Test 1 Review
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Liya Oommen on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN3309 at a university taught by Dr. Beom Chan Lee in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 427 views.
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Date Created: 03/08/15
Biomechanics test review Linear kinematics important parameters 0 Velocity How fast How fast Positiontime o Acceleration Velocitytime 0 Position where Location in space relative to some reference point 0 Displacement amp distance How far Displacementl nal change in position Distanceljsum of all changes in position Vectors and Scalars o VectorD magnitude 0 Scalarl magnitude and direction How to solve kinematics problems 0 Step 1 identify clearly what the problem is asking 0 Step 2 identify the information you are given 0 Step 3 identify the relationships 0 Step 4 combine the given information and the relationships Muscles acting at the knee 0 Quadriceps of femorus muscle Rectus femoris Vastus medialis Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius The vertebral column 0 Vertical column provide rigid support and exibility o 33 vertebraeD 24 contribute to trunk movement The knee joint 0 Supports body weight 0 2 degrees of freedom Modi ed hinge joint Condyloid joint A double condyloid joint 0 Primary movement is exionextension The shoulder complex 0 Sternoclavicular articulation o Acromioclavicular articulation o Scappulothoracic Physiologic joint 0 Glenohumerall articulation Proprioceptive receptors 0 Sensory receptors 0 Muscle spindlel monitors muscle stretch o Golgi tendon organD monitors muscle force tension Electromyography EMG 0 Records and helps to evaluate the electrical activity produced by the skeletal muscles 0 Action potential Re ex o Myotactic reflex causes contraction of a muscle being stretched o Flexor reflex causes quick withdrawal exion of the limb o Cutaneous reflex causes relaxation of muscle with heat or massage Re ex o Involuntary neural response Reacts to a speci c sensory impulse in both time and space Recruitment and rate coding 0 Recruitment Tension is determined by the size and number of motor units recruited 0 Frequency coding High frequency can induce high tension production Motor Unit 0 Smallest unit of the neuromuscular system Muscle volume and cross section 0 Anatomical cross section Perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the muscle 0 Physiologic crosssection Sum total of all the cross section in the muscle Muscle architecture 0 Parallel The fascicles are parallel to the line axis of the muscle 0 Pennate Fibers run diagonally with respect to a central tendon Mechanical model of muscle 0 3 component model Contractile Converts stimulation into force Parallel elastic Allows muscle to be stretched Series elastic Transfers muscle force to the bone Net muscle actions 0 Isometric Muscle neither shortens nor lengthens o lsotonic Concentric muscle shortens to cause movement Eccentric The muscle contracts as it lengthens to resist control or slow down movement and maximal force is generated Characteristics and roles of muscles 0 Characteristics lrritability Contractility Extensibility Elasticity o Roles Prime mover Assistant mover Agonist Antagonist Neutralizer Sliding lament theory Myo brils and sarcomere o Contractile element of muscle ber 0 SarcomereD functional unit of skeletal muscle Muscle o 3 types of muscle Skeletal Cardiac Smooth o Classi ed as either striated unstriated or voluntaryinvoluntary Ligaments o Fibrous connective tissue that binds bone to bone Collagen elastin reticulin Capsular extracapsular intracapsular Viscoelastic Maximum stress related to cross sectional area 0 Loading ligaments become stronger and stiffer Articular cartilage and brocartilage o Articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage 6080 water Collagen and proteoglycan o Fibrocartilage Where articular cartilage meets tendon ligament Function improves t between bone Cartilage o Firm exible tissue 0 No blood supply nerves 0 Nourished by uid within the joint 0 Function joint exibility distributes load in joint Ossi cation remodeling modeling 0 Ossi cationD formation of bone 0 Modelingl create new bone 0 Remodelingl constant being removed and replaced Deposition osteoblasts Resorption osteoclasts Musculoskeletal system 0 Bones 0 Ligaments o Tendons o Muscles OOOO Stress strain curve 0 Yield point Elastic region up to yield point Plastic region past yield point 0 Failure Applied force continue past plastic region and tissue fails Stress and strain 0 The slope of the curve is a measure of stiffness K or E stress strain E elastic modulus 0 Stress x axis 0 Strain y axis STRESS FORCE APPLIED PER UNIT AREA FA STRAIN DERFORMATION CAUSED BY APPLIED STRESS o CHANGE IN LENGTH ORIGINAL LENGTH Absolute vs Relative o Absolutel axes intersects in the center of the joint 0 Relativel segment movement described relative to the adjacent segment Relative positions 0 Medial toward midline of the body Lateral away from midline of the body Proximal toward point of attachment Distal away from point of attachment Superior toward the top of the head Inferior toward the bottom of the feet Anterior front ventral Posterior back dorsal IpsiIateraI on the same side 0 Contralateral on opposite sides Statics vs dynamics 0 Statics Examines systems not moving or moving at a constant speed 0 Dynamics Examines systems that are accelerated Linear Vs angular motion 0 Linear motionD all points on a body move same distance same time o Angular motionD different regions of the same body segment do not move through the same space Kinematics vs Kinetics o KinematicsD spatial and temporal space amp time Force is not considered 0 Kinetics Examines forces torques that cause motion OOOOOOOO
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