Midterm Study Guide
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Date Created: 03/08/15
NOTE USE THIS STUDY GUIDE BUT DEFINITELY READ THE CHAPTERS YOURSELF There39s a lot of information that might not be covered by this guide or the included notes This is a GUIDE ONLY Side note from class Supreme Court King vs Burwell King is the plaintiff 1 of 4 persons suing the Secretary of Health and Human Services responsible for implementing Obamacare attacking the wording of the law written by Congress Many states refuse to set up exchanges for individuals who need subsidies for insurance so there is a national exchange there is a question about federalism amp the role of federal government Essentially an attempt by enemies of the law to kill the law Obamacare Law39s quotThreeLegged Stoolquot 1 Insurance companies cannot deny coverage for preexisting conditions 2 If you can afford insurance you must buy it addresses the problem of insurance companies must sell coverage by ensuring you must buy insurance 3 Those who cannot afford it can be covered by Medicaid or be subsidized by the statefederal government Very important affects millions of people For instance companies who are already adjusting to this law will have to revise business plans if the law is knocked out Class Notes Review 0 Government amp politics 0 Huntergatherer groups collective decisions easy decisions when small groups maybe 100 adults could just gather around and gure out what to do 0 Politics existed it just could exist pretty informally 0 Once people began to settle down amp the population increased 0 Larger populations living densely the problems of quotcollective actionquot Defense etc o A more formal governmental structure defense force organized 0 Construction projects require huge amounts of people means huge collective decisions amp making people accept the legitimacy of these choices 0 So large governments larger public duties ways of raising taxes Historically 20 to 40 Hammurabiera taxes the same level of USA taxes today 0 The idea of divine right A good basis in religious societies maybe Not so much in the modern religiously diverse world 0 Family power passed down 0 Lots of symbolic monarchs now not very many effective ones monarchies are generally controlled by parliaments now In 19th 20th century most political systems became organized around nationstates Canada Mexico Italy United States Frequently facilitate trade and commerce ProUS vs 13 separate states easier to trade across states rather than the barriers involved in separate countries Large nationstates can raise large armies defend themselves wahey People outside of this system or states that have collapsed back to anarchy Most of us now live in stable nationstates In 20th cent particularly in 205 and 305 rise of fascism that centralized power in a single gure Mussolini Hitler OFC those folks instrumental in WWII lost so fascism has largely fallen out of favor Communism idea goes back to 19th century thinkers of Karl Marx didn39t take over any nationstates until 1918 in Russia Civil War consolidated power amp got a real world effort to implement the idea of communism starting in what became the soviet union Rests on dubious principles some are admirable helping normal people distributing wealth and justice Some don39t work How do you incentivize people to work harder if rewards are all the same Soviet backed off pure communism tended to favor members of their own party and then the soviet union collapsed due to its own idiocy Some system remain in Communism eg Cuba varying degrees of success steadily moving away from Marxist economic model now towards China and Vietnam unusual marriage of capitalistic economy but retaining Marxist idea of communist party the only one to rule 0 Lots of economic freedom but not a lot of political freedom So it39s still around 0 Mostly representative democracies now Even in a large country certain persons are citizens Every political system has subject people who obey certain rules Idea of democracy also a citizen Legitimacy as a citizen you can help make the rules that bind you In a small Athenian citystate citizens can meet and argue personally Doesn t work in the huge US So it39s now representative democracy Can39t govern the whole nation directly Select people that run the country president governors mayors congressmen legislators Less than 10 thousand of these people most of us are not in this political elite But the elite are not picked by insiders or by their birth 0 Subject to public vote Example electoral college 0 Votes for electors who actually vote for the president 0 The way we vote affects the vote of electors Legitimacy is established by winning elections 0 Sometimes especially in local level people can vote directly 0 But at national level that s not possible No national vote on an issue 0 Vote for individuals to provide government 0 Appoint people like supreme court justices who have lots of power 0 Can be removed but not by the people by the other political elites 0 Can be impeached amp then removed if convicted o Started when we broke away from England Articles of confederation made states fairly independent from the federal government hung together for the war After war countries were in danger of falling apart Created pressure to make the constitution which united the US 1787 has been changed but not a lot 0 some parts like the electoral college are clearly out of date would not adopt this if we had begun from scratch hard to change what39s quoton the booksquot 0 the framers made it dif cult to formally amend 0 you CAN do it 0 but it requires supermajorities 23 state 23 of house and senate just to PROPOSE 34 states to ratify it 0 Even when an amendment is popular it39s very dif cult to get it done Pretty much stuck with it But emergence of the supreme court has made it easier to modify taken upon themselves the power ofjudicial review judging the constitutionality of certain laws Pretty clearly made substantial adjustments to the law although they do not amend it formally The constitution is largely xed but whenever we have questions about the meaning of a law we turn to the supreme court 0 More important in the 21St century when the president and congress are at odds When deadlocked the judiciary becomes more important and president too because he has some power to act independenUy So we must pay attention to the constitution but also to how the court adjusts it If it s pretty clear that most people are on one side that39s generally the way we go electing presidents creating laws 0 Public Opinion SC has the most con dence of most of the people 0 Mostly following public opinion 0 In some issues the country is deeply divided Now courts don39t often get involved in foreign policy or national defense issues don39t take a side It s a political question not a constitutional one On domestic policy have a much more interventionist court Framers gave us system that gives a lot more power to the national government but split it up because they didn t really trust people CHECKS AND BALANCES quotmore effective government is necessary but can39t give the president too much power have him elected separately from congress congress can remove president rein him in in other ways such as refusing to fundquot 0 President can veto a Congress bill he dislikes o Override is possible but it is dif cult o Supermajority 23 vote 0 Sometimes can appeal to Supreme court if domestic issue 0 How does Congress check the Court 0 Nominated by President approved by Congress 0 COULD be impeached and removed like President but has never happened 0 Can quotpack the courtquot ADDS seats to the Court Roosevelt adds 6 new judges to the 9 old judges Didn39t work though If you39re blocked in one place you can gure out how to go a different way 0 Can the congress gure out a smart way to ght President Obama There are options Government of the US a constitution is an quotinvitation to strugglequot Con ict is inevitable in politics Governmental system is set up in a way that guarantees political con ict 0 Not just with other parties but with your own party too Nixon forced out not by the opposing party but his own party which refused to now defend him A complicated system does not work ef ciently More designed to Stop Bad Things than Do Good Things 0 Parliament are often more ef cient o Parliaments generally have a majority Decides to do A B C D they happen 0 President in con ict with others Does not get all his goals Every state gets 2 senators so they have an equal say in Senate States also get population proportional representation in House of Representative Big states have a lot of in uence in the House Small states have lots of in uence in the Senate Senate overrepresents the interests of small states the House represents the interest of big states Different eras of Federalism o Lately more con ict Many of the Republican governors are hostile to the Federal government 0 Have had collaborations The interstate construction of infrastructure When Louisiana devastated by hurricanes federal resources help them out 0 Less con ict with Republican president and majority Republican governors no bipartisan con ict 0 Sometimes they cooperate sometimes not One rule to keep in mind people argue about Where s The Right Place To Decide Things 0 People mostly want things to be argued in places they ll win Going to win locally quotLet the State decidequot Governors in big cities are generally Democratic and much more liberal than state governments THOSE IN POWER WANT TO CONSERVE POWER THOSE OUT OF POWER WANT TO DECENTRALIZE POWER See this with the Supreme Court 0 605 and 705 judges were generally liberal liberal people happy with the rulings supplied 0 But since then as republicans win more presidential elections republican presidents appoint true conservatives to the court reliably decide matters in the way the president expects 0 So for a number of years a majority of the justices are appointed by republican presidents Conservatives now saying that supreme court should decide these matters because they believe the supreme court is sympathetic to them 0 An example Texas is a majorityminority state 0 Now a very live issue Texas State historically has Anglo students state attempted to address this by af rmative action programs but ran into court rulings which knocked them over 0 Hopwood Rule in Texas if you graduated in the top 10 percent you go to the front of the line to get into a public university 0 Fisher v Texas in the top 12 not a legacy student not an athlete didn39t get into UT has sued UT 0 However they go to the Supreme Court rather than the local legislature because the local legislature is going to rule against conservatives Politicalsocialization 0 Review agents of socialization think about how they apply to you how they don39t not for the midterm but feeds into the autobio essay How we measure things like public opinion How that39s changed over time 0 Chapters on Texas 0 Very different state than many quotunusual historyquot 0 O O Settled fairly late by European colonists For a brief time we were an independent state Negotiated ourselves into the country just before the civil war Sided with the Confederacy Endured the bitterness of losing this war and being militarily occupied Left us with a very conservative bent Wrote a very conservative constitution much newer than the 1787 Written in 1875 approved 1876 Lot younger lot longer lot more restrictive not as much power centralized in the state but easily amended Tacked on 500 amendments Is not as important how it39s interpreted It39s so damn long and explicit A quotdynamic statequot For the rst 100 years or so very agricultural dependent on cotton cattle then oil Very rural state for a long time Today we re one of the most urban states in the country 0 Population really compressed into metropolitan areas Houston DallasFort Worth 0 Rarely losing population 0 With our proximity to Mexico always had a substantial Hispanic population Cities now getting waves of immigration from Asian countries Middle East In 1930 black minority white majority Texas is now one of the most rapidly changing states Whatever it is today it39s not going to stay the way it is With this population movement shit39s changing a lot Patterns are reversing African Americans often leaving Texas now more Black citizens are leaving California and returning to Texas than are going the other way 0 Not nearly as much immigration of Hispanics but a high birthrate amongst Hispanic families that are already in Houston 0 Less dependent on oil than we used to be Houston has much based on energy getting more diverse Service industries medical 0 Looking more amp more like big states California New York have more diverse pop more diverse economic base etc 0 00000 BE AWARE Texas is unique but has gotten more like others Politically very red state 0 Conservative culture dominated by Republicans in offices 0 Likely to continue for the foreseeable future FINAL WORD FROM PROFESSOR review the lecture notes before you go through these chapters Just before the test Thursday look at your notes again CHAPTE R 1 VOCAB U LARY 1 Politics The process of deciding who gets bene ts in society and who is excluded from bene ting 2 Ef cacy Citizens39 belief that they have the ability to achieve something desirable and that the government listens to people like them 3 Civic engagement Individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern 4 Political engagement Citizen actions that are intended to solve public problems through political means 5 Government The institution that creates and implements policy and laws that guide the conduct of the nation and its citizens 6 Citizens Those members of the polity who through birth or naturalization enjoy the rights privileges and responsibilities attached to membership in a given nation 7 Naturalization The process of becoming a citizen by means other than birth as in the case of immigrants 8 Legitimacy The valid right of government to rule 9 Public goods Services governments provide that are available to everyone like clean air clean water airport security and highways 10Monarchy A government in which a member of a royal family usually a king or queen has absolute authority over a territory and its government 110ligarchy A government in which an elite few hold power 12Democracy A government in which supreme power of governance lies in the hands of its citizens 13Totalitarianism A system of government in which the government essentially controls every aspect of people39s lives 14Authoritarianism A system of government in which the government holds strong powers but is checked by some forces 15Constitutionalism A system of government that is structured by law and in which the power of government is limited 16Limited government Government that is restricted in what it can do so that the rights of the people are protected 17Divine right of kings The assertion that monarchies as a manifestation of God39s will could rule absolutely without regard to the will or wellbeing of their subjects 18Social contract An agreement between the people and their leaders in which the people agree to give up some liberties so that their other liberties are protected 19Natural law The assertion that standards that govern human behavior are derived from the nature of humans themselves and can be universally appHed 20Popular sovereignty The theory that government is created by the people and depends on the people for the authority to rule 21Social contract theory The idea that individuals possess free will and every individual is equally endowed with the Godgiven right of self determination and the ability to consent to be governed 22Direct democracy A system of government that allows citizens to vote directly to approve or reject proposed public policies or to force an elected of cial from of ce before the completion of his or her term 23lndirect democracy Sometimes called a representative democracy a system in which citizens elect representatives who decide policies on behalf of their constituents 24Political culture The people39s collective beliefs and attitudes about government and political processes 25Liberty The most essential quality of American democracy it is both the freedom from governmental interference in citizens39 lives and the freedom to pursue happiness 26Capitalism An economic system in which the means of producing wealth are privately owned and operated to produce pro ts 27Property Anything that can be owned Duh 28Consent of the governed The idea that in a democracy the government39s power derives from the consent of the people 29Majority Rule The idea that in a democracy only policies with 50 percent plus one vote are enacted and only candidates that win 50 percent plus one vote are elected 30Political ideology An integrated system of ideas or beliefs about political values in general and the role of government in particular 31Liberalism An ideology that advocates change in the social political and economic realms to better protect the wellbeing of individuals and to produce equality within society 32Conservatism An ideology that emphasizes preserving tradition and relying on community and family as mechanisms of continuity in society 33Socialism An ideology that advocates economic equality theoretically achieved by having the government or workers own the means of production businesses and industry 34Libertarianism An ideology whose advocates believe that government should take a quothands offquot approach in most matters CHAPTE R 2 VOCAB U LARY 1 P1P 10 11 Constitution The fundamental principles of a government and the basic structure and procedures by which the government operates to ful ll those principles may be written or unwritten Natural rights The rights possessed by all humans as a gift from nature or God including the rights to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness Also called unalienable rights Republic A government that derives its authority from the people and in which citizens elect government officials to represent them in the processes by which laws are made a representative democracy Bicameral legislatures legislature comprising two parts called chambers Bill of rights A written list of citizens39 liberties within a constitution that establishes a limited government by ensuring that both the people and the government know what freedoms the government cannot violate Confederation A union of independent states in which each state retains its sovereignty rights and power which is not by their agreement expressly delegated to a central governing body Unicameral legislature a legislative body with a single chamber Dual sovereignty A system of government in which ultimate governing authority is divided between two levels of government a central government and regional governments with each level having ultimate authority over different policy matters Supremacy clause The paragraph in Article VI that makes the Constitution and the treaties and laws created in compliance with it the supreme law of theland Separation of powers The Constitution39s delegation of authority for the primary governing functions among three branches of government so that no one group of government officials controls all the governing functions Checks and balances The mechanisms by which each branch of government can monitor and limit the functions of the other branches 12Virginia plan The new governmental structure proposed by the Virginia 13 14 delegation to the Constitutional Convention it consisted of a bicameral legislature Congress an executive elected by the legislature and a separate national judiciary state representation in Congress would be proportional based on state population the people would elect members to the lower house and members of the lower house would elect the members of the upper house New Jersey plan The proposal presented in response to the Virginia Plan by the less populous states at the Constitutional Convention which called for a unicameral national legislature in which all states would have an equal voice equal representation an executive of ce composed of several people elected by Congress and a Supreme Court whose members would be appointed by the executive of ce Connecticut Compromise Also called the Great Compromise At the constitutional convention the compromise between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan that created a bicameral legislature with one chamber39s representation based on population the House of Representatives and the other chamber having two members for each state the Senate 15Electoral College A group of people elected by voters in each state to elect the president and the vice president 16ThreeFifths Compromise The negotiated agreement by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention to count each slave as three fths of a free man for the purpose of representation and taxes 17Veto An executive power held by the president who can reject a bill and return it to Congress with reasons for the rejection 18Advice and consent The Senate39s authority to approve or reject the president39s top appointments 19Marbury v Madison The 1803 Supreme Court case that established the power ofjudicial review 20udicial review Court authority to determine that an action taken by any government of cial or governing body violates the Constitution 21Federalists Individuals who supported the new Constitution as presented by the Constitutional Convention in 1787 22AntiFederalists Individuals who opposed rati cation of the Constitution because they were deeply suspicious of the powers it gave to the national government and of the impact these powers would have on states39 authority and individual freedoms 23 The Federalist Papers A series of essays written by james Madison Alexander Hamilton and john jay that argued for the rati cation of the Constitution 35 CHAPTE R 3 VOCAB U LARY 1 Federal System A governmental structure with two levels of government and in which each level has sovereignty over different governmental functions and policy matters 2 Unitary system A governmental structure in which one central government has sovereignty although it may create regional governments to which it delegates responsibilities 3 Confederal system A structure of government in which several independent sovereign governments agree to cooperate on speci ed governmental matters while retaining sovereignty over all other governmental matters within theirjurisdictions 4 Concurrent powers The basic governing functions of all sovereign governments in the United States they are held by the national state and local governments and include the authority to tax to make policy and to implement policy and the power of eminent domain 5 Enumerated powers The powers of the national government that are listed in the Constitution 6 Implied powers The powers of the national government that are not enumerated in the Constitution but that Congress claims are necessary and proper for the national government to ful ll its enumerated powers in accordance with the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution 7 Necessary and proper clause A clause in Article I section 8 of the Constitution that gives Congress the power to do whatever it deems necessary and constitutional to meet its enumerated obligations the basis for the implied powers Sometimes called the elastic clause because it can be stretched to t Congress39s needs 8 Elastic clause The necessary and proper clause as above 9 Supreme law of the land The US Constitution39s description of its own authority meaning that all laws made by governments within the United States must be in compliance with the Constitution 10Reserved powers The matters referred to in the Tenth Amendment over which states retain sovereignty 11Police powers The states39 reserved powers to protect the health safety lives and properties of residents in a state 12McCuIIoch v Maryland The 1819 case that established that the necessary and proper clause justi es broad understandings of enumerated powers 13Full faith and credit clause The constitutional clause that requires states to comply with and uphold the public acts records and judicial decisions of other states 14New judicial federalism The practice whereby state judges base decisions regarding civil rights and liberties on their state39s constitution rather than the US Constitution when their state39s constitution guarantees more than minimum rights 15Dual federalism The relationship between the national and state governments dominant between 1789 and 1932 whereby the two levels of government functioned independently of each other to address their distinct constitutional responsibilities 16Grantsinaid The transfer of money from one government to another government or from a government to a nonpro t organization a forpro t organization or an individual that does not need to be paid back 17lntergovernmental transfers another name for grantsinaid as above 18Cooperative federalism The relationship between the national and state governments whereby the two levels of government work together to address domestic matters reserved to the states driven by the policy priorities of the states 19Centralized federalism The relationship between the national and state governments whereby the national government imposes its policy preferences on state governments 20Devolution The process whereby the national government returns policy responsibilities to state andor local governments 21Con icted federalism The current status of nationalstate relations that involve the con icting elements of dual cooperative and centralized federalisms 22Fiscal federalism The relationship between the national government and state and local governments whereby the national government provides grant money to state and local governments 23Categorical formula grant The intergovernmental transfer of money for a speci ed program area for which the amount of money a government is eligible to receive is based on a legislated formula 24Categorical project grant The intergovernmental transfer of money for a speci ed program area for which recipients compete by proposing speci c projects they want to implement 25Block grant The intergovernmental transfer of money that has fewer conditions of aid than a categorical grant and is used for broadly de ned policy areas it is distributed based on complicated formulas 26lntergovernmental lobbying Efforts by groups representing state and local governments to in uence national domestic policy 27Mandates Clauses in legislation that direct state and local governments to comply with national legislation and national standards 28Preemption The constitutionally based principle that allows a national law to supersede state or local laws 29lntergovernmental relations IGR The collaborative efforts of two or more levels of government working to serve the public CHAPTE R 4 VOCAB U LARY 1 Civil Liberties Constitutionally established guarantees that protect citizens opinions and property against arbitrary government interference 2 Due process The legal safeguards that prevent the government from arbitrarily depriving citizens of life liberty or property guaranteed by the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments 3 Total incorporation The theory that the Fourteenth Amendment39s due process clause requires the states to uphold a freedoms in the Bill of Rights rejected by the Supreme Court in favor of selective incorporation 4 Selective incorporation The process by which over time the Supreme Court applied those freedoms that served some fundamental principle of liberty or justice to the states thus rejecting total incorporation 5 Marketplace of Ideas A concept at the core of the freedoms of expression and press based on the belief that true and free political discourse depends upon a free and unrestrained discussion of ideas 6 Habeas corpus An ancient right that protects an individual in custody from being held without the right to be heard in a court of law 7 Clear and present danger test A standard established in the 1919 Supreme Court case Schenck v US whereby the government may silence speech or expression when there is a clear and present danger that this speech will bring about some harm that the government has the power to prevent 8 Bad tendency test A standard established in the 1925 case Git0W v New York whereby any speech that has the tendency to incite crime or disturb the public peace can be silenced 9 Clear and probable danger test A standard established in the 1951 case Dennis v US whereby the government could suppress speech to avoid grave danger even if the probability of the dangerous result was relatively remote replaced by the imminent lawless action incitement test in 1969 10lmminent lawless action test A standard established in the 1969 Brandenburg v Ohio case whereby speech is restricted only if it goes beyond mere advocacy or words to create a high likelihood of imminent disorder or lawlessness 11lncitement test another name for the imminent lawless action test 12Symbolic speech Nonverbal quotspeechquot in the form of an action such as picketing ag burning or wearing an armband to signify a protest 13Commercial speech Advertising statements that describe products 14Libel False written statements about others that harm their reputation 15Slander False verbal statements about others that harm their reputation 160bscenity Indecent or offensive speech or expression 17Fighting words Speech that is likely to bring about public disorder or chaos the Supreme Court has held that this speech may be banned in public places to ensure the preservation of public order 18Time place and manner restrictions Regulations regarding when where or how expression may occur must be content neutral 19Prior restraint A form of censorship by the government whereby it blocks the publication of news stories viewed as libelous or harmful 20Establishment clause The First Amendment clause that bars the government from passing any law quotrespecting an establishment of religionquot often interpreted as a separation of church and state but increasingly queonned 21Lemon test A threepart test established by the Supreme Court in the 1971 case Lemon v Kurtzman to determine whether government aid to parochial schools is constitutional the test is also applied to other cases involving the establishment clause 22lntelligent design The theory that the apparent design in the universe and in living things is the product of an intelligent cause rather than of an undirected process such as natural selection its primary proponents believe that the designer is God and seek to rede ne science to accept supernatural explanations 23Creationism A theory of the creation of the earth and humankind that is based on a literal interpretation of the biblical story of Genesis 24Free exercise clause The First Amendment clause prohibiting the government from enacting laws prohibiting an individual39s practice of his or her religion often in contention with the establishment clause 25Right to privacy The right of an individual to be left alone and to make decisions freely without the interference of others 26Double jeopardy The trying of a person for the same crime that he or she has been cleared of in court barred by the Fifth Amendment 27Miranda rights A criminal procedural rule established in the 1966 case Miranda v Arizona requiring police to inform criminal suspects on their arrest of their legal rights such as the right to remain silent and the right to counsel these warnings must be read to suspects before interrogation 28Rendition The transfer of suspected terrorists to other nations for imprisonment and interrogation this practice circumvents US law which requires due process and prohibits torture CHAPTE R 5 VOCAB U LARY 1 Civil rights The rights and privileges guaranteed to all citizens under the equal protection and due process clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth amendments the idea that individuals are protected from discrimination based on characteristics such as race national origin religion and sex 2 Inherent characteristics Individual attributes such as race national origin religion and sex 3 Suspect classi cations Distinctions based on race religion national origin and sex which are assumed to be illegitimate 4 Strict scrutiny test Guidelines the courts use to determine the legality of all but sexbased discrimination on the basis of this test discrimination is legal if it is a necessary means by which the government can achieve a compelling public interest 5 Heightened scrutiny test The guidelines used most frequently by the courts to determine the legality of sexbased discrimination on the basis of this test sexbased discrimination is legal if the government can prove that it is substantially related to the achievement of an important public interest 6 Intermediate scrutiny test another name for the heightened scrutiny test as above 7 Ordinary scrutiny test The guidelines the courts used between 1873 and 1976 to determine the legality of sexbased discrimination on the basis of this test sexbased discrimination is legal if it is a reasonable means by which the government can achieve a legitimate public interest 8 Rational basis test another name for the ordinary scrutiny test as above 9 Civil disobedience Active but nonviolent refusal to comply with laws or governmental policies that are morally objectionable 10Standing to sue The ability to bring lawsuits in court 11Reconstruction era The time after the Civil War between 1866 and 1877 when the institutions and infrastructure of the South were rebuilt 12Black codes Laws passed immediately after the Civil War by the confederate states that limited the rights of quotfreemenquot former slaves 13im Crow laws Laws requiring the strict separation of racial groups with whites and quotnonwhitesquot required to attend separate schools work in different jobs and use segregated public accommodations such as transportation and restaurants 14De jure segregation Segregation mandated by law 15White primary A primary election in which a party39s nominees for general election were chosen but in which only white people were allowed to vote 16Literacy test A test to determine eligibility to vote designed so that few African Americans would pass 17Poll tax A fee for voting levied to prevent poor African Americans in the South from voting 18Grandfather clause A clause exempting individuals from voting conditions such as poll taxes or literacy tests if they or their ancestor had voted before 1870 thus sparing most white voters in the South 19Plessy vFerguson 1896 Supreme Court ruling creating the separate but equal doctrine 20Equal protection clause The Fourteenth Amendment clause stating that no state shall quotdeny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the lawsquot 21Separate but equal doctrine Established by the Supreme Court in Pessy v Ferguson it said that separate but equal facilities for whites and nonwhites do not violate the Fourteenth Amendment39s equal protection clause 22Brown v Board of Education of Topeka This 1954 Supreme Court decision ruled that segregated schools violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment 23Steering The practice by which realtors steered African American families to certain neighborhoods and white families to others 24De facto segregation Segregation caused by the fact that people tend to live in neighborhoods with others of their own race religion or ethnic group 25Hate crime A crime committed against a person property or society where the offender is motivated in part or in whole by his or her bias against the victim because of the victim39s race religion disability sexual orientation or ethnicity 26Af rmative action In the employment arena intentional efforts to recruit hire train and promote underutilized categories of workers women and minority men in higher education intentional efforts to diversify the student body CHAPTE R 6 VOCAB U LARY 1 Political socialization The process by which we develop our political values and opinions 2 Agents of socialization The individuals organizations and institutions that facilitate the acquisition of political views 3 Gender gap The measurable difference in the way women and men vote for candidates and in the way they view political issues 4 Generational effect The impact of an important external event in shaping the views of a generation 5 Public opinion The public39s expressed views about an issue at a speci c point in time 6 Public opinion poll A survey of a given population39s opinion on an issue or a candidate at a particular point in time 7 Straw poll A poll conducted in an unscienti c manner used to predict election outcomes 8 Population In a poll the group of people whose opinions are of interest andor about whom information is desired 9 Random sampling A scienti c method of selection for a poll in which each member of the population has an equal chance at being included in the sample 10Quota sample A method by which pollsters structure a sample so that it is representative of the characteristics of the target population 11Strati ed sampling A process of random sampling in which the national population is divided into fourths and representative counties and metropolitan statistical areas are selected as representative of the national population 12Margin of error Also called sampling error a statistical calculation of the difference in results between a poll of the sample and a poll of the entire population 13Tracking polls Polls that measure changes in public opinion over the course of days weeks or months by repeatedly asking respondents the same questions and measuring changes in their responses 14Push poll A special type of poll that both provides information to campaigns about candidate strengths and weaknesses and attempts to skew public opinion about a candidate 15Exit polls Polls conducted at polling places on Election Day to project the winner of an election before the polls close CHAPTER 19 VOCABULARY 1 Settlement patterns the various origins of the rst settlers in Texas Example the mixture of Germans Anglos Spaniards and Tejanos which make up the rst generations of Texan settlers Changing political climate state in which the political alliances of a population are changing Example immigration into Texas changed the political climate from one that was primarily democratic into a primarily Republican loyalty Majorityminority state a state in which minority groups make up most of the population a change from Anglos being the majority Example in recent years the in ux of Hispanic citizens has made Texas into a majorityminority state because there are now more Hispanic citizens than citizens of Anglo descent Moralistic subculture a political subculture that expects the government to act as a positive force to achieve a common good of all citizens Example in a moralistic subculture the government has an obligation to intervene in the lives of private citizens if it will be for the public good lndividualistic subculture a political subculture that expects government to handle functions demanded of it by the people and to intervene in individuals39 lives as little as necessary Example the government should be a quotnecessary evilquot and not involve itself in public life more than absolutely necessary Traditionalistic subculture a political subculture that expects government to maintain the existing political order for the bene t of a small elite Example policies that bene t the public good are only enacted when the ruling elite allow Party platform statement of the primary beliefs and goals of a political pa y Example in the 19405 and 19505 a primary quotplankquot of the Texan Democratic platform was an opposition to federal control over natural resources since the Texan economy relied so heavily on these resources Landbased economy an economic system in which most wealth is derived from the use of the land Example the basis of Texas39 economy was cotton farming for a good forty years and afterwards it began to rely on oil and natural gas Economic regions divisions of the state based on dominant economic activity Example the eastern part of Texas relied economically on agriculture and timber for a certain time while the Gulf Coast region is dominated by petrochemical and other manufacturing industries 10Economic diversity an economy based on many types of economic activity rather than one or a few activities Example instead of relying on natural gas or agriculture Texas increased its economic diversity and invested in other industries such as the service industry and technology CHAPTER 20 VOCABULARY 1 Grants of power a way to limit the power of government by explicitly listing the powers that governments may use Denials of power a way to limit the power of government by explicitly listing the powers that governments may not use Earmarked taxes taxes dedicated to a speci c expenditure Initiative A direct democracy process in which citizens draft a desired policy and get a statespeci ed number of signatures on a petition in support of the proposal so that it is placed on the ballot for voters to approve or reject Constitutional convention an assembly of citizens who may propose changes to state constitutions for voter approval Ballot wording description of a proposed amendment as it appears on the ballot which can be noninstructive and misleading to voters IMPORTANT COURT CASES IN THE CIVIL LIBERTIES CIVIL RIGHTS CHAPTERS Barron v Baltimore 1833 Barron wharf owner sues the city of Baltimore claims the city violated quottakings clausequot of the Fifth Amendment which bars the taking of private property for public use without just compensation Barron argues that Baltimore39s paving its streets rendered his wharf unusable by changing natural courses of the streams Barron lost case illustrates that the Bill of Rights applies to the national government but not the states Gitow v New York 1925 Court held that freedom of speech is quotamong the fundamental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment from impairment by the statesquot Pallt0 v Connecticut 1937 Court laid out a formula for de ning fundamental rights that later courts have used from then on fundamental rights rooted in traditions and conscience of American people and if those rights were eliminated neither liberty norjustice could exist Brandenburg v Ohio 1969 Court began giving more weight to First Amendment claims and less to government concerns about security and order considered the arrest of a KKK group who had made a televised speech during which they had made racist and antiSemitic comments Local officials charged them with violating a state law that banned speech that disturbed the public peace The Supreme Court overturned the convictions by reverting to a strict reading of the clear and present danger test held that government officials had to demonstrate that the speech created an actual risk US v O Brien considered whether the government could punish Vietnam protesters for burning their draft cards balanced the free expression guarantee against the government39s need to prevent the destruction of the cards Because the cards were critical to the defense of the nation the ability to raise an army the Court ruled in favor of the government Tinker v Des Moines found that free speech protected the wearing of black armbands to protest the Vietnam War no comparable reason such as the protection of government property eg draft cards to ban the wearing of the black armbands Texas vjohnson 1989 American ag burned during a protest at the Republican National Convention Court ruled that ag burning was political speech worthy of being protected under the First Amendment US inchman 1990 struck down Flag Protection act which attempted to reverse the ruling in johnson Miller v California 1973 case which led to the development of the threepart obscenity test Chapinsky v New Hampshire 1942 case which led to the development of the ghting words doctrine Lemon v Kurtzman 1971 case which determined whether government aid to parochial schools is constitutional developed the Lemon test which is applied to other cases involving the establishment clause Griswold v Connecticut 1965 case which rmly established the right to privacy Connecticut prohibited married couples from using birth control justices concluded that state law violated privacy of those couples by preventing them from accessing birth control Court also argued that right privacy was inherent in many of the other constitutional guarantees Lawrence v Texas 2003 ruled that the right to engage in homosexual activity or other sexual activity was protected as a liberty right especially when this activity occurred inside one s home Mapp v Ohio 1961 established that the exclusionary rule which states that evidence obtained illegally cannot be used in a trial extends to state rulings Miranda vArizona 1966 outlined the requirement that quotprior to questioning the person must be warned that he has a right to remain silent that any statement he does make may be used against him and that he has a right to an attourney either retained or appointedquot Established the Miranda rights Note that the Miranda rights have some exceptions Eases Weakeniig Prete iei ageiist Selllnttililliatieli fees Case 1935 Ruling Eenf essin is nt inadmissible beteuse pelice felled t inlf errn suspect ef ettrney s etterri pted cen tetts MusFen st E urbine 1991 Arizune st Hrl minente eneictien is nt eutemeticelly eerturnetl in tases ef teerted cen f essin if ether evidence is str rig en eugh t justify ceneittien quotlil tElLE sl5 1994 Basis it us Suspett must un eel uisretallsr end essertieely state his right I teunsel te stp plite questining Gideon v Wainwright 1963 interpreted the right to counsel to mean that the government must provide lawyers to those who cannot afford their own Furman v Georgia 1972 suspended the use of the death penalty due to its incompatibility with quotevolving standards of decency in contemporary societyquot Forced the states and the national legislature to rethink their statues for capital offenses to ensure that the death penalty would not be administered in a discriminatory or capricious manner Over time the courts have also interpreted the Eighth Amendment to require that executions be carried out in the most humane and least painful manner possible Loving v Virginia 1967 determined that laws barring interracial marriage violated the Constitution because there was no compelling public interest for which the government was responsible Dred Scott vSandford 1857 ruled that the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was inconstitutional because Congress lacked the authority to ban slavery in the territories also ruled that Scott was not a US citizen that African Americans were not citizens due to their race therefore had no standing to sue Pessy v Ferguson 1896 established the separatebutequal doctrine separate facilities do not violate the fourteenth amendment as long as they are of equal quality Brown v Board ofEducation of Topeka 1954 struck down the separate but equal doctrine ruled that segregated schools violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment concluded that separated schools were inherently unequal because they quotstamped AfricanAmerican children with a 39badge of racial inferiority39quot Mendez v Westminister 1945 set an important precedent by using the Fourteenth Amendment to guarantee equal educational opportunities for Mexican children and white children STATES OF CHANGE DOCUMENT some important facts to note White population has fallen from 80 to 63 since 1980 0 Expected to be less than 44 by 2060 Hispanic population 6 in 1980 17 today 0 Expected to be 29 by 2060 AsiansOthers 2 in 1980 8 today 0 Expected to be 15 by 2060 Black population stable at 12 to 13 during this time period By 2060 22 majorityminority states are expected Remember the generations quotThe Lost Generationquot those born before 1928 or so in 19605705 were big part of electorate now gone quotThe Greatest Generationquot those born just before Depression lived thru WW2 called greatest generation because they lived through the victory quotdefeated fascismquot most gone still important in electorate quotThe Silent Generationquot those born during 19305 during Great Depression amp WW2 still fairly important part of the electorate quotThe Baby Boomersquot those born after WW2 from 1946mid 605 still mostly with us until recently largest generation quotGeneration Xquot those born from 19605 to mid 805 quotMillennialsquot from 19805 to now Rise of the unmarried electorate the collegeeducated white electorate decline of the working white electorate Overall diversi cation of the electorate Younger age groups diversifying at a faster pace eligible voters are becoming more diverse A shrinking white working class Electorate overall becoming more educated Polisci Notes 21215 Civil Liberties Most derived from bill of rights Constitution talks about restraining government quotcongress shall make no lawquot national legislature Many cases involving civil liberties involve state law How did federal things get extended to states 13th and 14th amendment 14th amd all persons born in US are citizens every American has a right to due process cannot be infringed by a state Postcivilwar amendment most important in Constitution after 1 Guarantee that due process is equal protection under law what does it entail Supreme Court applied restrictions to states that originally applied only to congress re civil liberties Texas vsjohnson ag burning symbolic speech 0 54 decision forJohnson protected political speech 0 Extended constitutional protections to states Connecticut SOs amp 605 catholic banned arti cial reproductive control eg condoms Griswad vs Connecticut infringes on rights to have sex with birth control ruled in favor of Griswald Although the Constitution lists no explicit right to privacy Court inferred from other amendments that it was appropriate 0 Set down precedent of right to privacy 8 years later Roe vs Wade 1973 back to right of privacy extends to this situation Roe has legal right to abort fetus if she so desires Individual rights re pregnancystate intervention 0 First trimester entirely woman39s decision state has no right to interfere 0 Second trimester state has some limited ability to restrict option 0 Third trimester state can impose more meaningful restrictions 0 Extreme backlash Conservative religious groups took exception put abortion in spotlight in American policy Death penalty historically a state decision federal death penalty applies but most have been done by state under state laws In 60 s death penalty became controversial persons who were likely innocent had been executed more publicized cases growing sense that the penalty is applied unfairly not equal opportunity white rich or female less likely to be executed FURMAN V GEORGIA struck down Georgia death penalty said that most of Georgia39s death penalty were black or poor or both 0 wiped out all state penalties said they were not fair protection Prodeathpenalty tried to adjust penalties in order to build in equality safeguards built up to many executions Tide of public opinion changed concern about the overuse of the death pena y Civil Rights Apply to how different groups are dealt with Jim Crow system civil rights of black citizens boosted somewhat after Civil War stripped away 18771900 0 Crow system deep root in South 0 based on quotcolor linequot blacks and whites must not mingle public policy recognize these differences banned interracial marriages interracial hotels restaurants water fountain Plessy v Ferguson 1896 o is legal segregation Constitutional o Ruled for segregation facilities must be quotseparate but equalquot NAACP organized in part to ght Jim Crow legislation antiblack terrorism Policies made it more dif cult for black citizens to enjoy their rights 0 Head tax for voting literacy tests barred many black people from vo ng 0 made arti cially dif cult in order to exclude black citizens o quotgrandfatheredquot in whites quotif your grandfather voted you can votequot obviously many black citizens39 grandfathers could not vote White Primary election before general election party selects candidates 0 blacks banned from Primary Primary became the quotelectionquot Restrictions eventually broke down 1944 Supreme Court Smith vs Allwright 0 Smith Black dentist protested that he was being denied equal protection under the law 0 Court ruled in favor of Smith banned racial restrictions in elections More blacks start registering in the South begin voting 0 overwhelmingly still nominated by whites Unequal treatment in education system 0 Brown v Topeka Board of Education 90 in favor of Brown separation is inherently unequal Political Socialization Important question How do people develop 0 Nature vs Nurture 0 John Locke side of nurture tabula rasa blank slate Shaped by experiences that impact us quotExtreme Nurture Viewquot Predominant among social scientists during 20th century 0 Jonathan Haidt side of nature moral foundation theory As human beings we have a halfdozen basic moral orientation born with these Fairness Care Empathy Liberty Freedom Loyalty amp opposite Betrayal Authority order Purity sanctity quotExtreme Nature Viewquot The Rider amp The Elephant Elephant goes where it wants for the most part the rider has a little control Elephant is human nature conscious mind is the rider 0 Most of what we do is unconscious react viscerally overestimate the extent to which we make rational decisions Important in uence who are the caregivers of our youth The basic requirements of life have to be provided by other people You are always in uenced by those you are raised by Adults who raise have already formed attitudes Try to pass some of these onto their children 0 Religious values for instance 0 Political identities 0 Identity or nonidentity with major political party 200 years ago US developed 2party system 150 years parties that have dominated were Demo or Rep Reasons 0 250 mil adults 75 mil who registervote Most know about those parties in order to identify with one or the other Strongly color how we feel about candidates for various roles o Somewhere in life have identi ed with the political view in family Colors perception of political system Most nd ourselves picking up the political view of our family Socialization Exposed to a certain perspective Often the home attitude is reinforced by the society around So attitude is isolated feedback is reinforcing Immediate environment reinforces the socialization of parents neighbors generally think the same way as parents Caregivers matter 0 Sometimes exposed to con icting information mixed marriages but usually exposed to a pretty consistent view Basic predispositions but mostly affected by those around us 0 Adults are strongest rst in uence parents 0 Second in uence peers o Distancing self from caregivers attempting to nd liberty 0 Space opening between self and controllers More liberty to discuss own life in uence own path Eg changing schools when one is disliked Biggest space young adult 0 More choices in living socialization groups 0 College Very much relocating from home community Meeting a wider range of people from different backgrounds urban college 0 Exposed to a different level of experiences Often a formative period Socialization with new groups 0 Many people change political perspective in this time 0 Parents don39t hammer it into their kids so they feel free to adjust political views 0 Often break with parents39 behavior 2008 Most of older people conservative and RepubHcan Generational divide younger people voted for Obama Support for Obama spiked in college campuses Professors not really a big in uence 0 Peers more of an in uence more opportunities to discuss and debate casually information is exchanged and values are formed 0 Opinions can change rapidly due to peer interaction 0 More opportunities to change Big difference where one goes to college 0 Religious school 0 Public school 0 Liberal o Conservative Planning for oneself that has impact on one s attitude 0 Young adult is period of exploration 0 After college associations narrow Adults settle in their ways Eg advertisements appeal to young exible people 0 Once older adulthood is reached things narrow again Environment is always important 0 People who raise us people who surround us our peers 0 Pleasant experiences rarely change your mind 0 Painful experiences often change you as a person 0 Some of these happen as individuals some happen as a society 0 Public problems Often cause signi cant political ripples Great Depression 0 USA mostly spared the bloodshed of WWI Rapid economic growth in the 205 o 1929 30 31 stock market crash 0 A recession turned into a depression after mishandling by government Changed political system c 19205 republicans won strongly In 1933 Republicans defeated Democrats took over Congress 0 People experienced such pain in Depression they lost faith in Republicans o Voted for Democrats instead Vietnam Draft 0 Those who were drafted quickly changed political views 0 Those who were not drafted did not 0 Before the war many Americans had con dence in government Afterwards fewer Americans had con dence in government 0 Or personal problems Healthcare 0 US Healthcare system is very dependent on where you are how wealthy you are how old you are 0 Automatically available to 65 0 Otherwise insurance dependent on employers A health collapse can be catastrophic if healthcare is not appropriate Last time political socializations As we grow up form perspectives or attitudes Public opinion the gathered perspectives of individuals Characteristics of public opinion Direction 0 quotdo you approve or disapprove of the job the President is doingdo you support or oppose stronger gun controlquot 0 RightLeft point Intensity o The intensity of one s feeling affects behaviors o If one has an opinion but not a strong one does not generally change behavior 0 Intensity drives people towards activity SaHency 0 Something is salient if it is visible or evident quotSomething39s on the front burnerquot 0 Some issues crowd out other issues 0 What is the public thinking about What issues have saiency Is this in the front of people s minds 0 Often triggered by the stories in the news 0 Stability 0 Some opinions are xed some are more mutable 0 Religious values generally xed high degree of stability 0 Presidential approval often swings up and down usuay down Honeymoon period approval rating goes up Over time broad trend of approval is negative Within any particular time may be very great swings Concentration 0 Who is for certain issues 0 Party has to respond to its base voters Polling generally indicates the direction of public opinion WASP white AngloSaxon protestant Dominant group in 18005 amp early 19005 c In 21St century much less so Declining more rapidly than quotthe rest of usquot due to lower birth rates 0 Not as much immigration from Europe the birth rates and economy in Europe hold steady and do not force immigration After rst half of 20th century Europe has become fairly peaceful so European immigration has declined largely ceased Big population changes dramatic growth in Hispanic population and Asian population Historically not a lot of immigration from Latin Americacentral AmericaMexico since after World War II not a lot from Asia since the government passed anti immigration laws Big reversal since the 605 The growing minority population is not politically effective because many are younger than 18 and so cannot vote citizen ageeligible population changes very slowly for example 40 of Texas is Hispanic but only about 23 of voters are Hispanic Generations quotThe Lost Generationquot those born before 1928 or so in 19605705 were big part of electorate now gone 0 quotThe Greatest Generationquot those born just before Depression lived thru WW2 called greatest generation because they lived through the victory quotdefeated fascismquot most gone still important in electorate quotThe Silent Generationquot those born during 19305 during Great Depression amp WW2 still fairly important part of the electorate quotThe Baby Boomer5quot those born after WW2 from 1946mid 605 still mostly with us until recently largest generation 0 quotGeneration Xquot those born from 19605mid 805 quotMillennialsquot from 19805 now Public opinion also affected by generational opinion 0 People that came of age in the 19305 tended to be v democratic bc Roosevelt was very popular depression ended economy recovered won ww2 Greatest Generation tended to be Democratic Silent Generation more evenly split Eisenhower also popular in 505 and 605 quotGood generation to be born intoquot steady econ growth no wars of huge magnitude 0 Baby Boomers quottimed wellquot caught rising economy adding 3 growth per yearL 0 Gen X amp Millennials middle class stabilized possibly shrinking wages lower than they were 10 years ago Generational Effects Are Important 0 Different generations have different cultural and political values millennials are quotoverwhelmingly okquot with gays marrying silent generation amp older are not Underlying all this generations are shifting from overwhelmingly WASP to increasingly diverse This affects politics too Chapter 6 breakout of 2012 election by raceethnicity Fastest area of change quotgateway statesquot where immigrants tend to land and stay California Texas Florida NY quotGreat points of entryquot places where demo change is happening most quickly quotThis is where the new populations are landing staying growing having familiesquot States like Kansas Alabama Utah landlocked states where most people who live there are natives these do not change demographics as quickly Rural to urban migration 0 Within cities people often start wishing to live in clustered sections so that driving is not as important reversing urbantosuburb migrations quotToo farquot from places entertainment work etc Reversed quot ight from citiesquot pattern in 705 and 805 where cities were getting poorer and suburbs getting richer Most rapidly changing areas in Houston due to gentri cation poor people being pushed out rich people moving in Demographics Most people have a pretty clear gender identity What difference in politics Historically men prioritized excluded women women have had the vote since 1920 protected by 14th amendment39s equal protection gender equality important for university etc Politics over last 35 years a gender gap has developed after 1920 there didn39t seem to be much difference in how the genders voted but since 1980 the pattern has changed Reagan elected Carter lost because he did poorly with men 0 First election we saw gender gap women more democratic men more republican Pretty notable factor Millions of republican amp conservative women but altogether democrats do better with female voters men do better with republican voters What39s driving this Not abortion politics A general view about the role of government and what it ought to be doing 0 Women are more supportive of a strong safety net men less so 0 Women less supportive of aggressive military action men more so 0 Women favor education healthcare etc men are more supportive of aggressive posture abroad Most of the difference men support government more aggressively defending less willing to support strong safety net pay taxes for things like education childcare etc 0 Persistent for more than 35 years So when women go into elective politics and are successful more likely to be democrats Elected republicans overwhelmingly white men California 2 senators are Jewish women 53 house members from California only 14 are republican amp every one is a white Christian male The 39 democrats majority are women and many are members of diff religious faith Part of the country great change since the 405 Deep South overwhelmingly democratic during 405 and 505 Very few RepubHcans o CHANGED A LOT Deep South is HEAVILY republican now particularly the white South When democrats win in the South and Houston it39s mostly from heavily minority neighborhoods South tend to be republican NortheastUpper Midwest tend to be Democratic As Republican Party became more conservative it moved away from the values of new Englanders and they became more democratic So the values of populations didn39t change the values of the PARTIES changed Now out west In 705 and 805 the West Coast pretty Republican produced Reagan and Nixon 0 Now Democratic o In the Western states it39s more of a population switch WASP subtracting themselves from electorate at the same time that others are dying So Anglo population in the western states declining That Republican population has gone down minority population exploded Cali pretty blue state 30 years ago now very Democratic o Anglos left the state and stopped voting 0 New populations came in and began to vote more heavily 0 Completely changed the makeup of the state Given us a very different political map than back in the 705 Many parts of the country very competitive 0 Not so much anymore countries have moved apart geographically o The coasts have become more democratic southern states become more republican only a few quotbattlegroundquot states Florida is SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT STATE in terms of electing the president 29 electoral votes can go either way 0 Difference between Obama and Romney less than look votes 0 However the majority of the states are pretty seriously set already Cognitive Dissonance the theory of people changing their minds 0 As we grow up become socialized form a certain view of the world amp how we t into it a schema develops develop a framework and idea of what you believe is important What you believe in what you don39t believe in etc 0 Sometimes encounter stimuli that challenges this framework 0 Might be personal a friend might turn out to be a liar The experience of something challenging our worldview is cognitive dissonance 0 Politics many people vote for someone start at that time w predisposition for that person receive information that challenges that belief A politician you voted forparty you support doing things you don39t like 0 In this case it depends on how strong the stimulus is believable source Can you ignore the stimulus Etc Political involvement low when country is doing well 0 Before the Depression turnout is low re ecting most Americans39 apathy After the Depression turnout much higher mostly voted those in of ce out of of ce 0 In the 19205 democrats were smaller party by large margin by 1936 winning majorly Why do we get locked into opinions Many varied sources now seek sources that tell the stories we want to hear not the sources that challenge our worldview But people do change their minds cognitive dissonance discusses how this happens How strong is the stimulus How good is the source How rm is the idea Patterns of public opinion based on religion US is unique among comparable countries because we are unusually religious When US started the elite particularly were not religious the ideas that the Founding Fathers were religiously committed not so Some probably were but some FF were actively antireligious Religious revival after the Constitution which lingers today especially out on the frontier Mostly Christianity Protestantism Not a major source of division most people were Protestant Christians 0 Biggest challenge in 18005 came when major Catholic immigration began By the 18505 religion became a big issue quotAmerican partyquot emerged ercely antiimmigrant and antiCatholic thought that Catholics were not loyal to the US were loyal to the Pope in Rome not quotgood Americansquot 0 Critics called them the quotKnowNothingquot party because they told their followers to claim they quotknew nothingquot when asked about their party 0 Quickly faded because for one quickly divided over the issue of slavery The line of division was Protestant vs Catholic For most of the rest of the century that was the important religious difference The majority was Protestant and there were many who did not like or trust Catholics 1928 Protestant America voted against Catholic Al Smith 0 Herbert Hoover won Even though he was a Republican Protestant Democrats voted for him because they could not stomach having Smith as president 32 years later democrats nominate another Catholic John F Kennedy 0 Had a tough time convincing voters that he should be the nominee quotToo much religious prejudice for a catholic to winquot 0 Texas was vital to the Democrats at that time normally a Democratic state but not if the democrat is a catholic 0 Thought that the country would be prepared to move on after his nomination But by midsummer had gured out that that was not going to happen 0 Addressed problem directly came to Houston TX gave speech to Baptist ministers Not a friendly audience quotA good Protestant should not vote for Catholic as presidentquot implied or outright preached Kennedy knew that asked for the opportunity to address the ministers quotI am a good American lam a Catholic but my religious faith will not in any way affect my duties if my faith makes it impossible for me to act as President I will resignquot Got just enough of the protestant vote to win 0 Had almost the entirety of the Catholic vote Since the Kennedy election in 1960 we have moved on ProtestantCatholic division has substantially faded do not see the religious divide by parties anymore 0 In 2004 for the 3rCI time a Catholic was nominated john Kerry running for President Unlike Kennedy Kerry struggled to win the Catholic vote Lost the white catholic vote even though he was a much more religious person than Kennedy had been many Catholics voted for the republican Not a division between faiths a division between those who are politicallyreligiously active and those who are not 0 Those without a religious identity tend to be more democratic those with an identityactively religious identity tend to be more republican Public opinion and the role it should play in a representative democracy 0 Cannot make policy with public opinion instinctive ignorant reaction The public does not have all the knowledge necessary to make an informed and rational decision Often contradictory quotHave our cake eat it tooquot Some government services we value but do not want to pay taxes etc for investing in public goods but want to pay as little as possible for them 0 Better roadsbetter education etcetera but without raising taxes there is no money to pay for these services 0 But public opinion has to play a role sort of sets the limits establishes the boundaries within which policy makers can act o In some respects very broad there39s a spectrum in which the public is willing to let the policy makers work 0 However as public opinion changes against certain actions policy makers are con ned to different actions in order to please the public
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