Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide HIST 2710-01
Popular in United States History 1877-Present
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Popular in History
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Pollard on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2710-01 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. Mark Miller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see United States History 1877-Present in History at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
FINAL EXAM Study bundle Wrap Up New Deal - Social Security Administration: Retirement, worker’s comp., disabilities New Deal Legacy - Helps Americans persevere in 1930s - Established Modern Welfare State - Does not end Great Depression… (WW II does) WW II: Context/Larger Significance - Total War and Greatest Death Toll : civilians mostly the ones at risk - Holocaust & Genocide: 2 genocide (1 was Turkey against Armenians) UN had to come with an entire new word to describe the monstrosities; Mass killings were seen as uncivilized and so it’s crazy that Germany, a world power, did such a thing - Atomic Age Born (Terrible thing to end a terrible war), creating a weapon of mass destruction Great Depression Global Context - Because dictatorships and fascism was rising during a time of bad economic times, countries didn’t and couldn’t step. - New form of government. Fascism: Leaders - Adolf Hitler (Germany) and Benito Mussolini (Itlay) - + Japan: Emperor Hirohito (emperor is a divine entity) & Gen Tojo - Attributes of Fascism: Mussolini created, Strength through Unity, authoritarian, power is in the state, ultimate patriotism (including sexuality and family, one great leader that they are dependent on, militant (no division between gov and military), lack of political participation and freedom of speech, para-militaries beholden to great leader, rabid sense of ethnic nationalism verse civil nationalism, Aryan myth from India, great Romans, super Asians, Othering process with scape goating, Hilter and Nazi Ideology - Hitler bio: Austrian turned super German, wanted to be an artist, failed the test to get into art school, homeless for a time, joins German army during WW I, finds his home in society, blinded by gas attack, recovering in the hospital: asked for a pistol from the doctor, kept in dark about war with no freedom of press, thinks the jews caused germans to lose, when he gets out of the hospital to form the nazi socialist party, revolution against government fails, becomes folk hero, writes Mein Kampf in prison, full of charisma and a great public speaker, elected chancellor of Germany - People were disillusioned with capitalism and against corporate greed. Charles Lindbergh had to move to France to get away from paparazzi, Lindbergh was anti-Semitic and supported the Nazis, Asia: Imperial Japan- Hirohito and Gen. Tojo - Wanted to emulate western countries, industrialized and militated quickly - Needed resources for war; sent spies to blow up Japanese owned railroad and colonized a part of China - League of Nations: sanctions against Japan, impotent organization, take over large part of asia after Pearl harbor - Extreme code of honor: sacrifice all, comfort women (forced prostitutes- 100 men a day), American Isolationism and Neutrality Anew - Merchants of Death & Congress Hearings: Capitalist conspiracy to stimulate economy from the war, most Americans buy into this - WW I Revisionist School: looked at the causes of WW I, Germany unfairly blamed, militarism colonialism really responsible, bigger trend towards peaceful solution - Americans believe that maybe people are better than they are - America first: keep out of the war Italy invades Ethiopia 1935 - Sanctions placed on Italy (they don’t care) - FDR doesn’t want an insignificant thing to pull everyone into a war. Vietnam War in Context: America’s longest war, a proxy war, only war we lost, impacted presidential politics, draft dodger? Vietnam: America’s Longest War -First Indochina War -France v. Ho Chi Min’s Viet Minh France had as a colony and co-ran it with the local elites. They wanted it for the rubber. Most People were peasants. The Japanese came and took over and brutalized their people. Ho Chi Min has correspondence with FDR and FDR encourages this revolution against the Japanese. He looked to the Declaration of Indepence and America for inspiration. We like the drive for indepence but we hate communism soooTruman gave the French the go ahead to take back their colony. Ho Chi Min is pissed as hell and goes to war with the French. Guerillla War & Fr. Defeat Diem bin Phu 1954 Vietnamese people had been occupied for more than 1000 years and Ho Chi Min appealed to their desire to be free. Guerilla War: they were really successful at attacking and then blending into the surroundings. France was only really strong in the cities. Diem Bin Phu: they put all their eggs on the base. All the vietnames surrounded the base and the Vietnamese were able to surround and shoot down aircrafts. French leader commits suicide. 2 month long siege. France lost. Vietnam War: Geneva Accords; Partition on 17 parallel In south, pro America government. North controlled by the communist. 1956 elections were not allowed to happen because of the fear that Ho Chi Min (a communist) would win. So, basically, democracy is only good when it is doing what they want. Containment Policy Quarantine Communism; allow it to exist where it is but don’t allow it to spread. Domino Theory: Once one country falls to communism it can knock over other countries. Pretty racist theory to believe that people weren’t capable of acting on their own accord . Inherited War: Vietnam-Era Presidents Camelot Myths re: Kennedy and What ifs? - Had Kennedy not been assassinated, he would have prevented us from getting too bogged down in Vietnam. Probably would have still got involved Eisenhower LBJ- on tape expressing doubts about our ability to beat the Vietnamese in 1964. Vets incredibly angry about why they were sent there. Presidents don’t want to be the first to lose a war. When Eisenhower left office, he had 600 advisors on the ground. When Kennedy dies, there’s 1600 Escalation & Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Slowly but surely; the US commitment grows. Undeclared war era starts here. GoT Resoltion: Destroyers are fired upon so LBJ goes before Congress to get this present. Maddox most likely actually fired on, the second not. Congress gives LBJ a blank check to wage war which sets a dangerous precendent. US Bombing, LBJ, McNamara: Aerial Bombing McNamara: great war strategist, brilliant statistician. Two prong war strategy - Bombing of North: bomb them back to the stone age, more bombs were dropped in north Vietnam in any given year than all WWII bombs dropped put together - LBJ thinks Ho Chi Min has a price, but they don’t really have anything to lose. We obliterate their cities and factories. They build tunnels and get resupplied by the Chinese - US support on ground in the South American “ Nation Building” Pres. Diem, ARVN vs. Vietcong & North vs. Ho Chi Minh & Viet Min -Vietcong: guerilla war makers in the south - Pres. Diem: first president, western culture, rich leader, catholic, French educated, very elite, only a really good communist hater and a really good embezzler and a nepotism person PR issues: known for suppressing political opposition with imprisonment and torture, so a dictator; Madame Ngo “Dragon Lady” wore excess makeup, was really mean and insensitive - ARVN: Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the average soldier was glad to take the paycheck and just avoid getting shot and won’t really fight. Problems in the South: Buddhist Emollition Kennedy authorized a coup and Diem died. Kennedy was horrified that he caused the death of this man, even though he was terrible. Limited War, Limited Objectives We could have easily crushed them completely however we didn’t want to exterminate them. We’re trying not to go into North Vietnam, and LBJ does not want it to be a priority. The majority of Americans were supportive of the war throughout the sixties. General Westmoreland “Light at the end of the tunnel” in 1966 verse the Peace Movement Working Class War & Divisions Socio-economic factors in serving - 25% poor, 55% working class, 20% lower middle class Avoiding Service - Education deferment, Conscientious objector, fake physicals, married with children 1968, Key Year: Anti-War Movement SDS, Black Power, MLK: who’s dying in the war? Occupation, Columbia U: N. Vietnam Plan: Protestors/Democracy Strategies to Combat Guerillas (Viet Cong) Who’s the enemy? Stategic Hamlets: concentration camps minus the gas chambers, keeping an eye on the villagers so they won’t be victimized by the VC or help them, didn’t understand the culture, they worshipped their ancestors to an extent and we bulldozed their villages and forced them out of their homes Ho Chi Mihn using people as proganda and was banking on democracy to work A lot of the actual fighting was done by the VC; no uniforms, supplied from north Vietnam, used child soldiers, Abuses Abroad: Agent Orange Used to burn the leaves off trees so that the Americans could see in the jungle, but it also burned skin off of innocent people and was really damaging that way. About one half of the jungles were destroyed 1968 Stats Attrition rates: North Vietnam body count was ten times that of the US body count The 17 parallel border was still really strong. ARVN was doing well. War of Attrition, Draft and Tour of Duty Tour of Duty: one year fighting - Used to be a fight until the war over - Destroys comradery; after being out 6 months, soldiers were just worried about getting home alive. There was generally pretty low morale. These men had been raised on the heroic stories of WWII and John Wayne movies. They were really disappointed with the kind of war that Vietnam was. Modern travel put soldiers on the ground in less than a day which didn’t really give them time to bond with their unit. The Vietnam war becomes notorious for its drug use, probably due to the fact that the Saigon government and the CIA were dealing. TV war/the turning point: Tet offensive Feb. 1968 Tet is the week of the Vietnamese New Year; the Viet Cong attacked in the midst of the celebrations. Much of the attacks were televised and people back home were viewing them, absolutely shocked. They had been told that we were winning the war, and these attacks did not look like winning. This was really a symbolic victory for Ho Chi Minh because the US people really started not to like the war at this point even though most of the Viet Cong were quickly contained after this incident. Unpopular at Home War protests skyrocket in the early 70s LBJ 1968 “I will not seek/accept the party nomination” He retires from public life which had been his work all his life. He had made great strides in civil rights during his time in office, but he was beaten down by the war that he didn’t even want to be in. Dies just before the war ends, never seeing the end of it. Nixon’s election (1968) + the “Secret Plan” Secretary of State Richard Kissinger “Peace with Honor” (basically maintain the status quo;keep the south and beef up its army) US pulls out in 1973. Costs? Lots of lives, unhappiness and discontentment, and the equivalent of billions of dollars. The Civil Rights Movement: caused by failed reconstruction, the 1960s is sometimes called the 2 reconstruction Barries to Equality: Jim Crow Laws: Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 sanctions; separate but equal -Poll tax & literacy Exams -KKK Early Groups & Catalysts - WWII: Sevice; Seg Units Major Groups - CORE - NAACP: Legal Strat. - Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) + SNCC (Student non-violent coordinating comm.) Civil Rights, Postwar Gains -Truman De-segregates Armed Services and Federal Agencies/Washington DC in recognition of their service - Jackie Robinson; played in the negro leagues, is first black to play in major leagues plays on Dodgers, suffered in dignity and wins Rookie of the year Stubborn Jim Crow -24 of 48 states -Custom (Local not formal laws) Blacks thought this was the work -Private Business Right? -Utah: Lagoon ex. NAACP Early Strategy - Thrugood Marshall leads team (later becomes supreme court justice) - Sipuel v Oklahoma Board of Regents (1948): school denied smart girl entrance based on race and wanted them to create a black law school. They ended up admitting the students and putting them in their own roped off sections for them to still be separate. The supreme court said the states must provide a black law school. - Sweat v. Painter (1950) NAACP Legal Strategy - Thurgood Marshall: first to use social science data at the supreme court, just having different schools creates inferiority complex in blacks, show pictures of “equal” schools - Warren Court: Earl Warren is a very left leaning activist and leads a ton of progressive movements in civil rights - Brown v. Board of Education (1954): sympathetic client, get bussed across town despite living next to an elementary school - Justice Earl Warren: appointed by Eisenhower, has no lawyering background. Eisenhower later regrets. School De-segregation and Brown v. Board of Education -Outlaws segregated schools (1954); “Separate but Equal” violates Equal Protection clause in th 14 ; creates sense of inferiority - Brown II 1955: must integrate with “all deliberate speed” (too vague and many places took way too long to integrate) Southern Resistance -Southern Manifesto: 99 Sign; -led by Strom Thurmond (fathered child with maid) -George Wallace 1963 “Seg. Now, Seg. Tomorrow, Seg. Forver!” -Private “white” academies: SC/MS Massive Resistance: Central High School, Little Rock, 1957 -Women’s Committee: let’s integrate on our own. -Little Rock 9 selected: best and brightest black students -Gov. Orville Faubus: brings in national guard to barr their entry. NAACP gets injunction. When they attempted an entry for a second time, they were halted by a mob and one student Was hit by a brick in the head. - Federal Intervention: Eisenhower doesn’t like the Brown vs. Board case, however he can’t Have the embarrassment of the mob and a state defying the federal government.Federal troops protected the little rock 9 for a year. Grassroots Activism: Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 -Ms. Rosa Parks: Most people generally accepted segregation due to heavily southern and confederate influences. The one provision that really made people angry was that if the white section was full and the whites asked the blacks to give up their seat then they would have to under the law. Rosa was a secretary for the NAACP. She intentionally got arrested so they could sue. Women had been arrested before for this but weren’t sympathetic enough. It incites the bus boycott. For an entire year, they boycotted the buses. They don’t necessarily win because of the boycott. However, it helped their court case. -MLK, NAACP, & Montgomery Bus Boycott: MLK is going 27 at the time. He’s part of the elite black community, has PhD in theology from Boston University. -Non-violent Strategy: Thoreau (Civil Disobedience- if a society has certain laws that are unjust or immoral, then you have a moral duty to oppose them.), Gandhi (sit down strikes, hunger strikes, walks; brought down the British Empire) , Jesus Christ (turn the other cheek philosophy) WWJD; never act violently but allow violence to be acted upon you, -Southern Christian Leadership Conference: SNCC- Stokely Carmichael, John Lewis, Julian Bond -Grassroots/Popular Protests: Freedom Rides; Swim In (1946) Beat mercilessly; First “Sit In” Greensboro, NC (1961): Black college students sat in on white lunch counters, white people poured tea and ketchup on their heads, a lot of the activist kids showed up to picket; it hit them where it hurts- the wallet. Corporate integrated the lunch counters. -Birmingham, April 1963: MLK, SLCL, SNCC v. Eugene “Bull” Conner ( a straight villain), policeman with hoses, riot gear, dogs, cattle prods, -Presidential Leadership: JFK and Lindon B. Johnson: Black voters want a civil rights bill, the height of the cold war and the world is watching, -High Point: August 1963 March on Washington: MLK giving “I have a dream” speech Took place to get people to vote for the bill. Done in view of congress. -JFK Assassination Nov. 22, 1963: Civil rights people were a little worried about LBJ taking over because he’s from Texas. JFK used as a martyr. LBJ knew the congress very well and would intimidate people and put his arm around you at the same time, very convincing. Political courage-“I think I just lost the southern democrats for generations to come.” -Civil Rights Act of 1964: Banned discrimination in public accommodations, banned discrimination in hiring based on race, religion, or gender. Jim Crow laws are off the books. (Gender was thrown in there to get it voted out. But it stayed and was an important gain for women) -Voting Rights Act of 1965: leads to end of poll taxes and literacy exams, allows federal oversight of local elections (recently essentially struck down by Supreme Court) Model Cities & “Urban Renewal”; HUD - Pruitt-Igoe complex, St. Louis/demolition - HUD is still around today. Provides low income housing. National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities - By 1965 the gov was providing $100 mill a year for this. Corporation for public Broadcast and PBS - Created NOVA and Sesame Street and other educational programming - Critiscesd as being too liberal leaning for public Activist Warren Court 1953-69 - Earl Warren appointed by Eisenhower. Becomes very liberal and progressive to chagrin of Eisenhower - 5 to 4 liberal majority - Engel v. Vitale 1962: Jewish boy and nine others sued over public school prayer; lower courts ruled for state because the prayer was “voluntary”; Supreme Court wrote that this violated the establishment clause in the constitution and sided with the boys - Gideon v. Wainwright 1963: Clarence Earl GIddeon was a petty criminal, never had an attorney represent him, constitutional guarantee to fair trial implied the right to an attorney, (court appointed attorney) - Miranda v. Arizona 1966: Ernesto Miranda (kinda unsavory, petty criminal, known for shanking, arrested for raping and kidnapping a girl), police coerced confession out of him, Supreme Court uses fifth amendment, supreme court mandated rights get read to everyone who is arrested. - Griswold v. Conneticut 1965: came out of planned parenthood, state law to outlaw contraceptives and spread info about them; the court said that people have a reasonable right to privacy - Roe v. Wade (1973): woman’s right to privacy, legalized abortion Rise and Fall of the “Liberal Consensus” 1960-8 - Summary: expansion of rights for minorities and women, and expansion of federal government.
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