Quiz 4 Study Guide
Quiz 4 Study Guide 4616 - HORT 102
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Irene A. on Monday March 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 4616 - HORT 102 at Washington State University taught by Michael Pumphrey in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultivated Plants in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/09/15
HORT 102 OUIZ 4 STUDY GUIDE Lesson 9 List and describe the five soilforming factors 0 Parent Material Unconsolidated mineral matter lying underneath the upper soil layers material from which the soil is formed 0 Climate Affects rate of soil formation amp type of soil formed moisture humidity frost heat wind erosion and sunlight 0 Organisms in uenced by climate which in uences the type and amount of vegetation produced Microorganisms amp earthworms break down organic matter amp mix it with soil 0 Topography Determines the erosion rate and thus the depth of soil Modifies the climate Determines patterns and rates of drainage 0 Time Rate is affected by the nature of the parent material and the intensity of the weathering List the four major components of soil 0 Mineral matter 40 organic matter 10 air 25 water 25 Define soil texture 0 The percentage by weight of sand silt and claysized particles in a soil Define soil structure 0 The combination of sand silt and clay with organic matter into secondary particles called aggregates Discuss how texture and structure impact the water holding capacity and water infiltration rates of a soil 0 Size of soil pores water is lost from the largest pores sand first 0 The total amount of surface area per unit mass associated with the particles clay has more surface area per gram List and describe the three forms of soil water 0 Gravitational free water remains in the soil only temporarily and moves down through the soil due to the force of gravity 0 Available capillary water Water held in small pores between soil particles and present as films around the soil particles 0 Hygroscopic bound unavailable water is held so tightly by the soil particles plant roots cannot extract it Describe how particle size affects water movement in soils 0 The more sand present in the soil the more easily water can pass through it 0 The higher the clay percentage the smaller the particles and pore spaces Define the terms 0 Field capacity all the gravitational water has moved through the soil and the pore space is filled with only the water the soil can hold against the force of gravity 0 Wilting point Plant can no longer extract water from the soil and it begins to wilt 0 Saturation capacity All pores are completely filled with water 0 Available water AW Field Capacity Permanent Wilting Point Explain potential sources of soil salinity and the detrimental problems it can cause to plants 0 Mineral weathering 0 Inorganic fertilizers and manures 0 Irrigation waters 0 Other sources 0 Salts cause chemical drought which is similar to water stress State the difference between macro and micronutrients 0 Macronutrients are required in large quantities micronutrients are required in small quantities List the primary and secondary macronutrients 0 Primary Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium 0 Secondary Calcium Magnesium Sulfur List the micronutrients 0 Molybdenum Boron Copper Iron Manganese Zinc Chorine List the different nutrient sources and the different types of fertilizers 0 Nutrient Sources 0 Inorganic fertilizers O Manures composts and other organic materialsfertilizers 0 Green manures legumes and others I Peas vetch rye oats wheat barley 0 Types of Fertilizers 0 Chemical fertilizers 0 Organic fertilizers bone meal compost manure etc 0 Green manures Lesson 10 List the goals andor purposes of tillage 0 Preparing the soil to be in ideal condition for nurturing growing plants 0 seedbed preparation increasing soil temperature incorporating plant residues controlling weeds conserving water Describe the impacts of tillage on soil erosion soil temperature and soil moisture levels 0 Excessive tillage destroys soil structure affects water movement amp oxygen exchange Why is seed to soil contact important 0 Allows seeds to imbibe water from the soil Describe the factors involved in notill crop production specifically addressing issue concerning soil erosion soil temperature and soil moisture levels 0 Erosion good control 0 Soil temp amp moisture poorly drained soils dry up quickly List the factors that affect depth of seeding 0 sandy soil plant deeper to ensure contact with moisture 0 heavy soil seeding more shallow 0 seeds of plants with hypogeal emergence can be planted deeper than seeds of plants with epigeal emergence List the factors that affect seeding rates 0 percent germination seed purity plant size species variation competitive ability environment temperature range List the factors that determine planting date and discuss the impact of delayed planting on variety choice crop choice and yield potential 0 soil amp air temperature weather 0 early seeding may result in more seed and seedling diseases due to the cool moist conditions 0 With fallseeded crops soil temperature is usually optimum seeding date is determined by factors such as adequate soil moisture levels for germination Describe the differences between climate and weather 0 Climate long term 0 Weather short term immediate Describe how the distribution of precipitation throughout the year affects the growth and development of a crop 0 Cropping regions are classified on the basis of average annual precipitation determines what plants can be grown where 0 Precipitation that occurs during peak water use of the crop is the most beneficial Describe the process of summerfallowing a crop field Discuss how it is maintained and describe the efficiency of this system as a moisture conservation method 0 Keeping field vegetation free to store moisture 0 remove weeds so they don t deplete the water supply 0 Efficiency of water utilization is largely determined by the rate of transpiration from the plants plus the rate of evaporation from the soil Name five features that can modify climate 0 Sunlight latitude time of year topography human activity Discuss microclimate and how it impacts plant growth 0 The environmental conditions immediately surrounding the plant 0 affected by human activity irrigation tillage drainage ponds other plants etc 0 affected by urban development Describe a Plant Hardiness Zone Map and how it can be used to choose plants for a specific part of the country 0 Categorizes plants based on the average annual minimum temperatures throughout the country Describe several methods used in agriculture to modify temperatures for maximum crop production 0 Good site selection 0 Plant cold or heat tolerant crops 0 Heaters amp wind machines 0 Wind blocks forest vegetation water 0 Protective structurescoverings Define growing degree day and explain how these are calculated for cool season and warm season crops 0 Used to determine the crop harvest date based on heat units that accumulate over the growing season Less 01111 Explain the three terms used to describe the plant s light environment 0 Intensity quantity strength of the light 0 Quality color wavelength of light 0 Duration photoperiod time span of the light exposure Explain how plants absorb light energy 0 Photosynthesis 6C02 6H20 gt C6H1206 602 Describe how light intensities that are too low or too high can impact plants 0 Damage to plant parts such as fruit owers or bark due to over exposure to sunlight or light intensity results in sunburn or sunscald How are sun leaves different from shade leaves 0 Sun leaves adapted to high light intensities thick but small in area 0 Shade leaves efficient at harvesting low levels of light thin but large in area Provide an example of how a change in the light quality environment can in uence plant growth and development 0 Plants growing under the filtered light low RFR would have increased stem elongation increased internode length and strong apical dominance compared to plants grown in the nonfiltered light high RFR Explain the difference between short day long day and day neutral plants 0 Short day ower in response to shortening photoperiod or lengthening night period 0 Long Day ower in response to lengthening photoperiod or shortening night period 0 Day Neutral no response to changes in photoperiod Describe several methods used in agriculture to modify the light environment of the plant to improve crop production and efficiency 0 Night interruption lighting 0 using lights to extend photoperiod 0 black cloths to eliminate light exposure amp extend night period 0 pruning amp training 0 positioning plants in shade 0 re ective plastic mulches 0 using populationspacing genetics to optimize light interception
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