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by: Allie Newman


Allie Newman
GPA 4.0
Motor Development
Tyler Williams

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Motor Development
Tyler Williams
Study Guide
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie Newman on Monday March 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Tyler Williams in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Motor Development in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.




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Date Created: 03/09/15
KIN 362 Motor Development Study Guide for Exam 2 Early Motor Development Behavioral Patterns 0 Infants will develop in a fairly predictable pattern and timing 0 Having an understanding of these patterns help us to understand 0 Progression versus Regression Early Motor Behavior 0 Two types of motor behaviors in infants 0 Spontaneous Movements not caused by known external stimuli 0 Example leg movements when an infant is laying on hisher back 0 Re exive Response elicited by a speci c external stimuli 0 Example leg movements when tickling an infant s feet Spontaneous Behaviors Also referred to as stereotypies Assumed to be extraneous movements with no purpose or apparent stimulation 0 Previously believed to not have any relationship to future movements 0 Research has shown otherwise 0 Researchers have analyzed the following spontaneous movements 0 Supine laying on back kicking 0 Arm movements 0 Kicking o Spontaneous o Rhythmical o Coordinated resembling positioning and timing of an adult walking step 0 Pattern of muscle use is also coordinated Sometimes infant kicks only one leg Sometimes infant kicks both legs alternately as in walking Sometimes infant kicks both legs in unison rather than in sequence 0 Supine vs Prone positions Laying on back vs laying on stomach easier to kick in supine position Supine extended exing begins ankle dorsi exing hip knee and ankle fully exed Extension exion l extension Arm Movements o WellCoordinated extension of elbow wrist and ngerjoints as with the kick a Not as rhythmical and repetitive as leg kicks 0 It takes several months for infants to begin opening ngers independently in anticipation of grasping objects 0 In uenced by environmental constraints 0 Different environments elicited differences in movement frequency and activity 0 Stereotypies may build the foundation for voluntary function movements in later development 0 Jensen et al 1995 Re exive Behaviors 0 Each movement is an involuntary response to a particular stimulus o Involuntary response movements that are results of an unconscious effort by an individual 0 Most re exes occur subcortically and are therefore processed in lower brain areas as the brain stem 0 Subcortically below the level of the higher brain centers Integration of Re exes 0 Various forms of trauma can inhibit the normal integration of re exes 0 Factors that may inhibit the development of normal movement patterns include 0 Injuries at birth or after Drugs ingested in utero or through breast milk Allergies Physical and emotional overstimulation An unsafe environment Blinking lights and media overload television and computers Simple lack of opportunity for movement babies carried around constantly in plastic car sears or other forms of bodily restraint do not gain the necessary practice time to develop normal movement patterns OOOOOO Consequences of Re ex Abnormalities Aberrant motor development 0 Deviation from the norm Poor lateralization o The tendency for certain processes to be more highly developed on one side than the other Hypertonic spasticity increase muscle tone or hypotonic lack of bone muscles Vestibular balance dysfunction helps with balance and equilibrium effects coordination Poor binocularity l ability to use both of our eyes to make out clear pictures 0 Eye motor difficulties good perceptions Perceptual problems Re exes Occur quickly after onset of stimuli 0 They resist habituation 0 Same re ex will occur from the same stimulus repetitively 0 Do not become adaptive Persistence may indicate neurological problems 0 Infant exhibits a re ex when heshe should not 0 Infant does not exhibit a re ex when heshe should 0 Three types of re exes o Primitive Protection Nutrition Survival Maintain some re exes into adulthood o Postural Gravity re exes Keep breathing airways open in a vertical position 0 Locomotor Initial re exes that transition into voluntary movements Three locomotor re exes Stepping 0 Swimming Crawling Early Motor Development Re exes Considerations Infantile re exes are tested and observed by the medical team to evaluate neurological function and development 0 Indications of potential neurological disorder 0 Absent or abnormal re exes in an infant o Persistence of a re ex past the age where the re ex is normally lost 0 Redevelopment of an infantile re ex in an older child or adult may suggest signi cant neurological problems Breathing and Crying 0 Breathing is the rst re ex we have 0 As we get older we develop regulated breathing but we never lose our re exive breathing 0 Less re exive and more voluntary 0 After the rst breath comes the rst cry 0 Crying is vital to the survival of the baby 0 This is the only way they can communicate their needs to their caregivers Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Re ex Fencing Re ex 0 Infant starts in supine position laying on your back Stimulus turn head to one side 0 Response sameside arm and leg extend 0 Normal prenatal to 4 months of age Believed to facilitate the development of an awareness of both sides of the body as well as help develop handeye coordination o If this re ex persists past 6 months cerebral palsy or other neural damage could be indicated Symmetrical Tonic Neck Re ex 0 Infant starts in supported position Stimuluslj extend head and neck or ex head and neck 0 Response arms extend and legs ex or arms ex and legs extend Symmetrical on both sides of the body limbs move symmetrically o Often noticeable from birth through approximately 3 months of age Persistence in this re ex can cause serious problems 0 May impede voluntary head raising when infant is in prone or supine position 0 Will inhibit reaching and grasping unsupported sitting balance for walking and virtually all major motor milestones o Spinal exion deformities may occur as well Palmar Grasp Re ex o Stimulus l touch palm with nger or object 0 Response hand closes tightly around object 0 One of the most wellknown infant re exes may also be rst to emerge 0 Normally appears in utero as early as 5th month of gestation and is evident through 4th month postnatally o Grasping action will likely persist after that time but it will be voluntary not re exive o Believed to play an important role in the acquisition of early forms of voluntary reaching and grasping Palmar Mandibular Re ex Babkin Re ex o Stimulusl apply pressure or stimulate with light touch simultaneously to palm of each hand 0 Response mouth open eyes close neck exes tilting head forward 0 Normally present at birth until 3 months Moro Re ex 0 Infant starts in supine position Stimuluslj shake head example by tapping pillow Response arms legs and ngers extend then arms and legs ex 0 One of the most useful for diagnosing an infant s neurological maturation o If lacking or asymmetrical appearing more forcefully on one side of the body than the other may signify a cerebral birth injury or central nervous system dysfunction 0 This re ex often exists at birth and endures until the infant is approximately 46 months old Startle Re ex Similar to the Moro Re ex the startle re ex can be elicited by a rapid change of head position or striking the surface that supports the baby 0 However where the Moro causes the limbs to extend immediately the Starte Re ex causes the arms and legs to immediately 0 May not appear until 23 months after Moro Re ex disappears o Startle Re ex normally suppressed by 1 year of age although less severe startle responses are elicited throughout the lifespan Stepping Re ex Stimulus place soles of feet on at surface 0 Response walking pattern of legs Forerunner to walking 0 Generally can be elicited within the rst few weeks following birth and persists through the 5th or 6th month 0 An infant 12 months old is held upright with the feet touching a supporting surface the pressure on the feet stimulates the legs to perform a walking action 0 Movement occurs involuntarily and subcortically 0 Critical for walking and development Positive Support Re ex Stimulus l like the stepping re ex if you hold your baby under his arms support his head and allow his feet to bounce on a at surface 0 Response infant will extend straighten his legs for about 2030 seconds to support himself before he exes his legs again and goes to a sitting position 0 This re ex usually disappears by 24 months until it becomes amore mature re ex in which there is a sustained extension of the legs and support of his body by about 6 months Galant Re ex Swimming Re ex o Stimulus l the gallant re ex is shown when an infants middle or lower back is stroked next to the spinal cord 0 Response the baby will respond by curving his or her body toward the side which is being stroked Observable as early as the second week after birth up through the 5th month 0 Recognition of this re ex has contributed to the popularity of infant swim programs 0 However there is no scienti c basis for effort on voluntary swimming later in life Crawling Re ex Stimulus baby placed prone on their stomach on the oor or table sole of the feet are stroked alternately Response the legs and arms to move in a crawlinglike action Precursor to later voluntary movement creeping and crawling Can be observed from birth through rst 34 months and disappears before more voluntary creeping begins Considered essential for furthering development of sufficient muscular tone for future voluntary creeping Sucking Re ex Stimulus l touch face above or below the lips o Infant s head turns in the direction of the stimulation 0 Search re ex helps infant locate the source of nourishment o Sucking re ex then enables the baby to ingest the food 0 Response sucking motion begins 0 Important in maintaining sufficient nourishmentfor the infant is the search or rooting re ex which functions in conjunction with the sucking re ex Rooting Re ex Rooting or searching Plantar Grasp Re ex Stimulus I apply slight pressure to foot usually with the ngertip Response causes all of the toes of that foot to ex 0 Toes curl around the stimulating object as if attempting to grasp as in the Palmar Grasp Re ex of the hand Babinski Re ex Stimulus l stroke sole of foot from heel to toe Response toes extend First described byJoseph Felix Babinski in 1886 0 Normally evident from birth and remains for the rst several months of life Believed to be an indicator of our ability to perform conscious or voluntary movement 0 For adults a positive Babinski sign indicates that the Babinski re ex has returned and the person most likely has an injury to the central nervous system 0 Normal adults the toes will ex or not move at all Re exes that Persist Into Adulthood Blinking corneal Re ex l blinks before eyes are touched or when sudden bright light appears Sneeze Re ex l sneezes when nasal passages irritated Gag Re ex l gags when throat or back of mouth stimulated Cough Re ex l coughs when airway stimulated Yawn Re ex l yawns when needs additional oxygen 0 Many hypotheses but no conclusive reasoning Later Infancy quotMotor Milestonesquot Sequential pattern leading to the ability to walk 0 Head stability 0 Trunk stability 0 Standing 0 Walking 0 Connected with predictable change in individual constraints including o Maturation of the central nervous system 0 Development of muscular strength and endurance 0 Development of posture and balance 0 Improvement of sensory processing Early Motor Development Postural Reaction and Re exes Re exes most commonly related to the development of later voluntary movement are known as postural re exes Help to maintain posture in a changing environment 0 These re exes disappear when voluntary behavior surfaces Labyrinthine Righting Re ex 0 Infant in supported upright position Stimulus l tilt infant Response head moves to stay upright Appears at approximately 23 months of age and lasts throughout the rst year of life Considered important to attainment of upright posture o If an infant is placed on a prone position breathing may be inhibited to the point of suffocation o Newborn doesn t have sufficient voluntary capabilities to raise or turn the head to improve breathing 0 However the involuntary labyrinthine re ex enables the infant to quotrightquot or elevate the head to restore the head to a position more conductive to breathing and thus survival Derotative Righting 0 Infant starts in supine position Stimulus l turn head to one side or turn legs and pelvis to other side 0 Response body follows head in rotation or trunk and head follow in rotation This reaction usually appears by 45 months and involves your infant s body turning to follow the direction of his head when it turns helping him learn to roll over Parachute Re ex 0 Infant held upright Stimuluslj lower infant placedheld toward ground rapidly Response legs and arms extend Propping 0 Beginning at different ages the propping responses help your child learn to sit o The rst is the anteriorpropping response which begins at 45 months and involves the infant extending his arms when he is held in a sitting position allowing him to assume a tripod position 0 Next lateral propping side to side appearing at 67 months causes him to extend his arm to the side if he is tilted to keep him held up if he is tiltingfalling to one side 0 Lastly posterior Drabbinq causing him to extend his arms backwards if he is titled backward o Propping responses help the child maintain an upright posture PullUp Re ex Stimuluslj place infant in supported standing position hold baby s hands carefully tipping himher in any direction 0 Response supporting arms ex or extend in an effort to maintain the upright position 0 If the baby is tipped backward the arms ex to pull himher toward the supporting person and back into an upright position 0 If the infant is tipped forward the arms extend to push himher away from the supporting person and back toward the upright position Motor Milestones Fundamental motor skills 0 Building blocks 0 Cumulative sequential 0 Lead to future complex motor skills 0 Rate Limiters 0 Control the timing of these motor milestones and when they occur in people 0 Individual constraints that inhibit or slowthe attainment of a motor skill o Rapidly changing during early childhood periods Development of Human Locomotion What is Locomotion Locomotion l the act of moving or the capability to move from place to place 0 Complex activity that involves many interacting systems and constraints 0 Constraints may be Individual structural and functional such as 0 Balance coordination of limbs and fear of falling Environmental Spacious sturdy at surface with sufficient friction Task 0 In humans locomotion includes moving on one two or four limbs o Upright bipedal o Crawling walking running 0 Hopping skipping galloping etc Early Locomotion Crawling l moving on hands and abdomen Creeping l moving on hands and knees o Skill progression is as follows 0 Crawling with the chest and stomach on the oor 0 Low creeping with stomach off oor but legs working together symmetrically o Rocking back and forth in the high creep position 0 Creeping with legs and arms working alternately Walking 0 Walking is the rst form of upright bipedal locomotion 0 Walking is de ned by 0 A 50 phasing of the legs As left leg is halfway through its motion the right leg will begin its own 0 A period of double support when both feet are on the ground followed by a period of single support 0 Characteristics of Walking 0 A process of alternatey losing balance and recovering it While moving forward in an upright position 0 While moving forward the body should display little up and down or side to side movement 0 The arms and legs move in opposition Early Walking 0 Early walking patterns tend to maximize stability and balance 0 Arms are in high guard and do not swing upright and do not swing unaware of the balance 0 Feet are spread wide apart with outtoeing 0 Independent steps are taken 0 No trunk rotation Rate controllers for early walking are 0 Coordination 0 Strength to support body on one leg 0 Balance Pro cient Walking 0 By 12 months children may walk two or three steps without support 0 By age 2 most children can walk unsupported o By age 4 most children have the essential ingredients of an advanced or proficient walker 0 Learning to maximize mobility o Stride length increases Due to structural changes in leg strength and length 0 Planting foot aty on ground changes to heeltoe pattern Allows for increased range of motion 0 Base of support is reduced Reduced outtoeing 0 Double kneelock pattern Knee extends twice in the step cycle 0 1 Heel strike 0 2 Foot push off 0 Pelvis rotates and opposition arms to legs occurs Allows full range of leg motion Balance improves 0 Forward trunk inclination leaning forward is reduced more upright 0 Walking Pattern 0 When assessing the walking pattern of young children look for the following inefficiencies o Bouncy walk l too much vertical push 0 Failure to swing the arms at the shoulders 0 Excessive swing of the arms away from the sides 0 Feet held too close together so that the entire body looks jerky as the child walks Toes turned out and feet held too far apart l duck walk Toes turned in l pigeon toed 0 Head too far forward body leaning forward before the lead foot touches the ground 00 Later Walking older adulthood 0 Changes in walking patterns mainly due to structural and functional constraints 0 Weight gain or loss 0 Changes in strength or balance 0 Injury and pain 0 Fear of injury from falling o Gait training 0 Return to early walking trade off maximize stability over mobility o Outtoeing increases Stride length decreases Pelvic rotation decreases Speed decreases Objects are used for balance 0000 Development of Human Locomotion Understanding Body Planes o Frontal Plane separating front and back Sagittal Plane separating left and right 0 Transverse Plane Early Running 0 Typically occurs 67 months after walking initiation o Earliest attempts are actually fast walks 0 Characteristics of Early Running 0 Arms held in high guard Focus more on balance Arms swing out rather than back and forth Flatfooted landing not heeltotoe landing Lateral movements of the thigh thighs out to the side Limited range of motion individual constraints Stride length is short OOOOO Pro cient Running 0 Reduce stability to increase mobility Characteristics of Pro cient Running 0 Increased stride length 0 Planar movement Elimination of lateral movement Narrow base of support improve speed Trunk rotation 00 0 Opposition of arms and legs 0 Trunk maintains a slight forward lean throughout the stride pattern 0 Both arms swing through a large arc and in synchronized opposition to the leg action 0 Support foot contacts the ground with heel rst and then forefoot or approximately in a at pattern 0 However fast sprinters will land on balls of foot never on the heel Knee of support leg bends slightly after the foot has made contact with the ground 0 Extension of the support leg at the hip knee and ankle o Propels the body forward and upward into the nonsupport phase 0 Recovery knee swings forward quickly to a high knee raise and simultaneously the lower leg exes bringing the heel close to the buttock see table 71 for actions of leg and arms in sequence of running on PowerPoint slide gtlltgtllt 0 Main difference between walking and running 0 Walking will always have one if not two feet on the ground 0 At some point in running neither foot will be on the ground Running Across the Life Span Later Running 0 Patterns help increase stability and balance 0 Characteristics of Late Running 0 Decreased stride length and range of motion are apparent 0 Fewer strides are taken 0 Decreased speed is apparent decreased force not able to run as fast 0 Rate controllers are balance and strength or injuring diseases arthritis etc 0 But exercise can postpone undesired changes associated with aging and allow senior to run for many years Other Locomotor Skills 0 lumping 0 When individuals propel themselves off the ground With either one or both feet but then land on both feet 0 Gauging Jumping Development types of jumps see PowerPoint slide for tables Certain jumping skills develop at different times throughout our lifetimes Different level of difficulties Children often begin simple forms ofjumping before 2 years old 0 Individuals can perform either a verticaor horizontastanding long jump 0 Early characteristics of jumping include the fol0 Wing Performing vertical for both types of jumps both become vertical jumps Onefoot takeoff or landing Lack of coordinated arm action and movements arms help in momentum No or limited preparatory movements no knee bend 0 Rate Controler force production to project body off the ground 0 Beginner jumper Characteristics of Vertical Form is inefficient Legs are tucked up under body rather than fully extended to project body off ground One foot touches down rst Arms do not assist jumper holds arms in winging posture 0 Beginner jumper Characteristics of Horizontal O As jumper s weight shifts forward toes are pulled off oor to catch body at landing o Pulling legs up under rather than fully extending Trunk lean at takeoff is less than 30 degrees from vertical Arms are used at takeoff but are in abducted position out to the side Arms externally rotate in ight and parachute for landing Leg action is in step 3 at takeoff table 75 as knees extend at same time heels leave ground Knees and hips ex together during ight and knees extend before landing Trunk is somewhat erect at takeoff Hyperextend over extension in ight exes for landing Arms wing at takeoff step 1 then parachute for landing o Pro cientAdvanced jumping Preparatory crouch maximizes takeoff force building up kinetic energy Both feet leave the ground at the same time maximize force production to the ground Arms swing during the jump Vertical Direct force down ward extend body 0 From crouch individual swings arms forward and up to lead the Jump Hips knees and ankles extend completely at takeoff triple extension 0 Near peak of the jump one hand continues up while the other comes down tilting shoulder girdle to assist in high reach 0 Trunk remains upright throughout Horizontal long jump direct force downward amp backward ex knees during ight Feet leave ground together and touch down together 0 Legs fully extend at takeoff beginning with heels up 0 Knees ex in ight followed by hip exion and nally knee extension to reach forward for landing Trunk inclined more than 30 degrees at takeoff o Jumper maintains lean in ight until trunk exes for landing Arms lead jump and reach overhead at takeoff using momentum o Arms lower to reach forward at landing 0 Summary for Pro ciency in jumping Get into preparatory crouch Extend arms backwards then initiate takeoff with vigorous arm swing forward to overhead position Take off with heels coming off ground and both feet leaving ground at same time o Pro cient jumping for Height Direct force downward and extend body throughout ight Keep trunk relatively upright throughout jump Flex the ankles knees and hips on touchdown to allow force of landing to be absorbed o Pro cient jumping for Distance Direct force down and back by beginning takeoff with heels leaving ground before knees extend Flex knees during ight then bring thighs forward to a position parallel with ground Swing lower legs forward for a twofoot landing Let trunk come forward in reaction into the thigh exing Flex ankles and knees when heels touch ground to absorb the momentum of body over distance 0 Hopping 0 When individuals propewith one foot and then land on the same foot 0 Rate Controllers Force production to project body form one foot to the same foot Balance to land on one foot Force absorption to land repeatedly on the same leg 0 Leaping 0 When individuals propel themselves on one foot and land on the other foot opposite foot Galloping 0 Sliding 0 Skipping Development of Human Locomotion Specialized Forms ofjumping Hoooinq o Requires taking off and landing on the same leg 0 Work of the ankle joint is primarily what accomplishes the push into the air and the absorption of the landing shock 0 Starts later than jumping must have greater strength coordination and balance 0 Early characteristics of Hopping 0 Support leg is lifted rather than used to project the body 0 Arms are inactive 0 Swing leg is held rigidly in front of the body 0 More advanced Hopping characteristics of a pro cient hopper 0 Swing leg must lead hip 0 Support leg must extend fully o Arms must move in opposition to legs 0 Support leg must ex at landing to absorb the force of landing and to prepare for extension at next takeoff Leaping o Occurs hen individuals propel themselves on one foot and land on the other 0 Arm opposition is the same as for the fun 0 Emphasis on body extension for height or for distance 0 Upon touching the oor landing leg bends to absorb the force of the body Other Locomotor Skills Sliding o Sideways movement 0 Lead step is quickly followed by the free foot closing to replace the supporting foot 0 Lead foot quickly springs from the oor into a direction of intended travel 0 Weight is primarily on the balls of the feet 0 Sequence is repeated for the desired distance 0 Same foot always leads in a slide stepclose stepclose etc right foot left foot etc Galloping 0 Basically a slide but in a forward direction 0 A gallop is an exaggerated slide in a forward direction 0 Lead leg lefts and bends then thrusts forward to support the weight 0 Rear foot quickly closes to replace the supporting leg as the lead leg springs up into it lifted and bent position Skipping o A skip is a combination of a step and a hop rst on one foot then on the other foot 0 Pattern has the alternation and opposition of the walk plus the samesided one foot hop Galloping Sliding and Skipping lnvolve a combination of skills previously obtained stepping hopping leaping Gallop and Slide are Asymmetric o Gallop forward step on one foot leapstep on other 0 m sideways step on one foot leap step on other 0 Skip is Symmetric o Skip alternating Early Galloping Sliding and Skipping 0 Early Characteristics 0 Arrhythmic and stiff movements Little or no arm movement Little or no trunk rotation Exaggeration of vertical lift Short stride or step length 0000 Pro cient Galloping Sliding and Skipping o Pro cient Skil Patterns for Sliding o Knees give on landing o Movements are rhythmical o Heelfoot or forefoot landing prevail o Pro cient Skil Patterns for Galoping 0 Can lead with either leg 0 Arms can be used for other purposes 0 Pro cient Skil Patterns for Skipping o Arms swing in opposition Rate Controllers for Galloping Sliding and Skipping Galloping 0 Coordination uncoupling of legs 0 Differential force production legs performing different tasks Sliding 0 Coordination turning to one side Skipping 0 Coordination ability to perform two tasks with one leg 0 Common rate controller for all three tasks coordination Ballistic Skills Performer applies force to an object in order to project it 0 Examples throwing kicking striking Gauging Ballistic Skills 0 Product Measures outcome 0 Accuracy distance ball velocity 0 Process Measures movement pattern 0 Developmental sequence 0 Which Approach is Better 0 Why would an instructor use product measures to judge pro ciency of ballistic skills Size and Strength Equipment needed 0 Why would an instructor use process measures to judge pro ciency of ballistic skills Developing optimal patterns Overarm Throwing Complicated skill that requires the coordination of many body segments 0 Many forms 0 Underarm one or two hand Sidearm Overarm one or two hand 0 Most common in sport onehand overarm Type used is dependent on task constraints Early Overarm Throwing Mostly arm action Elbow pointed up 0 Throw executed by elbow extension alone Pro cient Overarm Throwing for Force Thrower uses preparatory windup 0 Weight shifts and trunk rotates back arm swings Thrower uses opposite leg long step and differentiated trunk rotation Upper arm and forearm lag Movements are sequential to transfer momentum Developmental Changes in Overarm Throwing o Trunk Action 0 Step 1 l none or forward lean Backward movement 0 Step 2 l block rotation Forward rotation of the lower and upper trunk as a unity 0 Step 3 l differentiated rotation Lower trunk hip section initiates forward movement and is followed by the upper trunk shoulder section 0 Back Swind 0 Step 1 l none 0 Step 2 l shoulder and elbow exion 0 Step 3 l upward backswing 0 Step 4 l downward circular backswing Foot Action 0 Step 1 no step 0 Step 2 l homolateral step stepping on same side as throwing arm Reduces available trunk rotation and force production 0 Step 3 l short contralateral step stepping with opposite leg of throwing arm 0 Step 4 l long contralateral step 0 Upper Arm Action 0 Step 1 l oblique Not in alignment 0 Step 2 l aligned but independent ahead of the body 0 Step 3 l lagging Forearm Action 0 Step 1 no lag 0 Step 2 l lag 0 Step 3 l delayed lag Progression in Childhood Throwers DO NOTachieve same step for each body component at same time o Likely that structural constraints limit the movements that some body section can make while other body sections are moving in a particular way 0 Some step combinations are observed more frequently than others 0 Not everyone reaches highest step in each component 0 Differences are observed between the sexes in throwing skill 0 Girls tend to lag behind boys in forearm upper arm and trunk actions Perhaps lack good instruction or opportunity to practice Throwing in Adulthood Older adults demonstrate moderately advanced steps 0 Differences are observed between the sexes 0 Men generally have better form 0 Ball velocities are moderate 0 Similar to 89 year olds o Males 37 mph and females 27 mph 0 Muscuoskeeta constraints might in uence movement patterns used in older adults 0 Possibly due to Decreased shoulder exibility decreased range of motion Loss of fasttwitch muscle bers slower movement speeds Pain in shoulderjoint reorganized movement patterns Throwing for Accuracy versus Distance Throwers may use lower developmental steps for accurate throws than for forceful throws 0 When required to throw a greater distance differences between throws are minimal Development of Ballistic Skills Kicking o Performer strikes ball with foot for projection To make contact kicker must have 0 Perceptual abilities is the ball moving Is it stationary o Eyefoot coordination o Kicking a moving ball is difficult for children 0 Characteristics of Early Kicking o Unskilled kickers tend to use single action rather than sequence of actions No step is taken with nonkicking leg Kicking leg pushes ba forward no wind up no preparation no steps taken etc 0 Characteristics of Intermediate Kicking o Kicker has made some improvements over beginner kicker 0 Steps forward putting the leg in cocked positions but the leg swing is still minimal 0 The knee is bent at contact and some of the momentum of the kick is lost 0 Characteristics of Pro cient Kicking o Preparatory windup is used Trunk is rotated back Kicking leg is cocked bent Knee of kicking leg bent Contributes to momentum of the kick o Trunk rotates forward Maximize full range of motion 0 Kicker eans back at contact with the ball 0 Movement of kicking leg is sequential Thigh rotates forward Lower leg extends Straight leg continues forward after contact to dissipate force 0 Swings kicking leg through full range of motion at the hip o Arms move in opposition to the legs 0 Developmental Changes in Kicking 0 Movement pattern changes are not well documented 0 Developmental steps have not been validated o Haubenstricker et al 1983 10 of children 75 to 9 years of age demonstrate advanced kicking abilities o Maly et al 2011 Kicking distance may change movement pattern Pun ng o Mechanically similar to kicking but the ball is dropped from the hands 0 Punting is more difficult than kicking for children 0 Characteristics of Early Punting 0 Ball is tossed up rather than dropped 0 Punter takes only short step 0 Punter often contacts ball with toes rather than instep Characteristics of Pro cient Punting o Arms are extended to drop ba before nal stride o Arms then drop to sides and move into opposition to legs 0 Punter eaps onto supporting eg swings punting leg vigorously up to make contact 0 Punting leg is kept straight o Toes are pointed not exed not up just pointed for better contact with the ball 0 Two skills are seen in this skill l leap and hop 0 Developmental Changes in Punting Arms 0 Ball Release Step 1 l upward toss Step 2 I ate drop from chest height Step 3 l ate drop from waist height Step 4 l eary drop from chest height o BallContact Phase Step 1 I arm drop Step 2 l arm abduction away from body outward Step 3 l arm opposition to the legs Developmental Changes in Punting g 0 BallContact Phase Step 1 no short step ankle exed Step 2 l long step ankle extended Step 3 l leap and hop Sidearm Striking Striking where arm remains at or below the shoulder level Implements can be used 0 Bat racquets or gold club Mechanical principles are similar for all striking tasks 0 Principles can be applied to other striking tasks Striking involves the most difficult perceptual judgment Let s use swinging a tennis racquet to help us visualize Characteristics of Early Sidearm Striking o Chopping motion elbow extension 0 Little leg and trunk movement 0 Often looks like unskilled attempts to throw overhand Characteristics of Pro cient Sidearm Striking o Sideways preparatory stance and long step into hit 0 Differentiated trunk rotation Permits larger swing Contributes more force through rotary movement 0 Horizontal swing through large range of motion arm extended before contact 0 Sequential movements Developmental Changes in Sidearm Striking 0 Sequences for foot and trunk are similar to overarm throw Trend is toward use of trunk rotation none then blocked then differentiated Plane of swing progresses from vertical to horizontal Grip changes from power grip to quotshakehands grip Elbows are held away from body and extended before contact 0000 Overa rm Striking Form of striking where the arm travels above the shoulder level Can be done 0 Without an implement Example volleyball serve 0 With an implement Example tennis serve Characteristics of Early Overarm Striking 0 Limited trunk rotation 0 Swing with collapsed elbow 0 Little or no lag with swing forward Swings arm and racket forward in unison Characteristics of Pro cient Overarm Striking 0 Lower and upper trunk are rotated more than 90 degrees 0 Elbow is held between 90119 degrees at start of forward movement 0 Racket lags behind arm in forward swing 0 Movement is sequential 0 Developmental Changes in Overarm Striking o Trunk upper and lower arm and leg sequences similar to those for overarm throwing o Preparatory Trunk Action Step 1 no trunk rotation Step 2 l minimal trunk rotation Step 3 I total trunk rotation o Elbow Action in BallContact Phase Step 1 l very small or very large angle Step 2 l intermediate angle 289 degrees Step 3 l ideal angle 90119 degrees 0 Spinal and Pelvic Range of Motion Step 1 l trunk rotation of less than 45 degrees Step 2 l trunk rotation of 45 to 89 degrees Step 3 l trunk rotation of 90 degrees or more 0 Racket Action Step 1 no racket lag Step 2 l racket lag Step 3 l delayed racket lag Assessment of Ballistic Skills 0 Developmental sequences can be used as checklists Individuals are in a developmental step if a majority of executions usually out of ve attempts fall into that category 0 Observation should be conducted from the appropriate direction 0 Side views show forward step trunk action lagging 0 Rear views show arm angles Development of Manipulative Skills throwing striking kicking l 3 main ballistic skills Manipulative Skills and the Model of Constraints 0 Individual structural constraints are involved and these change with age 0 Length and size of limbs change 0 Strength changes 0 Environmental and task constraints are also involved Reaching and Grasping The pro cient execute the reach and the grasp as a single skill Let s rst study grasping prehension rst then reaching Grasping o Prehension l the grasping of an object usually with the hand or hands Halverson proposed 10 phases of development in 1931 0 Found transition from power to precision grips after about 9 months of age Power Grip l holding object against the palm not as much control Precision Grip l holding object between thumb and one or more ngers more control Holstein 1982 continued work of Halverson but used objects of different sizes and shapes 0 Again demonstrated transition from power to precision grip 0 Also found that by 9 months infants reliably shape hands in anticipation of object s shape as they go to grasp it Work demonstrated that shape and size of an obiect in uence the soeci c tvoe of ras Through Halverson s early work o Developmentalists viewed prehension as a behavior acquired in steps 0 Maturationists of Halverson s era viewed these agerelated changes in the same vein as motor milestones Each progression to a new stage was linked to neuromotor maturation Maturation of the motor cortex probably is a factor in prehension Vision is important for grasping o Use visual information to con gure the hand before the grasp Grasping is stable over the life span o However disabling conditions such as arthritis can in uence con guration Body Scaling is adapting characteristics of the task or environment to the overall body size or size of a body component such that a bodyscaled ratio is used to choose an ac on o Perception of an object in comparison to your body oThe movement selected by individuals is related to their size compared with an object s size or that movements are body scaledexample picking up a quarter versus a car tire Body Scaling in Grasping o Newell Scully Tenenbaum and Hardiman 1989 suggested grip movements are body scaled Hand size relative to object size is key Vision plays a role in selecting appropriate grip for the size weight and shape of the object to be obtained Adults con gureshape their hands for a particular object before making contact with it Adults decide whether to reach with one or two hands before making contact with it More research is needed in infancy Reaching Reaching development is characterized by three phases over the rst year 0 1 Preaching birth to 4 months An extension movement elicited by an object but typically not accurate enough to contact the object o 2 Visually Guided Reaching 4 to 8 months Arm movement toward an object in the visual eld wherein the individual adjusts the hand by sight of both the object and the hand 0 3 Visuallv Elicited Reaching 9 months and on Infant no longer needs to see the hand to complete a successful reach HandMouth Movements 0 At 3 to 4 months infants become consistent in moving the hand to the mouth 0 By 5 months they open the mouth in anticipation of the hand s arrival Bimanual Reaching and Manipulation 0 At2 months lnfants show bilateral both arm extension and reaching Movements are random and asymmetrical 0 Around 45 months Infants reach for objects with both arms 0 Infants can clasp their hands at the body midline Usually one hand reaches and grasps object rst 0 Late in the rst year Infants learn to hold two objects one in each hand and often bang them together 0 By 12 months Pulling apart and insertion action are seen 0 After 18 months Reach for two objects with different arms simultaneously Infants manipulate objects cooperatively with both hands A lot of motor development with manipulation of objects in this time pedod o By end of the second year Complementary activities are seen 0 Example holding lip open to get something out of a jar Can use objects as tools example l spoons Role of Posture in Reaching o Postural control is important in reaching Before infants can sit they must be supported in order to reach Even at 4 months infants adjust their posture as they reach Improvements in these adjustments during the rst year continue through 0 Manual Performance in Adulthood o Kauranen and Vanharanta 1996 Crosssectional study of men and women between 2170 years of age 0 Breaking up into different groups and observe the results Manual performance declined after age 50 0 Reaction time movement speed tapping speed and coordination all declined Movement slowed and coordination scored declined 0 Hughes et al 1997 Observed older adults average age of 78 over 6 year time span Strength declined Tendency to slow down more than young adults at the end of the reach to make corrections in trajectory o ContrerasVidal Teulings and Stelmach 1998 Observed handwriting movements 0 Some loss in coordination of handwriting loss of ne motor skills 0 Summary of Manual Performance in Adulthood Loss of speed in movement with aging is a common nding for large and ne motor movements 0 Decline in function 0 Accuracy in wellpracticed tasks less likely to loss if you practice daily 0 Greater loss can be expected among those who restrict manipulative activities as they age 0 This contributes in turn to loss of strength which may further hurt manual performance Allie Newman KIN 362 Class Notes 3915 Development of Manipulative Skills Fundamental Manipulative Skills 0 Most common manipulative skill is catching o Relatively dif cult developmental task Catching o Performer gains possession or control of an object using body or implement o The goal of catching is to retain possession of the object you catch 0 Ideally objects are caught in the hands so they can be manipulated 0 Beginning Catching 0 Little force absorption 0 Children initially position the arms and hands rigidly and sometimes trap the ball against their chests arms extended clapping motion to catch not ef cient 0 Children sometimes turn their heads away or close their eyes 0 Pro cient Catching 0 Hands give with the ball to gradually absorb force 0 Catcher moves side to side or forwards and backwards to intercept the ball Positioning of body for better movement 0 Fingers are pointed pp for high catch and pointed down for ow catch Perception and anticipation Developmental Changes in Catching 0 Task constraints greatly affect the dif culty of catching 0 Many factors are variable in catching Ball size ball shape speed trajectory arrival point 0 Arm Action Step 1 I Little response no adaptation to ball ight Step 2 l Hugging motion arms encircle the ball ball is trapped against the chest Step 3 l Scooping motion arms are extended and move under object ball is trapped against the chest Step 4 l Arms give ball is caught in hands nottrapped against chest anymore 0 Hand Action Step 1 l Palms up Step 2 l Palms in palms face each other Step 3 l Palms adjusted to ight and size of oncoming object 0 Body Action Step 1 no adjustments made Step 2 l Awkward adjustment catcher seems to ght for balance Step 3 l Proper adjustment feet trunk and arms all move to adjust to path of oncoming object optimal positioning 0 Anticipation 0 Many manipulative tasks and interception skills involve anticipation Moving objects at varying speeds directions etc Initiation of movement ahead of interception Allows for proper positioning The manipulative component positioning and closing hands on ball is often perfected before the ability to be in the right place at the right time 0 Development of Coincidence Anticipation 0 Children s accuracy is not as good if the response is complex or the interception point is farther away example young kids playing out eld in baseball 0 Young children are more successful with large balls and atter trajectories 0 Ball colors and backgrounds have less effect With advancing age 0 Speed of the ball in uence accuracy too fast or too slow Perception is based off previous throw Catching in Older Adulthood 0 Little catching research is available 0 Factors that would affect movement speed or ability to reach might affect catching Not as mobile as we age 0 Older adults are somewhat less accurate and more variable on anticipation tasks 0 Difference being greater when the moving objects moves faster and the older adults are sedentary rather than active 0 Older adults can improve with practice Review Questions What is a characteristic of pro cient kicking o All of the above An infant moves involuntarily when you touch soles of feet 0 Re exive movement Which comes rstin early development ofmovement o Crawling Which is NOT a constraint in hopping 0 Ability to land on opposite foot from takeoff this is actually leaping Re ex has stimulus of pacing baby in standing position and a response of baby s supporting arms exing and extending in an effort to maintain an upright position 0 Pull up re ex Which of these is NOT a characteristic of pro cient running 0 Arms in high guard Touching an infant s what will result in the rooting re ex o Cheek Which is NOT a characteristic of pro cient walking 0 Base of support is increased Which re ex is when lowering an infant to the ground rapidly the arms and legs extend o Parachute An infant s feet are placed at on ground and infant begins to perform a walking pattern which re ex o Stepping re ex


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