Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide 10120
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 10120 at Kent State University taught by Professor Grampa in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Biological Foundations Honors in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Copyright Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 1 1 Chapter 6 a De ne potential and kinetic energy and explain the difference between them b De ne redox reaction oxidation and reduction in which are electrons gained and in which are electrons lost Hint OiL RiG c De ne free energy d De ne what an endergonic reaction is what sign of AG it has and if it is spontaneous or not e De ne what an exergonic reaction is what sign of AG it has and if it is spontaneous or not f Describe the difference between an endergonic and an exergonic reaction g De ne ATP and list what it is made of h Describe the phosphate bonds that make up phosphate ie what level of energy how dif cult is it to break them and why what is the energy in them used to do once broken i De ne activation energy j Explain how enzymes affect activation energy and thus how they affect the reaction rate Copyright Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 2 De ne enzymes Explain why each enzyme only catalyzing 1 or a few reactions is bene cial List some places where enzymes are found and explain what determines the location of the enzyme De ne active site What is it called when a substrate binds to an active site Explain how the enzymes are able to stress the bonds of the substrate De ne multienzyme complexes De ne optimum temperature and list it De ne optimum pH list it and describe what happens to an enzyme if it is placed outside of its optimum pH De ne inhibitors and activators and describe the difference between the two De ne competitive inhibition and noncompetitive inhibition and explain the difference between the two Copyright Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 3 V De ne allosteric site W De ne cofactors give examples and state what they do to electrons and coenzymes give examples and explain the difference between the two x De ne anabolism catabolism and metabolism and explain the difference between the three y De ne and describe biochemical pathways list how we can control it and what effects it 2 De ne and describe negative feedback inhibition and explain how this is possible 2 Chapter 7 Hint keep in mind what we start with end with and the purpose of each process a De ne autotroph heterotroph and explain the difference between the two b Give the overall balanced redox equation for harvesting energy What do we start and end with c List and de ne the two reactions that harvest energy d List the 2 important electron carriers involved with harvesting energy e De ne NAD Give its oxidized form reduced form and what NAD must receive to become NADH Copyright Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 4 Where does glycolysis occur What do we start with for glycolysis what do we end with and what is the purpose Explain each state of glycolysis what is happening in each and what the product of each is Why does NADH need to be recycled and what is the purpose of NAD What happens to pyruvate after glycolysis Explain the process of oxidation of pyruvate De ne and describe the Krebs cycle What is the net yield for 1 round of the cycle De ne and describe the electron transport chain Where are electrons being pumped Where does it get its electrons Copyright Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 5 0 List and describe the 6 components of the electron transport chain and describe whether each component is a proton pump or an intermediate p De ne ATP synthase how much ATP is made per 1 molecule of it and where it pumps electrons q List de ne and describe the 2 portion of ATP synthase r List the yield of glycolysis the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation and thus state how much ATP per glucose molecule is made 3 Chapter 8 a De ne photosynthesis list the 3 steps and give the balanced equation for the reaction b De ne thylakoid disks grana chlorophyll and stroma c De ne chlorophyll and carotenoids and describe the difference between the two d List and describe the 4 steps of a lightdependent reactions and state where it occurs e De ne antenna compleX and reaction center and describe the difference between the two Copyright Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 6 f Describe the noncyclic photophosphorylation Z diagram What is the proton pump What is the function of the b639f complex What is the function of NADP reductase g Describe chemiosmosis in a photosystem h De ne and describe the Calvin Cycle ie what steps occur what is the function of rubisco and how many cycle turns does it take to make 1 molecule of glucose 4 Chapter 10 a De ne binary ssion daughter cells origin of replication and septum b Describe how many chromosomes each cell of the human body cellshow many pairs it has c Describe the difference between a chromosome and a chromatin d List and describe the 5 stages of the cell cycle ie what is happening in which which stages are collectively interphase which are collectively M phase e De ne G0 f De ne cohesin proteins sister chromatid kinetochore and centromere Copyright Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 7 g List and describe the 5 substages of Mitosis and what is happening in each stage h De ne cyclinedependent kinases and cyclins and describe the difference between the two i List and describe each checkpoint and for each state what factors can prevent the cell from making it through j De ne growth factors and describe what they trigger and what would happen without them k De ne the p53 gene and state what it does when DNA is damaged and what happens if it cannot do this How does the p53 gene relate to cancer cells What is characteristic of cancer cells that involves the cell cycle
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