Exam 2 Study Guide - Sociology 101
Exam 2 Study Guide - Sociology 101 SOC101
Popular in Sociology 101-001 Intro To Sociology
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lesley Williams Reid in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 644 views. For similar materials see Sociology 101-001 Intro To Sociology in Sociology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/08/15
Sociology 101 31015 Exam 2 Study Guide The Stratification Process 0 Social differentiation division of labor 0 Social inequality unequal access to valued resources amp positions 0 Social stratification institutionalized social inequality Stratification process or system by which groups of people are arranged hierarchically in society has both cultural amp structural aspects 4 principles of stratification systems Principle 1 social stratification is a trait of society not simple a reflection of individual differences Principle 2 social stratification carries over from generation to generation Principle 3 social stratification is universal but variable it is everywhere but varies from societies Principle 4 social stratification involves both inequalities and beliefs Basis of Stratification Systems 0 Closed caste versus open class stratification systems Closed society where social mobility is highly restricted through formal or informal rules Open a social system with ample opportunities to move from one class to another 0 Ascribed status versus achieved status Ascribed not earned but something people are born with and had no control over Example children usually have more ascribed status than adults since they usually have no choice in most matters Achieved acquired on the basis of merit position that is earned or chosen and reflects a person s skills abilities and efforts Example professional athlete lawyer college professor criminal Theories of Stratification o Functionalist theories DavisMoore thesis What needs does stratification fill in society Social inequality is necessary because it fulfills vital system needs Factors that determine rank of occupations Functional importance Scarcity o Talent control of access to training by powerful and privileged groups creates artificial scarcity of talent much of the society s potential talent will go unutilized because of wealth education and professional associations 0 Training high income power prestige of a particular position are due to functional importance or scarcity of trained personnel 2 critiques of the functionalist perspective Society tends to overestimate the importance of high paying work when everything is focused on money People in this society who are born wealthy aren t given the opportunity to develop their talents like those who are not wealthy 0 Conflict theories Marx Sociology 101 31015 Exam 2 Study Guide Dichotomous class structure people in this society either own their own productive property or they work for others 0 Bourgeoisie these people own factories o Proletariat these people work in the factories Marx s labor theory of value the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of socially necessary labor required to produce it Weber What does Weber mean by life chances The opportunities that people have in common by virtue of belonging to a particular class Weber s multidimensional class structure and how it differs from Marx s dichotomous class structure Weber claims that social stratification involves 3 distinct dimensions of inequality 0 Weber s 3 dimensions of inequality Class economic dimension Status cultural and social dimension prestige Party political power Social Mobility change in position within the social hierarchy may be upward or downward o Intragenerational movement between social classes that occurs during the course of an individual s lifetime 0 Intergenerational movement between social classes that occurs from one generation to the next Meritocracy a system in which rewards are distributed based on merit Status Consistency a situation in which there are serious differences between the different elements of an individual s socioeconomic status Ideology belief systems that support the status quo according to Marx the dominant ideas of society are promoted by the ruling class Through their control of the communications industries in modern society the ruling class is able to produce ideas that reinforce their interests Kuznet39s Curve suggests that technological progress first sharply increases but then moderates the intensity of stratification Contemporary Models of Social Class in the US 0 Conventional model of class vs double diamond model 0 Double Diamond Model 4 types of capital that determine position in the model Consumption Capital Investment Capital Social Capital Skill Capital Classes that comprise this model names descriptions relative sizes of each group class Income Inequality 0 Definition of income the amount of money a person receives in a given period 0 How income inequality can be measured using shares of aggregate income the highestpaid 5 of all income which is more than the total earnings of the lowestpaid 40 0 Statistics to know Sociology 101 31015 Exam 2 Study Guide Percentage of income accrued by the top 20 of earners as of 2013 51 of income accrued by the top 20 of earners Minimum annual income threshold of the top 20 and top 1 of earners minimum annual income for the top 1 is 370000 Minimum annual income for the top 20 is 116000 Describe trends in income inequality over time the basic dimensions of the slide on incomes of the top 1 over the past 100 years income share of the top 1 was at it s peak in 1928 with income share at around 25 numbers declined until 1988 and increasing ever since Wealth Inequality O O 0 Definition of Wealth the total value of what one owns minus one s debts it is cumulative its value tends to increase through investment can be passed to the next generation giving those who inherit the wealth a considerable disadvantage in accumulating more resources Negative wealth families are living in debt and are at the bottom on the income distribution Explain how wealth inequality can be measured using shares of aggregate income the top 1 own 35 of the nation s private resources the top 5 owns 63 of all private property and the top 20 own 89 of the country s wealth Statistics to know Percentage of wealth controlled by the top 20 and top 1 of wealth holders as of 2011 889 of wealth controlled by top 20 top 1 controlled 398 Minimum wealth threshold of the top 10 and top 1 of wealth holders minimum wealth threshold for the top 10 is 3964000 and top 1 is 20561000 Describe the trends in wealth inequality over time basic dimensions of the slide on wealth holdings of the top 1 over the past 100 years wealth share of the top 1 was at its peak in 1928 with wealth share over 50 numbers declined around 1988 and increased since with over 40 of wealth share in 2013 Explain how wealth matters in determining life chances wealth is one of the most important sources of power a very small amount of people control most of the nation s wealth provides opportunities and lessens vulnerability Measuring Poverty 0 0 Federal Poverty Line the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of a household as determined by the government Below this line is considered poor To determine the FPL the social security administration takes a low cost food budget and multiplies by a factor of 3 assuming that the family spends approximately one third of its budget on food Explain the 5 problems associated with how we measure poverty using the FPL Its headcount approach identifies only the share of the people who fall below the poverty threshold but does not measure the depth of the economic need Does not reflect modern expenses and recourses excluding significant draws on income such as taxes work expenses outofpocket medical expenses and inkind benefits food assistance Does not vary by geographic differences in cost of living within the US Sociology 101 31015 Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Not adjusted for changes in the standard of living over time Only includes family people related by blood or marriage does not reflect the nature of many households including those made up of cohabiters unmarried partners with children from previous relationships or foster children Relative Poverty covers vital and biological needs such as food water clothing basic housing and a minimum of sanitation Absolute Poverty lack of one or more basic needs over a period long enough that it endangers one s life or can cause it harm Statistics and Trends in Poverty 0 0 Know the current poverty line for a family of 4 23850 Know the overall rate of poverty in 2010 151 of all persons lived in poverty highest poverty rate since 1993 Breakdown of the poverty rate by age in most states in the US children from the ages of 018 have a higher poverty rate overall than of adults ages 1964 but the elderly ages 65 have less poverty rate than adults Explain why poverty among the elderly has declined over time but poverty among children has not Social Security is often mentioned as a likely contributor to the decline in elderly poverty children are born into poverty if their parents were poor therefore the child cannot get out of poverty Variations in Poverty Describe the severity chronicity and concentration of poverty Many of the world s poor children live in the streets of cities forced to beg steal sell sex or serve as couriers for drug gangs in order to survive Little schooling little access to birth control and often give birth without assistance of a trained health professional What percentage of the poor are considered severely poor families living on less than 2 per day before government benefits roughly 12 of the US population in 2011 What percentage of the poor are chronically poor 33 Minority Majority Dichotomy O Minority groups any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that any society sets apart and subordinates 6 characteristics of minority groups shared physical or cultural characteristics involuntary membership unequal treatment relatively high solidarity endogamy does not have to be a numerical minority Race groups of people who have differences and similarities in biological traits deemed by society Ethnicity shared cultural practices perspectives and distinctions that set apart one group of people from another Prejudice rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people Stereotyping a simplified description applied to every person in some category Racism the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another Sociology 101 31015 Exam 2 Study Guide ColorBlind Racism o What is race biological traits Race as illusion What we perceive as race is one of the first things we notice about each other and attached to those characteristics is a mosaic of values assumptions and historical meanings Race as sociohistorical process Omi and Winant racial categories are created inhibited transformed o Color Blind Racism the use of the principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo disregard of racial characteristics when deciding if someone will participate in certain activities or receive certain services Example people claim to believe in race neutrality except when it hurts them Consequences people use this as a way to avoid the topic of racism and discrimination assumption we are living in a post race world when in fact we are not Statistics amp Trends 0 Patterns of income and wealth inequality by race and ethnicity Median family income by race from 1973 2013 approx Asian 1987 2013 60000 low 75000 high White 49000 low 62000 high Hispanic 35000 low 45000 high Black 28000 low 41000 high 0 Trends in poverty by race and ethnicity Rates of Poverty by Race from 1973 2013 White 7 low 13 high Hispanic 21 low 31 high Black 23 low 36 high Rates of Child Poverty by Race Asian 10 low 24 high White 9 low 15 high Hispanic 27 low 41 high Black 30 low 47 high De jure segregation different racial classes are separated by one another by law De facto segregation segregation in US during 19505 and 19605 was discrimination that was not segregation by law Assimilation process by which a person or persons acquire the social and psychological characteristics of a group 0 Waves of immigrants have been assimilated into the American culture Institutional racism any system of inequality based on race 0 Example public government bodies private business corporations and universities Salience principle we categorize people on the basis of what appears initially prominent and obvious characteristics are culturally determined ethnicity gender social class and religion are among the most prominent features by which people are categorized Stereotype interchangeability the principle that negative stereotypes are often interchangeable from one racial group to another social class to another from a racial group to a social class or from a social class to a gender
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