the building blocks of the language Semantics the meanings that people assign to words can change over time Phonology the system by which the language is spoken allows a language to develop a standard way of being spoken so that we can understand each other Subject noun or noun substitute about which something is asserted or asked in the predicate John They Inverted sentence a sentence in which the usual or expected word order is changed not recommended for media writing At the head of the class stands the professor Modi er word or word group that describes limits or modifies another blue sky vigorously study stairs were dark and foreboding Parallelism a grammatical form that uses equal and corresponding words or word groups together in a sentence or paragraph running cooking and to swim vs running cooking and swimming Be able to identify an independent and dependent clause Independent clause has a subject and a verb expresses a complete thought John ran to the store Dependent clause has a subject and a verb does not express a complete thought After the rain had stopped Be able to define explain and x the following common grammar problems agreement activepassive voice dangling participles apostrophe use to form possessives writing with clarity and runon sentences Agreement singular or plural references singular subjects take singular verbs gt plural subjects take plural verbs AitivePgssive Voice the way that verbs are used active voice emphasizes the subject as the doer or perpetrator of the action passive voice throws the action onto the object amp often obscures the perpetrator of the action Active John throws the ball vs Passive The ball is thrown by John For mass media writers try to avoid the passive voice Stovall Chapter 5 Guidelines for writing headlines Different types of leads discussed in chapter NOT discussed in lecture Three rules for using quotes Tips for writing Lists Linking and Searching for Links Lecture 35 Theorv in PR and Message selection De ne a theory and be able to understand how it can be used to make predictions Recall The PR Process Research gt Planning gt Communication gt Evaluation Choosing a Message for the Right Reasons Theory Predictions about the way things work or what will happen Prediction of how events and actions are related Ex A wellknown theory is Evolution Understand components of the de nition of persuasion Theories of Persuasion amp Social In uence Persuasion an attempt to change modify completely shape create anew awareness reinforce to make what exists stronger Outcomes Awareness accepting for the first time Attitudes predisposition to likedislike Beliefs assessments that things are true or false Behavior observable actions Social Exchange theory Social In uence Theories Social Exchange Theory we make social decisions in the same way we make economic decisions We consider consequences to our actions We choose actions that keep costs low and rewards high Examples of Campaigns that would benefit from Social Exchange Theory EX Thrift stores same stuff for cheap Sprint saying they39ll cut your bill in half Any sort of green campaign Community college Don39t appeal to value appeal to savings Diffusion Theory and its related ideas The Social Norms Approach understand terms and examples The Social Norms ADDroach In general people prefer to act like everyone else Descriptive Norms Refer to one39s perception of what most others actually do Injunctive Norms Refer to one 39s perception of what others believe to be appropriate conduct In general people like to act like everybody else Why Two Tvnes of Norms Descriptive Refer to one39s perception of what most others actually do Iniunctive Norms Refer to one39s perception of what others believe to be appropriate conduct Social In uence Theories Diffusion Theory gt Intro Publics gt The tipping point people adapt to an idea after going through the following stages 1 Awareness 2 Interest 3 Evaluation 4 Trial 5 Adoption Intro Publics Innovators Early adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laggards The tjpping point Connectors Mavens Persuaders Potential Publics or Spokespeople Elaboration Likelihood model Elaboration Likelihood Model Central and Peripheral Routes high level of involvement takes the central route low level of involvement takes the peripheral route Involvement linked to argument strength when involved arguments are required when you aren39t source credibility is all that is required Popular message strategies in persuasion Popular Strategies Identification Makes ads relatable by playing on hopes fears desires or aspirations Suggestion of Action People will endorse ideas that are accompanied by a proposed and convenient action Familiarity and Trust People accept ideas from sources they are familiar with and trust Clarity Message is easy to understand Strengths and weaknesses of different media channel selections Bivins Ch 4 Two different message strategies in message development Things to notepractical advice for the persuader based on the Elaboration likelihood model Your book provides a list of questions for choosing the appropriate medium or media I want you to know four of these which does not include the tough ones list one but rather the followups listed on pg 57 Know these questions and be able to apply them to an example Be able to think through advantages and disadvantages of different media selections need not be memorized Negotiating media buys four areas to consider Evaluating your media buys important questions to ask Lectures 46 Writing for different platforms Writing for Different Platforms Is This Enough The Emerging World of PR Traditional Media Social Media Even in the World of Print J ourn So much output Longer lengths etc Solution Thinkabout Storv Features Before Platform Questions you should ask target audience who uses what outlets topic consistent or relevant frequency of publication Length certain outlets are better than others based on how long your release needs to be Ex Twitter for WhiteOut announcement at a basketball game good Story Type serious funny etc funny things go to Twitter YouTube Buzzfeed gt serious may go to HuffPost NY Times Online etc Feature a story and then every substory around that topic Ex Undisputed Champs riots Who will be quarterback Audience Goals as they relate to time prominence audience finances Cost how can you get free press Kev Ouestion When Would Print J ourn sm Be Ide Why have it anymore When is it preferable to have print When there is more credibility want the keepsakes you want news specific to an area When it is timely you want to know about something immediately Examples of new media success what they had in common be able to give examples Recall some of the Scavenger Hunt options Websites you used and how you were able to find information If you attended class you will be able to answer these questions It wouldn t hurt to look at your document though Stovall Chimter 7 The current climate of magazines and newspapers Components of a longform news story Different types of transitions Different types of news stories Common editing and rewriting issues Types of features Characteristics of feature writing and parts of this type of story Stovall Chapter 4 The current news culture 5 components Accuracy Components Verification and Attribution rules Simplicity guidelines Two components to reporting and how it s done different strategies Types of interview questions Different types of ethical behavior Stovall Chapter 10 Web characteristics and culture Different types of sites Tweet guidelines Audience demands online Characteristics of web writing Definition of lateral reporting and it s different forms Benefit of web packages Writing Pitch letters definition purposes components strategies do s and don ts format SMR s definition purposes components formats and examples of components Press release components and purpose Different types of lead writing Bivins Ch 6 Define news release and be able to identify the different emphases 3 Know about writing a news release be able to define the different types of lead the inverted pyramid style Know about the format of a news release pg 91 timing and dating releases datelines Know different types of news releases be able to identify them Know how to write a pitch letter pg 112
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