Exam 2 Notes
Exam 2 Notes JMC:1100:0AAA
Popular in Media Uses and Effects
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Media Uses and Effects Exam 2 Notes Chapter 9 The Effects of News and Political Content Need for coqnition a need to structure relevant situations in meaningful integrated waysa need to understand and make reasonable the experimental world Certain people have high need for cognition and others have a low need Elizabeth Perse found a statistically significant correlation between need for cognition and attention paid to news about the government Regardless of trust or distrust people still watch the news 0 Gives people with a need for cognition something to think about Low need for cognition and distrust for the news leads to less consumption Participants low on the cognition measure were more likely to express personal views on the issues that were consistent with the views expressed by other readers 0 High on cognition would express opposing views Political sobhistication function of knowledge and political ideology Wanted to explain why some people learned a lot from a news story and others didn39t AgendaSetting Theory A Theory about Thinking Bernard Cohen The press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think but it is stunningly successful in telling readers what to think aboutquot News media set the public agenda Media agenda precede public agenda Framing the News Framing the central organizing idea for news content that supplies a content and suggests what the issue is through the use of selection emphasis exclusion and elaboration 0 ex how the media frame snowfall joyful and fun or a disaster for traffic Media can also tell us what to think by giving us one angle Spiral of Silence Spiral of science theory based on the idea that most people don t feel comfortable speaking out about our views if we perceive that we are in a minority 0 Fear or isolation 0 Can gather steam and silence a minority Media can use this in a dramatic way Train test participants are told to imagine they are on a train ride sitting next to someone that holds a very different opinion from one s own 0 Asked for likely it would be they would share their view 0 Might be better to measure actual behavior than hypothetical How Much of the News Do We Remember Viewers fell between 23 on 8 point scale Could provide only vague general responses Selective exposure emphasizes that people come to any communication message with their own attitudes interests beliefs and values 0 Help guide attention to particular messages Dualcoding theorv images might be processed differently than verbal information 0 When facts presented with an image people did not remember the facts 0 People remembered vivid visuals though 0 Visual may distract from verbal Role of Emotion Images evoke more intense emotion 0 Images that provoked anger most memorable next was fear 0 Images that provoked disgust worst Physiological arousal gt increased memory Violent news stories more likely to trigger anger o If it bleeds it leadsquot Role of emotion most important with politics 0 ex Kennedy vs Nixon Kennedy s visual appearance gained him favor 0 Daisy Girl commercial Designed for Lyndon Johnson against Barry Goldwater Window of nuclear explosion in innocent girl s eye Caused national discussion about political advertising People thought Goldwater might use nuclear weapons to end global problems Fear stuck with viewers Do Certain News Reports Cause More People to Die Imitative Suicides and the News 0 Werther effect imitative suicide effect Repositioning or rescheduling effect or Additive effect Lecture 8 Public Opinion amp Mass Effects Media Today The Apple Car 0 Self driving based on GPS location Google s Fragrance Emitter o Handheld attached to clothes 0 Triggers perfume based on social calendar 0 Reroutes you to avoid refunds after workout What s next Theories and examples of media influence Focus on specific content and particular effects Image of Cosmopolitan media messages Return of Public Opinion General public s attitude toward an issue or subject The Will of the People as measured through polls surveys votes etc Public opinion helps us 0 Understand the view of the larger community town state nation etc 0 De ne our own views Agree or disagree with the larger community But it is an average 0 Generally doesn t account for extremes or no opinion Where Do We Get out Perceptions of Public Opinion Interpersonal contact what we hear seeing signs or stickers etc News Media 0 Coverage of polls amp protests news reports persononthestreet interviews talk shows etc First We Seek Public Opinion Then we decide whether to speak o If we agree with the majority we will express our opinion o If we don t agree we will remain silent ex Trust in media graph of young people s confidence in the press History Review World War 0 First samples of Media Manipulation of Public Opinion World War II Nazis do it better 0 Use media to manipulate an entire nation start a war and kill millions 0 Social scientists start to wonder how it happened Opinion and Behavior in WWII Scientists find the public had extreme behaviors and opinions during WWII Learn about power of mass opinion 0 Conformity why people follow the crowd Solomon Asch 1958 Line studyConformity study Groups were asked to say aloud which lines matched If people were divided you go with your belief BUT when everyone is in agreement you will support iteven when wrong Especially when they look and act like you Elevator behavior turning in the direction of others Migram Shocks The World 1960s Tests people s response to authority 0 People recruited to act as implementers of a basic test o If test takers gave a wrong answer study participants would shock them with increasing intensity 0 Would shock others because they believed the tester to be a legitimate authority figure who took the responsibility for the individual being shocked Decent American citizens were just as capable of killing undress authority as Germans 0 Two out of every three would shock another person to death because the authority told them to do so 0 Conclusion shouldn t be surprised that most Germans followed Nazi orders A German explains Nazi Germany Elisabeth NoelleNeumann 19162010 Found unmans fear isolation and reject Made them more willing to follow perceived public opinion Spiral of Silence Theory NoelleNeumann People who feel their opinion is not in the majority will not speak out because they fear rejection and isolation Mass media trigger this spiral because they tend to cover the majority opinion 0 Cases those in minority to become even quieter o Denies society their perspective and makes them less confident in general Today 0 Do you break rank from popular opinions on your social media ex students wanted to talk about politics on Facebook not fight about it so instead they just wanted to eliminate it completely 0 2014 PEW Study People asked about NSA contractor s leaks amp US surveillance polity People were more willing to share their views in person AND online if they thought the audience agreed with them People were less willing to discuss the NSA story in social media than in person Social media users were also less likely to share their views in faceto face settings So What lf public opinion can have such a large effect on us 0 We must closely analyze news media and its presentation of important and dominate issues Conclusions Public opinion matters to you more than you think Conformity and obedience are necessary at times damaging in others Spiral of silence limits out social growth Lecture 9 Power of What We Watch Today s Media King of Revenge Porn convicted 0 Hunter Moore 28 faces up to 7 years in prison Girls upend Gaming World 0 Tampon Run lets players shoot tampons at enemies 0 Based on a real incident in Texas Last Time Importance of public opinion Connecting media to o Conformity 0 Spiral of Silence Thinking about how we access public opinion What is News News information to the public sees to connect to their community local or national or make informed decisions to better their lives Started with storytelling 0 Africa Europe and the Americas 0 Problem You have to remember really really well Caesar Gets it Started 59 BC Roman Emperor Julius Caesar creates the first public posted news 0 Acta Senatus written details about Senate discussions and policy Hope to make others feel more connected and less willing to rebel 0 Acta Diurna written details of daily life Caesar s family and other social events sent to the corners of empire rst newspaper Wanted others to connect to him personally so they would have a greater connection to the empire and less willing to rebel Then Merchants Take Over 14001600 Sailors and merchants create popular handwritten journals to track prices of goods at European ports 0 Fashion trends sports etc Germans Mass Produce lt 1600 Germans use printing press to produce first mass produced price journals Journals start to include social and cultural information first newspapers in Europe and then the US Media 4th Estate that drives Public Opinion Satisfies our need for cognition o Helps us understand and create meaning of the information and events in our society 0 High lie to think strong desire for news about politics 0 Low less personal opinion more likely to take populist views on issues ex Lie Witness News Relied on the 4th estate to fill us in on what was happening adds new branch to politics How Media Influences Public Opinion Gatekeeping Theory Media determine what we read and discuss 0 Gate 1 Factseventsinformation occurs gt gate gt media decides to cover or not 0 Gate 2 Issues worth covering gt gate gt how much timespace goes into covenngit Media now decides about what is in all of our outlets Incredible coverage Orjust a paragraph Too much Not enough ex Malasia airlines coverage 0 Gate 3 People show interest in subject trending tweets Facebook likes etc gt gate with people jumping over it gt Media takes interest cover related stories ex Yahoo s trending People control what the media shows other two are controlled by media Lippmann and the Media Perception Problem Walter Lippmann formerjournalist worked for US propaganda efforts in WI Found Propaganda worked because people reacted based on stereotypes of the world 0 He defined modern idea of stereotype Walter Lippmann publishes Public Opinion 1922 Press held vital role in public life but failed to uphold marketplace of ideas Found people irrational uneducated actors Lippmann s Proof Realityperception Hostile Media Effect Phenomenon 0 Viewers with strong beliefs see bias against they views in neutral media coverage 0 1982 Stanford Student Study Made a video where journalists all agreed it was not biased at all Result both proIsrael and proPalenstinian students felt media was biased against them 0 Video social media can hold mainstream media accountable AJ Different MediaDifferent Messages Nixon vs Kennedy close eyes RadioNixon won debate TV Kennedy won debate More Media More Problems Dual Coding Theory images processed differently than verbal messages 0 ex put the circle on your chin cheek Gunter photos change what people think they read Story about climate change or new shipping route Phillip and the Werther Effect Stories about suicide trigger more suicide attempts 0 ex Facebook parties and reality creates a perception that people are always out partying while you are studying people only post the most exciting things doesn t mean that is how they always live life People Choose Their Media Selective Exposure choosing media channels that agree with your views amp ignoring those that don t Selective Perception perceiving information through your own desires and attitudes Selective Attention viewing messages that fit your worldview and ignoring those that don t Selective Retention remembering information that fits your worldview and forgetting what doesn39t The Other Problem with Media Lippmann Press serve other interests not the public good 0 Business of 4th estate profit 0 5 media companies that own mast variety of media 0 ex Disney owns Marvel ABC ESPN Pixar Lucas Film The Muppets 142 Bill Media Empire Made 45 billion last year with 7 billion profit Mouse has 44 billion in his mattress 175000 employees Part owner of Hulu and TV stations in New York Chicago Philadelphia and other cities Conclusions Power of Media 0 The Fourth Estate Public or profit 0 Gatekeeping Who is in control 0 Control of media control of the message Lecture 10 Effects of the News Telling Us What to Think About Media Today Life imitates art 0 University of Illinois Chicago student decides to reenact 5O Shades of Grey with a girl who didn t want part of it 0 Judge How can someonelet a movie persuade him to dothis Last time Began discussing effects of news presentation 0 Gatekeeping o Hostile Media Phenomenon o Selectivity How Media Influences Society AgendaSetting o More coverage of an issuemore importance in the minds of public 0 GatekeepingWHAT 0 Agenda setting HOW MUCH 0 ex Ray Rice media brought attention to domestic abuse Based on the idea Public does not have ability to know all and must rely heavily on the media Walter Lippmann We are all Cognitive Misers 0 We consume just enough information to get through our daily life Core of Agenda Setting News media don t tell people what to think but what to thin about Chapen Hill Study McCombsShaw 1968 Tested Chapel Hill NC voters on their views of issues ex civil rights for 1968 Presidential Race Nixon vs Humphrey Found media emphasispublic perception Horserace coverage who is in the lead false perceptions of candidates leader must be best Pew Center for People and the Press May 22 2012 News Interest vs News Coverage What people thought was important was related to what was covered Zucker Confirms It His study 1978 found news coverage did increase prior to public opinion increase confirmed agenda setting BUT study found personal experience filters and could override media emphasis 0 Media looses their power Key Nature of the Issue Unobtrusive Issues those with which we have little to no direct experience 0 ex Climate change Chinese pollution etc 0 People more reliant on media information If you have no direct experience with an issue you will be more susceptible to agenda setting because you have no frame of reference Experience can Filter Obtrusive issues those the public experience directly unemployment crime taxes etc 0 Agenda setting does NOT occur 0 Instead public may be influencing media agenda 0 ex If you like a brand of pizza you wont believe bad press about the pizza Agenda Setting Problem It is very difficult to show cause and and Social Scientists Media Reality more powerful than previously expected Three points of the triangle 1 Reality 2 Media Reality media agenda 3 Public Perception of Reality public agenda Our brain has a hard time of differentiating what is real Why Does Agenda Setting Matter By emphasizing some issues and essentially disregarding others news media is focusing on specific considerations 0 Individuals who pay a great deal of attention to the news media are only learning about some issues Implications for public opinion 0 News broadcasts and articles tell us what issues to think about Next Step Framing Framing Using a set of expectations about how the world works to make sense of social situations 0 Framing The Problem 0 Supplies a context and helps define the issue 0 Helps us understand and interpret by simplifying experience ex framing the conversation at the party to your significant other Framing In Essence Central organizing idea that supplies the context for an issue Process of selecting and emphasizing certain aspects of messages through key words and phrases or visual images How you choose to frame that Benefits of Media Framing Media uses cues to help us know how to interpret messages Through cues frames simplify message production rather than telling a story in an hour can tell a story in 30 seconds But can present stories without the proper context Where Frames Come From Journalist and Editors news producers may favor one side or the other due to bias or time restriction LobbyistsPublic Relations Professionals job means creating a favorable image for an organization and its products Framing the Issue Lack of media context can misrepresent issues for readers 0 ex US and Guns Dangers of Framing Role of Emotion 0 Images that provoke anger and fear are remembered easier 0 Violent imagesmore involvement with stories 0 Negative news stokes increased memory of news Lang Newhagen and Reeves If It Bleeds lt Leads Most common local TV news stories crime Results of Media Framing Students prefer to get their news from The Daily Show context vs hype On Democracy 0 Attack ads make people think politics is complicated 0 Makes them believe their vote won t make any difference Conclusion Media Framing Process of selecting and emphasizing certain aspects of news messages words images etc o No news story published by only one person Frames help audiences understand and interpret experiences 0 Frames central organizing idea cues Simplifying producing and interpretation Week 6 Reading Agenda Setting We tell the public which way the cat is jumping The public will take care of the cat Agenda setting type of communication that shows the importance of particular issues Press doesn t tell people what to think but what to think about Measuring Agenda Setting Effects Indicated only when researchers are able to measure public opinion before and after media coverage of specific issues Why election campaigns are popular among researchers Gatekeeping Professionals cannot pass along ALL the news of the day what should they choose 0 Set the agenda 0 Gauge the value of news on the basis of importance to readers and viewers Control over the flow of news Conceptual Roots Walter Lippmann Public Opinion 0 News media is responsible for shaping peoples perceptions of the world 0 Newsmedia projections of the world create a pseudoenvironment for each news consumer exists in addition to the actual environment Agenda Building Lang and Lang Differs from agenda setting in that 0 Different issues require different amounts and kinds of coverage to gain attention o The object that is the focus of attention still needs to be framed must stand for something 0 Spokesmen must command media attention Research Tradition Phase 1 Initial Study Chapel Hill First empirical test on Lippmann s ideas Tested the influence of campaign coverage on the public perceptions of the importance of issues What are you most concerned about these days Analyzed topics in local newspapers TV and radio Found the public responses had almost an identical agenda to the media 0 Transfer of salience o The agenda setting influence of mass communication Phase 2 Replication Four phases of growth in agendasetting research 1 Publication of the original study in 1972 2 Replication and examination of continent conditions in their second study 3 Expansion of the original idea of agenda setting into other areas 4 Focus on the sources of media agenda 1973 Replication by Funkhouser 0 Content analysis 0 Survey of before and after Phase 3 Contingent Factors Occupation education levels and geographic locations found to affect the degree to which media were responsible for setting their issue agendas Phase 4 Who Sets the Media Agenda 1980s Sources of media agenda 0 Became the dependent rater than the independent variable Extension to new domains Cognitive paradigm o 3 primary factors of influence Person s behavior Peron s cognitive abilities Environmental events to which a person is exposed Lecture 11 The Message from Our Media Marketing or Manipulation Media Today BIG win for Net Neutrality 0 FCC to declare Internet a public good Facebook changes how we Mourn 0 Like culture changes how people express negative emotions such as grief on the site 0 Friend dying from cancer but all of the posts were uplifting Do we really express our emotions when negative or are we too afraid of being unfriended or not getting likes Last time Agenda Setting 0 All about how much to cover an issue Framing o All about how to cover and present an issue Today The massage of target marketing Modern data feeds the message 0 They are not Two Types of Messages 1 News Messages 0 Focus on objective information to inform the public 2 Marketing Messages 0 Focus on the persuasive information to influence public decisions and behaviors Media Need to Know Us to Persuade Us Media conduct research on their audiences to target their advertisements more effectively 0 Magazines newspaper readership surveys 0 Internet popup surveys sit registration 0 Use of Facebook Netflix Amazon Expedia etc Getting to Know You Demographics 0 Data variables about who we are based on life characteristics ex age gender education income ethnicity Marketers match demographics of desired audience to the demographics of particular media ex Latinos are 24 more likely to say they buy new electronic equipment before any of their friends Psychographics Data variables on what we do 0 Used to find our attitudes beliefs and behavior 0 Traditionally measured through surveys or focus groups Now measured via online behavior 0 Better way to target than demographics ex Maxim sells it readership o 80 use fragrances at least once a week US avg 29 o More than one third of Maxim readers surveyed spend more than 300 annually on grooming products US avg 89 But There s a Better Way Than Surveys ex Facebook adds Every Purchase Leaves a Trail Marketers and advertisers track everything 0 Data trails 0 Data brokers Blue Kai 0 Terms and Conditions May Apply movie They Monitor our Behavior Advertisers have increased their spending on behaviorally targeted online advertising 0 2008 77 million 0 2014 26 billion Even our Technology Tracks Us Kindle tracks what you read 0 How long it takes you to read a page 0 What you skip o What you don t finish Why It s a Gold Mine Disconnect shows what third parties are connected to each website 60 minutes episode on data brokers How Big is Big Data Every 2 days the world creates an amount of data equal to the amount created between the dawn of civilization and 2003 Not the First Time We ve Been Tracked Nielsen TV ratings number of people watching a TV show Rating of TV homes total watching a particular show Share of TV homes with TV on and watching a particular show Viewing estimate number of people watching a show based on live viewing AND DVR playback the same day KEY the higher the rating the more its costs to buy advertising during the program Old Habit New Technology People are spending significantly more time with television each day through new programs like Hulu Netflix Vimeo etc 0 Consumers credit TV ads as more influential in making a purchase decision TV commercials drive viewers to go online to find out more information o Notjust a means to buy an item not a means to get the people onto their website Shows Become Targeted at You House of Cards based on data analysis 0 30 million playsday o 4 million user ratings 0 3 million searchers o Netflix determined that the overlap of three areas would make House of Cards a successful entry into originally programming David Fincher Kevin Spacey House of Cards Britain Knew demographic before the show was even written Created a show to meet that need The Net Result Harder to be exposed to new informationproducts We are directed to products companies already know we like Privacy concerns Targeted marketing eliminates the something new element Conclusion Every internet movement feeds the data machine Everything designed to cater to our every desire Does it make for a marketing dream or privacy nightmare Discussion Section Framing Framing A frame is a central organizing idea for news content that supplies a context and suggests what the issues are 0 Journalistic tool 0 Does this through the use of selection emphasis exclusion and elaboration of words phrases or visual images Small changes in words can shift the farm of a message or question 0 ex Protestor vs demonstrator vs agitator Types of Frames Gain frame 0 Emphasizes benefits of behavior or news story 0 ex number of lives saved how you will benefit form doing something etc Loss frame 0 Emphasizes cost of behavior or news story 0 ex number of lives lost the risk you take by not performing some behavior etc ex 0 Doctor s new drug to cure cancer 0 New cancer drug will cost the US millions of dollars Also an economic frame 0 Miracle cancer drug poses major environmental consequences Also an environmental frame Lecture 12 Persuasion Media Today Honey bee fund 0 Needed 70k got 35 million Snapchat crushes TV 0 Snowpocalypse 25 million viewers 0 Death of Facebook High use makes us sad Comparing ourselves to the people we see Last Time Targeting influences media coverage and shows Big data drives everything 0 Demographicpsychographic information found every time you click Eliminates new things Programs made for you 0 Higher ratings higher cost of advertising Persuasion The act of using rational andor emotional arguments to convince others to change their attitudes beliefs or behaviors 0 KEY Not in and of itself coercive nor manipulation it doesn39t force people to change 0 Not inherently bad Persuasion tries to alter 1 Attitude 0 General and enduring positive or negative feeling about a person object or Issue 0 ex Kim Kardashian NY Yankees Catholic church either love or hate her 2 Beliefs o A description of what an individual assumes to be true or false 0 Sometimes confused with facts 0 Truth and belief can create knowledge 0 ex weed pom juice 3 Behavior 0 How a person acts in response to a particular situation or stimulus 0 KEY Most important goal 0 ex Pavlov s salivating dogs jumping to your phone when it buzzes conditioned response 3 Behavioral Responses to Persuasion 1 Response Shaping o Persuader attempts to shape the response of an audience by teaching individuals how to behave Persuader is the teacher the audience is a student 0 ex telling older people iPads aren t that hard to learn knowledge of chopsticks makes Chinese food more fun fine wine tastings 2 Response Reinforcing o Currentlyheld conditions are strengthened to be more distant to change 0 Makes people feel more strongly by demonstrating their attitudes toward specific behaviors 0 ex gun behavior antivaccine type of truck 3 Response Changing o Creates new behaviors to replace old ones 0 This is the more difficult kind of persuasion because we are reluctant to change 0 ex type of soda search engines Impact of Persuasion More than 260 billionyear spent on advertising in the US Average person is expose to 0 300400 persuasive messagesday 0 Watches 1000 commercials per week Common Forms of Persuasion Debate Expert opinion 0 ex professionals doctors CEOs etc Newspaper editorials Direct advertisements Ads Known Persuasion Works Superbowl ad 45 million MoviesTV shows become ads 0 Every TV program has 1530 products inserted every half hour Ads are even more effective when you think you re immune Product placement in the Man of Steel 0 Also in the Avengers Less Common Forms of Persuasion Buzz Stealth Marketing 0 World of mouth endorsements 0 23 of all sales now directly influence by wordofmouth Actual Urban Outfitters Tshirts Eat less Misery loves alcohol I drink you re cute Key to Stealth or Buzz Marketing Endorsements are disguised as personal spontaneous encounters with a product s users Relies on opinion leaders or early adaptors New Persuasion Battleground Viral marketing 0 Productbrand popularity is not driven by commercial advertising 0 Marketers scrambling to utilize social media 0 ex more people to use the stairs by making it fun created piano stairs 66 more people chose the piano stairs The fun theory A Volkswagen commercial 0 Being marketed to without being marketed to How We Process Persuasive Messages But we approach persuasive messages with our defenses up Route 1 Central Route to Persuasion Persuasion that occurs when the audience is 0 Interested o Attentive o lntellectually involved This route is especially likely if we know that the message is counterattitudinal goes against our current attitudes ex political advertisements Route 2 Peripheral Route to Persuasion Persuasion that occurs when people are influenced by secondary cues like 0 Attractiveness o SexStatus 0 Humor More likely when we are watching programs that are designed to entertain us Best Super Bowl commercial of all time VW Star Wars kid 0 Triggers memory of childhood gives a great feeling about VW Conclusion Persuasion is everywhere Looks to inspire change Not inherently negative but it can be Chapter 8 Persuasive Effects of the Media 3 Dimensions of Persuasion Attitude 0 Feel differently about something as a result of being exposed to the message 0 Sign that an attitude has changed other attitudes surrounding that one that39s been changed also seem to be affected Behavior Persistent change How Media Messages Persuade without Even Trying Can exert powerful messages on attitudes and behaviors 0 ex getting a library card because Happy Days The Fonz did 500 increase in library cards around the country 0 Movie The DayAfter depicted aftermath of nuclear war in the US people changed their attitudes on the seriousness of nuclear war and wanted to prevent it 0 Cry Rape showed a rape victim pressing charges against the rapist and resulting in an ugly ordeal that prolonged her suffering rape reports decreased significantly Can be controversial People approach persuasive situations with their defenses up Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM Central route to persuasion highly rational or cognitive route to persuasion especially likely if the message is counterattituinal different from the position they hold themselves more difficult to influence Peripheral route to persuasion less careful scrutiny of the message cues lead people to accept the persuasive proposition with little cognitive thought or scrutiny 0 Advertisers often use creative ways to entertain audiences rather than strong persuasive appeal because it is easier to persuade that way Superbowl ads are accustom to processing as entertainment which is more favorable for advertisers Product Placements in Entertainment Programming Better alternative to paying high advertising rates Appeal as more or less incidental to the plot Information from research difficult to obtain for product placement Landscape model when people watch a movie their primary focus is on comprehending the story what viewers cognitively do with different information in a move brand placements depends on the implications of the information for comprehending the movne o Explicit memorv stored material you consciously try to remember to be able to recaH views may not be able to remember product placement if it is not crucial to the story line 0 Implicit memory information stored that we don t purposely try to remember unconscious and unintentional viewers will probably store the brand away and have some recognition of the brand Product placement is effective in increasing recognition and familiarity with a product that may translate into brand preference over the long run The Theory of Media Cultivation Cultivating Attitudes is Attitude Change Theorv of media cultivation exposure to media cultivates not persuades an attitude or perception of reality attitude change 0 George Gerbner o Gradual media result 0 World of media presents a view of social reality ex 1 of males hold a job in law enforcement but on TV 12 do People become cultivated to this view 0 Fear of criminal victimization People who watch TV heavily are more likely to believe the world is a more violent place and overestimate their changes of being involved in violence 0 Often used in context of media violence and media stereotypes 2 processes that show evidence of media cultivation o Mainstreaming what happens when people of different groups as exposed to the same media Differences become less apparent o Resonance what happens when a person s reallife environment strongly resembles the environment depicted in the media Impact of media cultivation more likely Critics o Difficult to defy conclusive testing only can use survey method 0 Hard to tell whether the correlation is due to media cultivation lf Cultivation Works How Does it Work Accessibilitv principle draw upon information that is most accessible to answer a ques on 0 ex who you saw last things you ve heard recently Drench hvpothesis media cultivation tends to emphasize the effects of repeated exposure to the same sorts of images over a long period of time 0 Power of critical images stand out are deviant are intense and thus are more important viewing experiences 0 ex The Fonz applying for the library card Dripdripdrip hypothesis effects that emerge after steady longterm exposure Intentional Persuasion in the Media Using Entertainment to Improve Public Health Entertainmenteducation persuasive effort from media to share a meaning or something educa onal Entertainment Overcoming Resistance Model to persuasion EORM drawing people into the story line in such a way that their natural persuasive defenses would be lowered 0 People who watched a news show on teen pregnancy were compared to those who watched an entertainment show about teen pregnancy entertainment show made people more likely to practice safe sex The Great American Values Test Too many studies are conducted in laboratory settings Exposed people to freedom equality and a world of beauty Views gave 9 times more money to solicitors Key Principles of Media Persuasion Power of the Source Credibility of the source 0 Components of credibility Expertise Trustworthiness Message Features Simplicity and repetition 0 Makes propaganda effective 0 Research shows that campaigns need regular infusions of new life to prevent consumer boredom 0 Higher levels of threat lead to greater persuasion 0 Protection motivation theory the extent that fear appeals convince an audience of the severity of a threat their vulnerability to threat and this ability to respond effectively to threat they will be persuasive the extent that the audience perceives that yielding to the persuasive message will be costly in some way even highfear appeals might not be effective Guilt o For not responding to persuasive appeal 0 Easy to do to parents 0 People tend to avoid and devalue those that make them feel guilty 0 Works best with interpersonal communication Harder with mass media Humor 0 Tends to attract attention to the message 0 Creates a more favorable attitude toward the message or product 0 Less critical thinking about the message 0 However people may forget the product Weapons of Influence Reciprocity o If someone does something for you you feel the need to do something in return Commitment and consistency o More persuaded to keep things consistent and be committed to certain things Social proof 0 Look to others for guidance Liking o More susceptible to being influenced by someone we like Authority 0 Respond better to someone we see as an authority figure Scarcity 0 Go after things in high demand Subliminal Persuasion The Magic Key Subliminal persuasion media advertising contained hidden or subliminal appeals that penetrated into the unconscious mind of the consumer o Bypass rational scrutiny Early History Key 1970 Movie flash the words eat popcorn and drink Coke for onethird of a millisecond and sales increased The Presumed Mechanism Revolve around two themes sex and death 0 Freud these themes are repressed in our unconscious Subliminal messages unlock repressed urges and motivate a person to purchase a particular product that the unconscious has linked to those urges Psvchoanalvtic or Freudian persoective Two lmportant Questions To what extent are subliminal messages actually present in today s mass media 0 Hard to tell If they are present are the persuasive Supraliminal clearly audience lllusory placebo effect Study found no effects Evidence lacking O O O O A Caveat Research on Subliminal Priming Subliminal primind 0 Very effective 0 Recognize words faster if you ve been primed Third Person Effect Third person effect tendency to think that media influence is stronger for other people than it is for oneself Illusion of personal vulnerability students of persuasion tended to think of themselves as people who would never succumb to the pressures of brainwashing 0 Found it easy to assume that the brainwashing techniques would work on others 0 To maximize resistance to persuasion it is best to have a proper understanding of one s own vulnerability Lecture 13 Persuasion Last time Intro to persuasion o 3 Things That Persuasion is Meant to Influence Attitude Beliefs Behaviors Types of persuasive messaging o Persuasion is a method that uses only rational argument FALSE Elaboration Likelihood Model 0 Two routes Central Interested in the topic and intellectually involved Carefully scrutinize the message Arguments matter Audience must be able and motivated Defenses up Peripheral Not motivated to think about the topic Little thought about the message Secondary cues matter Barack Obama picture ex with kids crowds adoring fans puppies American flag Defenses down 6 Principles of Persuasion Robert Cialdini o Decades of research on why people comply with requests 0 Scientific methods at work 0 Sold a bestseller book 2 million copies Translated in 27 languages Reciprocity o Obligation to give when you receive 0 ex Giving mints to increase tip 0 ex Netflix one month free Scarcity 0 People want more of the things they can have less of 0 Tell what is unique about the idea and what they lose if they don t get it 0 ex emails like last day and 24 hours only Authority 0 People follow lead of experts 0 Important to signal to others what makes you a credibly knowledgable authority Good to have others tell for you expert introduction Ethical and costless and effective 0 ex Dentists and toothpaste ConsistencyCommitment 0 Looking for and asking for small initial commitments that can be made 0 Small gt bigger commitment 0 Voluntary active and public commitments 0 ex Breast Cancer ribbon Liking o 3 Important factors People who are similar People who compliment us People who cooperate with us 0 ex having TuppenNare parties ConsensusSocial Group 0 Look to the actions and behaviors of others to determine their own 0 ex reviews online Third Person Effect An individual s perception that the media have a stronger impact on others than on the self 0 Persuasive messages 0 The news 0 The entertainment media music TV violence porn Why Does This Occur Selfenhancement o The human tendency to perceive the self in ways that make us look good or at least better than other people Illusion of personal invulnerability 0 Human tendency to be overconfident about the objective chances of experiencing a positive event or avoiding a negative event ex People saying they are great drivers that being on a cell phone is the most dangerous driving habit and that they ave talked on the phone while driving Theory of Planned Behavior 0 Helps to predict and explain whether and how a persuasive message ex anti smoking ad would persuade a media consumer ex smoker to change hisher behavior ex quit smoking Attitudes toward behavior Felt social pressure to act Belief in your own ability to complete a task selfefficacy gt Lead to intention to act or not gt Behavior WN Discussion Section Exam 2 Review Public Opinion and News Public opinion general public s attitude toward an issue or subject Use to gage others thoughts 0 Am I on the same track as others If not why am I thinking differentlyquot o Comes from 2 places 1 Interpersonal contact 2 News media Conformity Has the Power Stanford Prison Experiment 0 Zimbardo o Took place with the roles of guards amp inmates 0 College students had to take on these roles for a week 0 Still assumed their roles Conformity o Authory Zimbardo made it clear he was in charge and took responsibility 0 Obedience students did as the authority figure told Asch s Line Experiment 0 Use of conformity 0 Those in the experiment followed the confederate s lead to avoid being an outsider even when it was blatantly wrong 0 More willing to share opinion when others shared the same opinion about the length of the line Stanley Milgrim s Shock experiment 0 Instructed to send shocks to the person in the chair 0 Authority effects 0 Obedience effects 0 Instructor took responsibility 0 23 people would actually shock someone to death Spiral of Silence 0 NoelleNeumann 0 Fear of isolation and rejection 0 We use public opinion and interpersonal communication to evaluation our opinions Leads us to either speak up or not speak up 0 Behave the same way online For the same reasons In the past news traveled wordof mouth gt newspapers changed this and expanded our scope of knowledge Media as 4th Estate Others estates the government 0 Judicial executive legislative Media intended to perform as a watchdog Influences public opinion High vs Low Need for Cognition News will affect us differently High need to know deep thinking critical Low less likely to deep think low drive 0 Likely to agree with public opinion Gatekeeping Gate 1 should the media cover the event Gate 2 how much of the media should cover the event time space Gate 3 audience response 0 Can send the process back to gate 2 0 Can cause more coverage on a story or less Lippman argued that press has a large impact on public life but failed to uphold a market place of ideas 0 Also claimed that people are irrational uneducated actors Hostile Media Effects 0 People with strong beliefs will always see bias against their views even when neutral Dual Coding Theory 0 Images processed differently than verbal 0 We recall verbal information better without images The Werther Effect 0 Developed after the theorist noticed the number of suicides increased after numerous suicide stories published 0 Additive effect Agenda Setting More coverage increased importance to the audience 0 Chapel Hill study confirmed this Not possible to consumes everything need to rely on news Cognitive Miser Personal experience plays a role and could override media emphasis Unobtrusive vs obtrusive issues 0 Unobtrusive those with which we have little to no direct experience Would be affected by agenda setting 0 Obtrusive those with which we do have experience Agenda setting catch phrase Media doesn t tell you what to think they tell you what to think about Framing Can help us understand or focus on certain parts of a story Gate 2 Gain vs loss frame 0 Also others frames such as economic environmental etc Comes from o Journalists o LobbyistsPR Persuasion News vs marketing messages Demographics vs psychographics 0 Demographic census information age ethnicity used by advertisers in the past 0 Psychographic information based off what we do think believe etc Behavior online helps create overall profile of who we are 3 Dimensions of Persuasion o Attitude Feel differently about something as a result of being exposed to the message Sign that an attitude has changed other attitudes surrounding that one that39s been changed also seem to be affected 0 Behavior 0 Persistent change Elaboration Likelihood Model 0 Two routes Central Interested in the topic and intellectually involved Carefully scrutinize the message Arguments matter Audience must be able and motivated Defenses up Peripheral Not motivated to think about the topic Little thought about the message Secondary cues matter Barack Obama picture ex with kids crowds adoring fans puppies American flag Defenses down
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