EEBio Final Study Guide
EEBio Final Study Guide Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100
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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100
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This 96 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa Mayeda on Monday March 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Johns in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology and Behavior in Behavioral Sciences at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Ecology and Behavior EEB 100 Philip Johns philipj ohns l uclaedu Intro to Behavior and more Of ce hours Philip Johns philipj ohns l uclaedu Tue HH 316 11001200 this week Wed HH 328 11001200 Fri HH 316 11001200 Announcements Aiming to have test graded this week Remember that the extra credit video is due by 01 March Email me youtube link Worth 0 5 or rarely 10 points total Animal Behavior Things we ll cover in this portion of the course Diversity of behavior Why animal do what they do General principles we can use to eXplain behaviors How we can ask questions about behavior What do behavioral biologist study Animal Behavior What is it Rough de nition the response of whole living organism to internal and external stimuli Activity de ne animal behavior Intuitively we know what animal behavior is but de ning it can be dif cult Take a minute and try Ethology and Behavioral Ecology There are several avors of animal behavior studies Ethology study of animal behaviors in nature historically focused on instinctual or innate behaviors Behavioral Ecology study of animal behavior in nature but a more evolutionary and ecological approach Behavioral Ecology Term has changed somewhat over decades Behavioral ecology used to focus on how animal behavior in uences the distribution and abundances of animals Now more focus on the evolutionary causes and consequences of animal behaviors Examples Why do some animals live in groups httpsWWWyoutubecomwatchvoerisqf008 httpsWWWyoutubecomwatchvlMGOfvTLes tons of fish swimming together scare off predators by looking like a large animal African wild dogs hunt in packs 525 dogs Why do some animals forage in groups vs singly httpsWWWyoutubecomwatchvWdeU81XG4I httpsWWWyoutubecomwatchviarsqu3 dck hunt in packs Why and When do animals cooperate Why and When do animals migrate from cold areas to warm areas Why do animals ght and With Whom httpsWWWyoutubecomwatchvququS3WHg giraffes fighting Why do animals make those funny noises httpsWWWyoutubecomwatchv2TJaNDB187s birds caw Do animals empathize And Why httpsWWWyoutubecomwatchvPEYPJiijbW elephants empathize gather together and make reassuring sounds to each other console another member of the group Behavioral Ecology Recall behavior the response of Whole living organisms to internal and external stimuli Do only animals behave Do plants behave Why or Why not behavior is different from development when plants grow is that development controversialbut yes plants grow depends on what you mean Animal Behavior We can apply conclusions we draw from behavior studies to other kinds of organisms Many conclusions should apply to any organism subject to natural selection not just animals Evolution review We re interested in the evolution of behaviors what is evolution Darwin descent with modi cation Change in genes amp traits over time Ingredients Heritability traits including behavioral traits can be transmitted from one generation to the next Variation not all individuals have the same traits If some variation is heritable then evolution happens Ecology amp evolution Up until now we ve talked about ecology Dobzhansky Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution Interaction among organisms and their environments a mechanism for evolution Nothing in evolution or ecology makes sense except in the light of the other httprstbroyalsocietypublishingorg content 3 6415231483 Evolution review Ingredients Heritability amp Variation If some variation is heritable then evolution happens But we need more for natural selection Fitness relative survival and reproduction of an individual Natural selection evolutionary mechanism that produces a change in a population if individuals differ in heritable traits that in uence tness NS is only evolutionary mechanism a adaptations Evolution review Adaptation A t between an organism and its environment A trait that has evolved through natural selection or is spreading through a population or being maintained through natural selection Adaptations are habitatspecific Adaptations vs exaptations Traits evolve due to one set of conditions Coopted for another purpose Darwin amp Wallace Coauthored first paper on evolution by natural selection Both interested in natural variation Both in uenced by Malthus Essay on the Principle of Population Both traveled widely Both were very young people when they started Malfus said organisms can grow faster than resources Darwin let to saying there is a struggle for existence Variation in dog shape within species Darwin also interested in domestic species Enormous physical differences within a species Great Dane vs pug 20 fold diff in size recent changes Variation in dog shape within species Breeds vary in more than just shape Vary in agility Border collies have exaggerated wolfstalking behavior to scare sheep Arti cial selection Arti cial selection on size leading to toy breeds Pointers are hunting dogs posture help hunter Newfoundlands are huge wooly black dogs that love water bred to be this way These differences are genetic Variation in dog morphology within species Breeds vary in more than just shape We know differences are genetic why Many changes in domestic breeds are behavioral why Lots of behaviors have genetic basis Variation in dogs among species Red Fox Wild Dog Raccoon Dog Maned Wolf Variations in dogs show importance of NS How do we detect adaptation in nature Compare tness of natural occurring variants Remove a trait and observe outcome Look for convergent or repeated patterns across populations or taxa Relationships among traits and environments can observe behaviors and see relative tness can look at evolutionary history of traits with phylogengy did they evolve in separate circumstances problem with looking for adapations some people look for them when they re not there Cautionary note Adaptationist Programme Rudyard Kipling Just So Stories Pej orative term means someone came up with absurd reasoning for things still happening Gould amp Lewontin 1979 Spandrels of St Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm Cannot assume that traits are adaptations have to have testable hypotheses Spandrels on ceiling look beautiful so people think they re there for looks but really there to support ceiling http rspbroyalsocietypublishingorgcontent205 l 1615 81 Example orchid mantis amp mimicry Mantises and crypsis camou age Genus Tenodera L PseudocreobotraC in situ R Don t need to know term Tenodera Cryptic animals Aggressive mimicry predator mimick something that s safe so prey will come and they can eat them These guys eat ying insects Example orchid mantis amp mimicry Orchid mantis Hymenopus coronatus A form of aggressive mimicry Even posture is similar to orchid ower labellum How could we test whether orchid mantis is orchid mimic HA Predictions Experiment Example orchid mantis amp mimicry Orchid mantis Hymenopus coronatus Pollinators actually prefer mantis to ower Mantises show no preference for owers httptheconversationcomsecretsoftheorchidmantisrevealeditdoesntmimicanorchid afterall3 67 15 httpwwwj stororg stable 1 O 1086 67 3 85 8 httpbehecooxfordjoumalsorgcontentearly2014 l 0 l Obehecoaru l 7 9 short Example orchid mantis amp mimicry Orchid mantis Hymenopus coronatus not speci cally an orchid mimick more attractive than owers around them even this is a just so story Constraints on adaptation Not all populations exist at optimum why not Evolutionary time lag evolution may not have caught up to novel environmental pressure Lack of heritable variation wheel vs legs but Plant hopper have gears to open legs together help it kick away from predators to y straight evolved to keep it jumping straight Gene ow among populations with different selection regimens Fluctuating selection Developmental constraints and tradeoffs Tradeoffs between different components of natural selection Survival mating success fecundityfertility Group selection bad WynneEdwards 1962 Pretty good biologist Remembered for good of group or good of species arguments with respect to adaptations Animals that didn t limit their own reproduction would overuse resources amp go extinct GC Williams 1966 Why would an individual care about the good of the group at its own expense Myth said lemmings commit mass suicide by going into the sea when they stripped resources for the good of the rest of the group actually go to sea to distribute Modern group selection models Within vs betweengroup competition Withingroup competition Favors selfish individuals Altruists should have lower fitness than selfish individuals Betweengroup competition Could favor altruists or cooperators If cooperative groups can outcompete and outcolonize sel sh groups still controversial but there is evidence Different levels of selection on individual on group Trait group selection chickens Chickens reared in coops Crowded conditions a death amp injury People cut off beaks but that is costly and not ideal Normally select individuals breed individuals that lay the most eggs in coop Control choose random individuals to breed Group selected rear chickens in groups and allow the group that produce most eggs to breed basically favor groups over individuals Trait group selection chickens Refer to table on slide httppsoxfordj oumalsorgcontent 7 5 10 l l45short Big three behavioral biologists Nikko Tinbergen L von Frisch Konrad Lorenz R Nobel Prize in Physiology amp Medicine for work on ethology Mayr one long argument Ernst Mayr R famous evolutionary biologist Differentiated proximate how from ultimate why explanations Tinbergen s four questions 1 Immediate stimuli what elicits a behavior Proximate shortterm 2 Development how does behavior change over animal s lifetime Proximate longterm 3 Survival function how does a behavior affect survival and reproduction Ultimate short term 4 Evolutionary history how does a behavior vary over the history of the animal Ultimate longterm Activity Proximate or Ultimate Activity Proximate or Ultimate Is the behavior heritable in uenced by genes Proximate What is the evolutionary history and origin of a behavior Ultimate How do hormones in uence a behavior and which ones Proximate How does the nervous system in uence a behavior Proximate How is a behavior in uenced by natural selection Ultimate Is the behavior modi ed experience eigj learned Proximate How deezs a behavior affect survival and reproductian Ultimate Ecology and Behavior EEB 100 Philip Johns philipj ohnsl uclaedu Proximate Ultimate Nerves and Hormones Office hours Philip Johns philipj ohnsl uclaedu Tue HH 316 11001200 this week Wed HH 328 11001200 Fri HH 316 1100 1200 Announcements Aiming to have test graded this week Remember that the extra credit video is due by 01 March Email me the youtube link Worth 0 5 or rarely 10 points total Big three behavioral biologists Nikko Tinbergen L von Frisch Konrad Lorenz R 0 Nobel Prize in Physiology amp Medicine for work on ethology Mayr one long argument Ernst Mayr R famous evolutionary biologist Differentiated proximate how from ultimate why explanations Tinbergen s four questions 1 Immediate stimuli what elicits a behavior Proximate shortterm 2 Development how does behavior change over animal s lifetime Proximate longterm 3 Survival function how does a behavior affect survival and reproduction Ultimate short term 4 Evolutionary history how does a behavior vary over the history of the animal Ultimate longterm Activity Proximate or Ultimate be able to identify whether a question is proximate or ultimate proximate if asking about the mechanisms of a gene Proximate amp ultimate cockroach jewel wasps Ampulex compressa Parasitoid lays eggs in living host young kill host as opposed to parasite that usually doesn t kill host Diverse group Including spider wasps e g Tarantula hawks tarantula hawks lay eggs in tarantula sting it paralyze it drag to hole lay egg but tarantula can in turn paralyze the wasp in return Proximate amp ultimate cockroach jewel wasps AmpuleX compressa Parasitoid on cockroaches Stings cockroach twice Once in thorax Once in head Cockroach responds by grooming amp lethargy Chews off cockroach antennae Leads cockroach to burrow Lays l or 2 eggs on roach number of eggs determine gender male for two httpswwwvoutubecomwatchvUWAVlziSTXQ Proximate amp ultimate cockroach jewel wasps AmpuleX compressa All sorts of questions about both wasp and roach List some Ultimate what is the effect on offspring s tness is it more costly for the female to have male offspring Maybe males are less likely to survive is it an innate or learned behavior how does venom work mechanisticproximate wasp stings roach twice why Proximate amp ultimate cockroach jewel wasps AmpuleX compressa stings cockroach brain in slide Why sting twice Why there Proximate or ultimate could be either First to thoracic ganglion nerve paralyzes forelimbs stops roach from running away not lasting but roach is much bigger than wasp so much easier to sting in head after stinging thoracic ganglion Second to sub esophageal ganglion brain 14C hot stings use radio labeled carbon to see exactly where wasp stung roach Reduces escape behavior Proximate amp ultimate cockroach jewel wasps AmpuleX compressa stings cockroach brain above How does the sting work Proximate or ultimate Venom opens chloride channels first sting causes temporary paralysis Second sting speci c to walking behavior not ying or righting behavior Venom elevates threshold to initiate walking inhibits maintenance amp drive of walking all these factors are important to allow the wasp to easily lead roach around http onlinelibrarywileycomdoi 10 1 002neu202 54 abstract Proximate amp ultimate cockroach jewel wasps Ampulex compressa other questions Under what circumstances did this stinging behavior evolve Proximate or ultimate Why lay 1 or 2 eggs Proximate or ultimate How does the wasp decide 1 or 2 eggs Proximate or ultimate Perceptual world How do bees see the world UV light can see uv light re ection we can t see Bees can see differences in UV re ection Flowers have evolved to attract bees have strong contrasted patterns to attract bees http wwwbbccouknewsscienceenvironment 1 1971274 Perceptual world Or how about a dog s nose smell a million times better than humans Or elephant sh detect prey under water make electric pulse in water and detect other elephant fish pulses to communicate together Umwelt Selfcentered world our surroundings how we view the world Different among different organisms Human blind spots View table on slide but you don t need to memorize it Perceptual world Stimuli available to us too but we don t use them Think of how animals evaluate information Extract information from environment Stimulus ltering reduces range of possible stimuli to relevant subset For example in humans Electromagnetic infrared gt visible light gt UV Sounds infrasound gt detectable gt ultrasound Assessment and decision making Refer to slide for figure Neurons Neurons make binary decisions stimulus intensity above some threshold if above threshold fires 0 Axon transmits info to next cell Sensory receptors convert external stimuli to electrical impulses in a process called sensory transduction Other types of neurons e g interneurons and motor neurons Bats amp noctuid moths Many moths have ears on thorax NY State Entomologist bet Kenneth Roeder found ears sensitive to ultrasound Tim McKay has pinned numerous insects shook keys and cause ultrasound to hit ears of moth and make moth fall Bat umwelt 0 Early experiments demonstrated bats could navigate without eyes Donald Grif n demonstrated they used ultrasound to echolocate considered radical at the time evasive ight occurs in bats if they are hit with right ultrasound Bats amp noctuid moths Bats two types of ultrasonic calls Slow clicking for navigating Feeding buzz for honing in on prey Moth two types of auditory receptors Al auditory l detects moderate intensity ultrasound A2 detects high intensity ultrasound Moth auditory receptors Threshold for firing lower in Al than A2 Al receptors respond when bat is moderately close 30m Al ring rate increases as sound intensity increases Al ring rate related to loudness amp distance refer to figure in slide showing firing activity Moth auditory receptors Al receptors habituate quickly to steady sounds Moth auditory receptors Location left or right determined by differential firing rate on different sides of body Moth has sound localization Both left or right and above or below Ear on lower side relative to wings on moths if sound come from above wings will distort sound uctuating signal Moth auditory receptors Location above below determined by steadiness of sound Ears below wings on thorax Flapping moth Wing 9 variability in sound intensity Moth auditory receptors Moth should change direction until they hear a constant sound that gets softer Moving away from bat Moth auditory receptors What about A2 A2 receptors stimulated by feeding buzz when attack is imminent A2 ring leads to wing ip amp dive hard for bat to follow If moth survives Al helps it orient steer it away from general sound Some moths have other tactics Hawk moths can jam bat radar by producing their own ultrasound Green bat feeding buzz Stridulatory scraping apparatus refer to slides for picture stridula used in Ancient Greece to scrape at body after oiling body athletes sold this scraped off body goo stridulatory hairs are rubbed together to make high pitched squeaking to mess up bats ability to ecolocate httprsblrovalsocietvpublishingorgcontent9420130161 Crickets and tuning curves Crickets need to do several things Fight rivals Mate Avoid predation Cricket calls are low frequency Bat sounds are high frequency Crickets have two sensitive areas at cricket call amp bat frequency tuning curve on slide two dips in threshold for tuning curve show sensitive areas of crickets Allows crickets to respond to biologically important stimuli Crickets and tuning curves Playback experiments Crickets turn Towards low sounds 0 Away from high sounds behavior rely on pitch of sound Phorid ies another parasatoid Phorid ies hunt for crickets Female ies lay eggs in crickets Tuning curve of female ies drop in threshold needed at point when crickets are making their sounds male sensitivity is not the same Adaptive brain function Specialized brain function related to organism Hippocampus and spatial memory Food storing in birds related to hippocampus size birds need to be able to remember Where they stored seeds highest storing capacity had highest cache retrieved accuracy and relative hippocampal volume spatial memory best in scrub jay can see in table in slides Adaptive brain function Only hippocampus size increases due to experience Adaptive brain function Can map specialized brain function Brain damage studies Neurosurgery Singleunit recording 0 MRI Cortical maps to visualize umwelt Depicts relative sensitivity Sometimes called a sensory homunculus little man Historically small distorted human form Homonculus also refers to idea of preformation Cortical maps to visualize umwelt Can be useful comparing umwelts of different organisms httpphenomenanationalgeographiccom20130724mouseunculushowthebraindrawsa littleyou Hormones Internal secretions typically small quantities Travel through blood Chemical messengers Typically exert in uence at some distance from source Can have diverse effects on different tissues Organizational effects act during development Activational effects act to stimulate or modulate Behaviors Demonstrating hormone function 1 Relation between size of glands hormone levels and behaviors Baboons in estrus have elevated levels of estrogen swollen labia and solicit copulations Demonstrating hormone function 2 Remove hormone and observe reduction loss of behavior or trait 3 Reinstate hormone and observe restoration of behavior or trait Eg immature roosters amp testes Remove testes from an immature rooster causes rooster to not fight or have sex but if replace the testes anywhere in the body function is restored show function of glands Demonstrating hormone function Organizational function of testosterone in rats Lordosis behavior indicates receptivity for copulation What does this experiment suggest look at slide for figure Left treatment castrate as an adult still act as male after developmental completion because experienced normal hormone increase in juvenile stage Middle treatment castrate as infant don t have testosterone levels needed to behave like a male Right treatment castrate as infant but still restore function by injecting testosterone show function of steroids Overall Lecture ended here Tuesday February 17 2015 EEBio Lect 13 Ecology and Behavior EEB 1OO Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Genes amp learning Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Test graded compiling grades Extra credit video is due by 01 March Email me the youtube link Worth 0 5 or rarely 10 points total Testosterone and territorial behaviors Notice relation between level of T and duration of territorial behavior Costs of testosterone lmmunefunction lnterferencewithotherbehaviors Testosterone and guinea pig sexual behavior What does this suggest just bring to baseline adding lots of testosterone doesn t add a ton more sexual behavior Genes amp behavior Tuesday February 17 2015 DNA gt RNA gt PROTEINS gt BEHAVIORS Nature vs nurture not eitheror possibility DNA to proteins Eenvironment both probably influence Genotype amp phenotype Genotypethe set of genes or alleles an individual has at one or a suite of loci Phenotypeany characteristic of an individual tongue rollers dominant genes affect behavior Nature vs nurture historically huge debate Historically huge debate Better worded Genetic vs environmental influence on behaviors Why do people question genetic influences on behaviors Eugenics in 1970s after WWII racial concerns What are some ways we can determine genetic influences on behaviors study family trees twin studies Single genes of large effect Singlegene effects should produce Discrete phenotypes Mendelian ratios Sources of singlegene effects include Natural variantspolymorphisms Mutations caused by Xrays or other radiation can cause deletions or breaks in Tuesday February 17 2015 chromosomes Ethyl methane sulfate EMS can cause point mutations Can confirm with genetic manipulations Can map location to chromosome Example foraging gene in Drosophila Sitter don t move much just sit in petri dish amp Rover move a lot What ratio of offspring do we expect if we cross these lines if it s a gene of large effect which one is dominant F1 generation 100 have dominant trait Example foraging gene in Drosophila F1topalmost all Rovers F2bottom about a 13 ratio of SittersRovers lmplies Genes of large effect and learning some genes even affect learning Drosophila Dunce Cannot associate smells with negative stimulus shock Males unreceptive to a pheromone females use to signal not interested during courtship Amnesiac Tuesday February 17 2015 Learn and forget quickly about not interested pheromone respond for truncated period of time Knockouts amp phenotypes Remove or interrupt known exons Add a phenotypic markerso can tell it works Inject into embryonic stem cells Breed off spring that do not produce gene product Obtain homozygotes without gene product Correlate phenotype with knock out Also RNAi amp morpholinos for similar shortterm effects Vasopressin amp vole pair bonding Prairie volestoppair bond prairie voles are monogamous Meadow vole males polygynous polymanygyn females males have multi partners and don t huddle with partners like prairie voles Vasopressin amp vole pair bonding Prairie voles spend more time huddling with partner dark bar vs stranger Vasopressin receptor 1a in situ Knock out removes recognition of partner httpdevrickhansonnetwpcontentfilespapersOxytocinVasopressinReviewpdf Knockouts amp learning genotypes Mice without alphacalcium calmodulin kinase are less able to learn knock out of this kinase Tuesday February 17 2015 Most learning mutations are likely to be selected against in the wild httpwwwsciencemagorgcontent2575067201 Genes for behaviors Shorthand a change at this locus influences a behavior Many loci influence each behavior eg learning mutation at any locus could influence behavior Continuous traits and quantitative genetics Many traits not discrete have a range of values Continuous traits are also influenced by environmental effects Partition variation into genetic and environmental components Variance measure how much variance in a trait y axis frequency x axis is trait v is variance genetic and environmental variance how much of variance is due to genetics additive genetic variation is like intermediate dominance intermediate dominance AA Aa aa AA one average speed aa one average speed Aa another average speed in between AA and aa within locus intermediate dominance equal to additive genetic variation each time add an allele change additive genetic variation over genetic variation only fraction of genetic variation Tuesday February 17 2015 Quantitative genetics o Narrow sense heritabilityhquot2 hA2 slope of parental average and offspring average heritabiity is ratio of genetic vs environmental variation genetically determined have low heritability because everyone in population has them heritability is population measurement measure with parent and offspring narrow sense heritability only look at a portion of this genetic heritability Slopeh2 Gives us an easy way to measure heritability SlopeO gtslope1 Heritability is a population measure Common environment What if slopeO9does that necessarily mean 90 genetic Egmath skills parents and offspring probably have similar math skills depend on environment what education do they get probably close relationship but part of it is confounding variable of people who are good at math probably will send kids to learn math etc Why or why not Issue of common environment within population Parents provide both genes and environment to many organisms Confounding effect Cross fostering Tuesday February 17 2015 Move eggs between nestseg Still have problem with the yolk dentioaMZ twins reared apart in humans IQ and intelligence in humans big deal But notice The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits not just intelligence Published 2014 in PNAS wwwpnasorgcgidoi101073pnas140877711139 Grade performance 6075 heritable Artificial selection amp heritability We expect a response to artificial or natural selection Rresponse to selectionchange in average trait between generations Sselection differential difference between breeder s average value amp population average thAZS hquot2 RS Response to selection amp heritability RhA28 What if h2 lt1 trait for parents on x axis and offspring on y s is difference between ave of breeding parents and the rest of the population average of kids if everyone bred vs after selection Tuesday February 17 2015 o if r is 0 no heritability r shows how heritable a trait is Response to selection amp heritability Typically finding the actual value of hquot2 isn t the goal Typically trying to show that hquot2 is gt O moderately large how heritable is a trait Maze running in rats 1940 experiment by RC Tryon parenta generation how quickly learn how to go through maze dep on how often in a dead end if select for bright and dull rats get huge variation in a few generations Response to selection amp heritability Evolution is a genetic effect Artificial or natural selection on a trait produces response if trait is genetic So response to selection suggests heritable component mice wadding up cotton to keep offspring warm in nest vs mice that don39t strong heritable component Factors complicating heritability Age in marmot alarm cas Darkbarshquot2 Heritability measures increase as marmots age heritability highest in adults Tuesday February 17 2015 Common garden experiment Control for rearing environment Grow different strains in similar environment to see if differences maintained Possible outcomesbottom Where the spiders roam free Malpais in NM scrub grew over old lava Aggression and boldness fight over places to make webs Funnel web sheet web spider Agelenopsis aperta Attacks conspecifics aggression amp prey boldness quickly Chiricahua AZ Agelenopsis again But here in AZ Riparian environmentnot desert Spiders wait to attack preywait to attack intruders wet grassy lots of predators that eat spiders must wait to eat pretty to avoid getting ea ng often hide from intruders less bold and less aggressive think about response to selection Common garden aggression amp boldness Spiders from desertamp riparian environment Tuesday February 17 2015 Reared in laboratory Population differences in behavior persisted in common laboratory environment Differences between populations genetic What next crossbreed A side story about Agelenopsis Crosses between populations test by drop prey on webs either snatch up or leave there males have riparian female mothers are most aggressive look at graph Breeding analysis and song behavior Swordtail cricket Laupala Fastest speciation measured Partly due to song rate Breeding analysis and song behavior Notice classic genetic cross between natural variants But we ll use more modern molecular techniques to analyze Breeding analysis and song behavior QTL map Quantitative Trait Locus ticks are markers and horizontal bars are chromosomes look at graph Association between genetic markers amp trait lnfer genetic location amp genetic architecture Rapidly supplanted by describing genomes 1O Tuesday February 17 2015 gene affect song rate and female preference same gene affect male song and female preference that is why so closely related SNPs and genomic analysis Genetic markers associated with genetic differences Here differences between wolves and domestic dogs Overrepresentation of brainexpressed genes found httpmbeoxfordjournalsorgcontentearly20130604molbevmst088full higher lines show dogs more different from wolves where on dog genome we find significant differences between dogs and wolves 11 Thursday February 19 2015 Title Ecology and Behavior EEB 1OO Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Foraging Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Test graded compiling grades Raw average 7O adjust by about 5 Extra credit video is due by 01 March Email me the youtube link Worth 0 5 or rarely 10 points total From last time innate or instinctual behaviors Abehaviorperformedproperlythefirsttimeitis needed lnnatebehaviorsarenot100geneticwhynot Learned behaviorsarenot1 OO oenvironmental why not Animalsmaybe programmed tolearnabout important things Animals and blank slates Tabula rasa blank slate the idea that individuals are born without mental content Extreme behaviorist view of the 50 s amp 60 s Animalcouldlearntodoanythingphysicallypossible Thursday February 19 2015 Ethologists amp innate behavior Somebehaviorslearnedsomeinnate Animalscapableoflearningsomethingsbetterthan others Constraints on learning Makes sense evolutionarily Rats can associate taste amp illness for up to 7 hours Learning and signals Tinbergen and Lorenz exposed different kind of na39ive poultry to different kinds of stimuli Hawk stimulus and goose stimulus varied by direction Learning and signals DdiscBbuzzardHhawkGgoose1OG10geese Poults responded more to hawksampdisosthan geese Classic experiment results reinterpreted httpwwwncbinlmnihgovpubmed21341 906 General signals that elicit alarm Eyes eye spots elicit alarm in birds and other animals lnnate human fears depending Heights Blood Deepwater Dark Thursday February 19 2015 Snakesspiderscentipedes ex is when police use black and yellow tape to keep people from going into certain places catch our attention and avoid Butnot Gunsdrugselectricityhigh speeds Decisions amp optimal foraging Logic Elements Preychoice Patchchoice Oystercatchers Forage for bivalves like mussels in the sand Oystercatchers feed on mussels Fairly even distribution of mussels in terms of size What if oyster catchers forage randomly graph of available oysters should look the same as the graph for oysters selected not so actively choosing certain sized oysters preference Oystercatchers feed on mussels What does this pattern suggest Preference amp behavioral decisions In general how do animals make these decisions Elements of optimality models Decision Thursday February 19 2015 Behavioral optionikepursue prey or not Currency Something that correlates with fitnessLRS Egnet energy intakerate of energy intake Assumptions amp constraints Simplify but capture essence of problem Intrinsic constraints limitations of animaability tolerance Extrinsic constraint environmental prey availability predators Logic Optimality models Natural selection favors behaviors that have higher fitness All else being equaNS should favor best behaviors Evolutionary economics costsvsbenefits Advantages Explicit assumptions Testable predictions Can suggest new hypotheses if data don t fit model Criticisms Behaviors might not be optimal Panglossian just so stories behaviors might not be optimal there is a certain assumption there Constraints Sea otters rafting Holding hands hold hands to not float away from each other Prey choice Thursday February 19 2015 Should sea otter eat sea urchin crab or both How much benefit and how much cost time needed to eat these things Aside sea otter teeth Otters Humans About twice as chip resistant as human teeth httpclassicrsblroyalsocietypublishingorgcontent101020140484short Decision Otter prey choice model Sea otter encounters prey Capture prey or continue looking Currency MaximizeET profitability highest rate of return Assumptions Prey encountered sequentially Search timefinding preyand holdinghandling time subduing eating processing prey are independent Sea otters have perfect knowledge prey density amp profitability Otter prey choice model Variables Energy from preyEi i crab or urchin Time required to handle prey hi Search time for prey Si Profitability Pi Eihi Currency Thursday February 19 2015 Ec 400 cal Eu 100 cal hc 2h hu 2 1h Then Pc 400 cal 2h 200 calh write these Pu 100 call 1h 100 calh Otter prey choice model When should an otter eat prey it comes across What should we consider Catch and eat current prey only if energy gained exceeds expected gain for search for new prey Ecurrenthcurrent gt EotherSother hother For crab Echcgt EuSu hu 4002 gt 100Su 1 For otters amp urchins when is this true always better to eat the crab Otter prey choice model Ecurrenthcurrent gt EotherSother hother is profitability of current prey item greater than that of the other For urchin Euhugt EcSc hc Algebra Sc gt EcEuhu hc When is this true Sc gt 400 call 100 ca1 h 2h Solve Sc gt 2h how dense quality prey item crab is will affect how long it takes to find it Thursday February 19 2015 depend on frequency of high quality prey item not frequency of low quality prey item don t waste time on low quality prey item if high quality available If finding a crab takes more than 2h otters should eat urchins Otter prey choice model Always eat more profitable prey E1h1gt E2h2 Include less profitable prey only if search time too long 81 gt E1E2h2 h1 Where E1 gt E2 Notice what s important Abundance of more profitable preyrelated to S1 Not abundance of less profitable prey Specialists on prey1 should become generalists quickly when prey1 becomes rare Testable prediction Prey choice model Which would you eat Activity Oyster catchers find two kinds of mussels large amp small Large1OO Caloriestakes 2 minutes to find and open only handling time poorly worded Small50 Caloriesstill takes 2 minutes to find and open At what point should oystercatchers eat each kind of mussel Eihi 1002 50 calmin Thursday February 19 2015 E2h2502 25 calmin Si gt when should oyster catchers eat small mussels Si gt 100 250 2 42 2 minutes if search time more than 2 min then should eat small mussels Trout and optimal diet Trout learn optimal diet learn about different sizes of different pellets Parus major and mealworms Here density influences search time S Qualitatively fit is good quantitatively a little off at higher density eat larger prey items Multiple prey choice Rank all prey by profitability E1h1 gt E2h2 gt E3h3 To decide whether or not to include a prey item when encountered its profitability must exceed the net profitability of all higher ranking prey E3h3 gtE1E2St h I S2 h2 Bluegills and optimal diet Bluegills and three sizes of daphnia prey Qualitativer a good fit quantitatively a little off Reasons for partial preferences Discrimination errormistake prey type Thursday February 19 2015 Lack of complete information Experiments with pigeons show that increasing experience with a particular combination of prey profitabilities and encounter rates results in step function decisions Variation in prey size Simultaneous encounters with multiple prey Short term sampling rule for estimating encounter rate Foraging among patches Greater doublecollared sunbird L European honeybee fly around until find a patch of flowers to forage when should they leave a patch of flowers Energy gain in a patch o What should this relationship look like Draw it Energy gain in a patch o What should this relationship look like Draw it VVhy Patch choice model Decision When is the optimal time to leave a patch o slope of the line is gain in energy over time which line is steepest Examples hummingbird or bee visiting flowers Thursday February 19 2015 o Currency maximize profitability ET does travel time between patches affect how long it should stay in a patch AssumptionsampConstraints Time spent searching in patches and traveling between patches are independent Foragers encounter patches sequentially Perfect knowledge ie energy gain in a patch and patch locations are known Energy gain in patches shows diminishing return Energy gain in a patch Howlongshouldaforagerstayinapatch Canwemodifythistomakeagraphicalmodel Patch choice solution marginal value theorem Foraging time Within patch B Travel time Between patches Slope of line is GainTimeET Patch choice solution marginal value theorem Slope of line is steepest at tangent optimal time in patchTopt Patch choice predictions Long travel time Topt for Long travel time Patch choice predictions To pt for Short travel time Optimal time in patch is greater when travel time between patches is longer 10 Thursday February 19 2015 Patch residence Parus major Mealworms hidden in sawdust in pots hanging from trees Two experimental conditions long and short travel time achieved by making lids easy or hard to remove Actual patch residence times were close to predictions of MVT Blue whales o Can we apply similar thinking to something bigger Activity blue whales time to find prey is from surface of water all the way down to krill during which whale must hold breath Target depth where the food is What does this suggest What else do we need to know time in a patch in first graph time traveling to patch in last graph are they actually eating it takes longer to dive deeper whales spend ore time at bottom where food is httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontent 224880abstract What if optimality fails Considersimplerdecisionrules lncludeadditionalconstraints 11 Thursday February 19 2015 Predation risk Minimum nutrient requirements Avoidance of toxins Considercurrencyotherthanprofitability Efficiency EgainedEspent Constraints prey choice vs predation Constraints minimum nutrient uptake Moose feed Onforestleaves Onaquaticplants Moose have Minimumenergyandsodium requirements Butlimitedstomachcapacity Forest food is Highenergy Butlowsodium Aquatic plants are Lowenergy Sodiumrich Constraints minimum nutrient uptake Enoughfood Enoughsodium Canonlyeatsomuch Constraints minimum nutrient uptake Moose maximizing energy intake given constraints Constraints toxin avoidance Scarlet macaws eat clay after consuming fruit with tannins or alkaloids 12 Thursday February 19 2015 Alternative currencies Nectarloadthatbees can carry shows diminishing returns because larger loads take more energy Datafitefficiency maximization Egained Espent not profitability Selectiononhiverather than worker favors efficiency 13 Tuesday February 24 2015 Wk 8 Lect 1 Ecology and Behavior EEB 1OO Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Antipredator behaviors Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Extra credit video is due by 01 March Email me the youtube link Worth 0 5 or rarely 10 points total What if optimality fails Consider simpler decision rules Include additional constraints Predation risk Minimum nutrient requirements Avoidance of toxins Consider currency other than profitability Efficiency EgainedEspent Moose Moose feed on aquatic amp terrestrial plants Constraints minimum nutrient uptake Moose feed On forest leaves On aquatic plants Moose have Minimum energy and sodium requirements But limited stomach capacity Forest food is High energy But low sodium Aquatic plants are Low energy Sodiumrich Constraints minimum nutrient uptake Enoughfood Enough sodium Can only eat so much Constraints minimum nutrient uptake Moose maximizing energy intake given constraints Influence apparent patch choice Multiple patches of similar quality RecalllFD What do we expect Whatifweseeanimalsononlyonepatch Tuesday February 24 2015 Tuesday February 24 2015 Can influence apparent patch choice Predator on right hand patch Constraints prey choice vs predation stickleback fish hunt in more dense prey areas if kingfisher predator not around but if predator around changes behavior of prey What do prey do about predators Prey defenses Predator Counterdefenses Evolutionary arms race Prey continually evolve to escape predator Predators evolve to catch prey Leads to more and more effective defenses and counter measures evolving fastest animal on land is cheetah long horned antelope is second fastest these two animals are half a word apart are their speeds coincidence NO used to be cheetahs in north america went extinct but we still have their prey item payoff not the same for prey as opposed to predator What do prey do about predators Prey defenses Predator Counterdefenses Butno ce Lifeordinner principle Life or dinner principle Tuesday February 24 2015 if you re prey very bad to not be able to escape that means death if you are a predator don t have to be able to catch all prey this is why prey species evolve faster Often selection on prey is greater than on predator Prey generation time is often shorter than predator Prey defense may evolve faster Prey defense economics Recall Profitability EiT i Ei Energy from item i Ti time includes Si search time for item i hi handling time for item i Net profitability EiSi hi Prey defenses often increase Si or hi Reduce profitability Predators often have multiple possible prey Small increase in search or handling time can reduce profitability Make alternative prey more profitable by comparison prey doesn t just evolve against predator but also against other prey Crypsis Crypsis ability to avoid detection by other organisms A kind of extreme camouflage Dracolizard glides blends into the bark of tree Phyllium walking sticks Tuesday February 24 2015 lookaeleaves Moth all very effective of not looking like the prey items that they are Experimental test Parus major Three kinds of prey items lnedible twigs brown string in opaque straws Large cryptic prey meal worms in opaque straws Small conspicuous prey12 mealworm in clear straws small prey don t have full return compared to larger prey httpwwwjstororgstable4288seq1pagescantabcontents Experimental test What do we expect Predators should prefer prey with higher profitability E1h1 gt E2h2 gt E3h3 Large prey should be more profitable than small prey BUT birds have to reject twigs vs worms need an encounter rate i items encounteredtime Simulates predator searching for cryptic prey httpwwwjstororgstable4288seq1pagescantabcontents Experimental test Specialists on small conspicuous prey don t waste time searching through twigs itwigs x htwigs time handling twigs But specialists on small conspicuous prey also don t get big cryptic prey Tuesday February 24 2015 Do some algebra Find that animals Should specialize when a specialist does better than a generalist Depends on encounter rates for cryptic vs conspicuous prey items Experimental test What birds do when twigs or large prey are abundant more important to be able to sort through twigs and find prey than choose between smaller and bigger prey if this is the case Crypsis works Blue jays better at finding moths on dark backgrounds than on birch bark Orientation matters moths don t jus look like bark but attempt to act like bark through proper orientation httprstbroyalsocietypublishingorgcontent3641516503 Antipredatory defenses Some defenses influence search time Time spend finding prey Crypsis mimicry adjusting to background Some defenses influence handling time Time spent pursuing subduing digesting prey Protective features like spines Misdirecting an attack Startle displays Antipredatory defenses How does this work Tuesday February 24 2015 three spend stickbacks have three spines populations that live in open water have longer spines compared to more secluded stream sticklebacks evolve these defense to increase handling time for predators httpwwwnaturalhistorymagcomfeatures061488theoriginsofform Antipredatory defenses How does this work shranks put their prey on barbed wire can compare horns of the lizards that they are eating can better catch those with smaller horns seems they are choosing lizards with smaller horns httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvGgB4u6ng2M Antipredatory defenses Eyespots and chicken response bright pink eyespots on moths chicks are afraid of the eyespots make alarm call when spots are visible httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontent241305full Antipredatory defenses Eye spots are commonmantidseg mantis show eyespots on abdomen giving them a few seconds to escape startle responses work Why have bright contrasting colors but more importantly perhaps animals have adapted to pay attention to faces especially because of owls predator Butterflies with extra eyespots deter attacks attacked less times Tuesday February 24 2015 httprspbroyalsocietypublishingorgcontent282179820141531 Crypsis can vary with sex amp season Eg rock ptarmigan Why coloration very different dep on male and female and dep on mating season or not females during breeding season at least look more drab in order to hide from predators have to sit and protect eggs at higher risk of predation Aposematism warning coloration Monarch butterflies sequester toxins cardiac glycosides from milkweed parasitoid want to lay eggs in caterpillars these toxins in the skin of the caterpillars ward off predators and stay with them into aduHhood Aposematism warning coloration Na39ive blue jays eat and regurgitate predators must learn to avoid this coloration Predators startled by eyespots What about bright colors amp contrasts Aposematism warning coloration means toxic have bright contrasting colors Milkweed bugs on milkweed plant Often distasteful animals aggregate why are they out in the open stay in groups if predator eats one will know to avoid the others and thus group benefits from the loss of one Tuesday February 24 2015 Mullerian mimicry ALL are toxic and aposematic Named after Mr Muller Heliconius butterflies Toxic aposematism Mutual benefit between model and mimics why predators have to learn color patterns to avoid if learn one avoid all cause convergent evolution Bombardier Beetles Bombardier beetles Brachinini Spray 100 C Explodes out of beetle beetle brightly colored Bombardier Beetles Bombardier beetles Brachinini can adjust where it spray the boiling hot acid from its behinds Mimicry Spicebush swallowtail larvae look kind of like snake Batesian mimicry nontoxic species look like poisonous model predator learns to avoid the model Coral snake L extremely venomous milk snake not Mimic Nontoxicvenomous mimic looks like poisonous model Tuesday February 24 2015 Predators learn to avoid model and mimic benefits Think about relative frequencies Too many mimics mean predators do not learn Only works when mimics are relatively rare Batesian mimicry Cinereous mourner bird chick mimics caterpillar caterpillars have toxic hairs acts like caterpillar in addition to looking like it tucks itself down and wiggles around httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvFwSGk1Y4rY httpwwwjstororgstable 101086679106 Wings mimic ants Ants Why fy has markings on its wings that look like at can look at certain groups of flies that have markings like that Wings mimic spiders Ants Spiders Testing Adaptation Spiders amp Flies True fruit flies Tephritidae often have marks on wings Why Testing Adaptation Spiders amp Flies Notice the markings on the wings hold wings over body and wave them 10 Tuesday February 24 2015 some suggest that the markings are not supposed to look like spiders but are supposed to make the flies look like spiders spiders also wave around like the flies to let others know not to mess with them Testing Adaptation Spiders amp Flies Flies hold wings over backs and wave them Testing Adaptation Spiders amp Flies Jumping Spiders have similar leg patterns Leg waving displays True fruit flies Tephritidae and spiders Do fly wing patterns mimic spiders How could we tell Activity hypothesis flies do not mimic spiders flies mimic jumping spiders to protect selves from predators flies mimic jumping spiders to protect themselves from the jumping spiders Experiment can cover patterns on flies or cutoff wings can have house flies wo markings and the fruit flies one normal house fly one normal fruit fly one fruit fly with patterned wings cutoff same behavior without pattern house fly with surgically replaced wing of fruit fly pattern without behavior Results both pattern and behavior combined protect flies from jumping spiders when test against other predators Activity what kind of mimicry l l Tuesday February 24 2015 Only the top is a wasp Bottom fly L beetle moth batesian mimicry 12 Thursday February 26 2015 EEBio WK8 Lect2 Subject Ecology and Behavior EEB 100 Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Antipredator behaviors Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Extra credit video is due by 01 March Email me the youtube link Worth 0 5 or rarely 10 points total Active mimicry Octopus are predators But delicious Flatfish Banded sole Lionfish dangerous Seasnake dangerous httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvtLTWFnGmeg Group defenses Dilution safety in numbers reduces per capita risk Selfish herding prey jockey for safe central positions away from predators Thursday February 26 2015 Predator confusion mass prey movement interferes with predator s ability to catch one Vigilance many prey more likely to detect a predator Mobbing prey attackharass predator together Alarm calling prey alert each other Predator dilution Mayflies Ephemeroptera Emerge in large numbers Predator dilution predator satiation 17year cicadas Gnus dropping foals Bait ball Selfish herding But notice what dolphins can do mud nets httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvbzfqPQmThU Mating systems amp sexual selection Mating systems amp sexual selection Examples pheasant tail feathers willow bird fly around with long tail feathers calf birds have mating call httpyoutubeOJgchd1 R7Et18m47s httpyoutubeOJgchd1R7Et28m httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvW7Qanqupo Thursday February 26 2015 Mating systems Regular patterns of courtship amp mating within species Mating systems Regular patterns of courtship amp mating within species Monogamy Polygamy Polygyny Polyandry Promiscuity amp Polygynandry Can vary within and among populations for a species and across years Example Dunnocks may have monogamous polygynous polyandrous amp polygynandrous individuals in the same population Terminology polygyny Males may mates with many females females mate with one male per breeding season Often associated with sexual dimorphism Males look different than females Eg elephant seals defend harems of females 10X big as female Orangutan males mate with more than one female 2X big as female Polygyny is common especially among mammalsbirdsinsects Terminology polyandry Females may mates with multiple males Sexual dimorphism females sometimes have ornaments or larger Polyandry isr are in mammalsfairly rare in birds Thursday February 26 2015 Some tamarins L always twin males help care for young Jacana males help brood eggs females have nicer appearance bigger and defend territories from other females some say this term just means females mate more than once Notice different disciplines use this term in slightly different ways Terminology promiscuity Males and females both mate multiple times per breeding season no social bonds Common in insectsoccurs in many other taxa Both male and female chimps amp Barbary macaques mate repeatedly when females are in estrous Terminology polygynandry Males and females mate multiple times and maintain social bonds EgEuropean badgers have groups of parents living together Brood share multiple sires httponinelibrarywileycomdoi101111j1365294X200703571 Xabstract Terminology monogamy Males and females mate with only one partner form social bond Common in birds socially rare in insects rare in mammals lt 5 Gibbons amp siamangs coyotes amp some other canids Ornaments Often on males why pencils are on moths for emitting perfume to attract females cock on the rocks peacocks bird of paradise attractive to females Thursday February 26 2015 httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvhptrmlkk03E Elaborate ornaments Irish elk costly antlers Elaborate ornaments Peafowl lek and male s costly train The sight of a feather in a peacock39s tail whenever I gaze at it makes me sick make it harder to get away from predators Comparing males and females What makes males and females different What makes females females and males males Anisogamy Male and female gametes are different sizes Females have big gametes males have small gametes Ostrich egg vs splendid fairy wren 57M spermejaculate diff in size of gametes is extreme httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepii80003347206004325 Consider kiwi amp eggs egg massive single gamete but animal itself is small Eggs are sometimes enormous investments per individual Not just eggs gestation care of offspring other factors Sperm is cheap relatively sometimes httpscienceblogscomtetrapodzooogy 20090220200yearsofkiwiresearch Thursday February 26 2015 Consider one egg vs many Is one giant egg so extreme What is the advantage of large gametes big egg vs small gametes tiny sperm have to make a lot of small gametes disadv but good thing is making more makes more likely to get to other sex but also they are weaker females have fewer gametes but also stronger men competing for those few eggs that s why males have more gametes Bateman principle Greater variance in male than female mating success Variance is one measure of variation SD2 result of competition Bateman principle In general this makes sense which doesn t mean it s right Females make fewer larger gametes definition of the sexes Males make many smaller gamete Should lead to competition for fertilization Sexual selection Selection on traits used in competition for mates Darwin differentiated from natural selection Ornaments hinder survival Modern evolutionary biologists view sexual selection as a component of natural selection Selection on mating success number of successful fertilizations Not selection on survival or fecundity per mate other components of selection Components may or may not be independent Thursday February 26 2015 Sexual selection lntrasexual selection within sexes Males compete for females territories and resources Males compete directly through aggression displays fights Intersexual selection between sexes Females choose among males Males compete indirectly with each other for females choice Kinds of competiton Direct malemale competition lntrasexual selection Direct Malemale Competition Direct malemale competition American elk sneak strategy little male mate with females while bigger danger male fight younger large male httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvGUQcMZLpr8 Direct malemale competition Elephant seals fight to monopolize part of beach where females are httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvDU4xW79ASsg Direct malemale competition Elephant seals A very few males get most of the copulations Most males get none Thursday February 26 2015 Kinds of competition Female mate preference or indirect male competition or Intersexual selection Bower bird Females not even choosing male traits make ornate bowers with colorful objects tend to like blue not just for good looking male female shows she is interested by walking into bower then male dances collection of blue gifts httpwwwsmithsonianchannelcomshowsdancersonfireO137551 Sage grouse And fembots like big chickens do fancy displays that get them killed by predators have motorized female bower bird to observe mating behaviors httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvmOM8pZannl httpswwwyoutubecomwatch vN3RYJWldEMM Peacock spider Notice threat of intraguild predation elaborate displays but if court the wrong species get eaten httpswwwyoutubecomwatchv9GgAbyYDFeg httpswwwyoutubecomwatch vVEAMq3y095O httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvdyYC5r8xMl Thursday February 26 2015 Notice Female preference We make no assumptions about females being conscious of decisions or about female cognition lf female behavioral differences influence what kind of male she mates with that indicates female choice or discrimination No teleology Females that mate with certain kinds of males have evolutionary advantages those preference genes spread over time We do use a verbal shorthand what does a female want Tuesday March 3 2015 EEBio Wk9 Lect1 Subject Ecology and Behavior EEB 100 Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Mating Systems ll Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Robert Cooper holding extended office hours Thursday noon2 pm roughly Announcement recent study Hummingbirdsampflowers Why coevolveWhat advantage to each bird evolve to have longer beak to reach nectar why did flower evolve too want specialized bird to ensure gets the right pollen httpswwwsciencenewsorgarticletropicalplantknowswhosebillitsflowers httpwwwpnasorgcontentearly201502261419522112 Announcements Pollen tube growthL and nectar remaining Tuesday March 3 2015 Suggests what see how much nectar remains some hummingbirds more effective at getting nectar httpswwwsciencenewsorgarticletropicalplantknowswhosebillitsflowers httpwwwpnasorgcontentearly201502261419522112 Announcements Male hummingbirds territorial use bills in malemale contests What do we call this intrasexual selection but exaptation is term for trait evolve for something but also used for something else difference in bill shape between males and females pointyness index hummingbird males have pointier longer beaks differences between genders suggest differences in sex males use pointy bills to defend territory httpswwwsciencenewsorgarticehummingbirdstakestabrivalsdaggertipped bis httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontentearly20141017behecoaru182short Mating systems Regular patterns of courtship amp mating within species Ornaments Often on males httpwwwyoutubeco mwatchvhptrmlkk03E Tuesday March 3 2015 Wallace doubted mate choice was important how can the individual tastes of hundreds of successive generations of female birds produce any definite or constant effect is female choice important Demonstrating choice Longtailed widow bird Males have much longer tails than females Cut tail experiment long tail preferred by females how do we know its females preference over perhaps long tails making them scary Territoriality not affectedtrait maintained by female preference httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv299n5886abs299818aOhtml red wing black bird males establish territories early females come later build nests independently of male just wherever there are bugs females choosing where to build nest based on male Reminder female preference Notice We make no assumptions about females being conscious of decisions or about female cognition lf female behavioral differences influence what kind of male she mates with that indicates female mate choice or mate discrimination No teleologyfemales aren t consciously choosing males in order to accomplish some goal have better offspring eg Tuesday March 3 2015 Females that mate with certain kinds of males have fitness or evolutionary advantages those preference genes spread over time We do use a verbal shorthandwhat does a female want What do females prefer amp why Direct nongenetic benefits Nuptial giftsegfood High quality territories amp nest sites Parental care Parasite avoidance Male traits amp courtship behaviors could indicate non genetic benefits like health amp lack of parasites Northern harriers Males polygynousfemales settle on male territories Females have ranksmales provision females differently Females choose males based on expected provisioning httpwwwjstororgstable4414 all females laying about the same number of eggs are they successfully rearing offspring so that they can fly fledgling males can only provision certain females well females choose males on expected proviisioning httpinkspringercomarticle1010072FBF00299891 What do females prefer amp why lndirect genetic benefits Good genes Tuesday March 3 2015 Fisher runaway process sexy son What do females prefer amp why Indirect genetic benefits Good genes Females that prefer males with good genes have offspring more able to survive Males with traits that display good genes acquire more mates Ornaments indicate overall male quality Ornaments often costly why females that can identify costly treats avoid cheaters if have costly traits can t be cheated females hone into traits that males cannot fake example shiny feathers show don t have lice no diseases What do females prefer amp why Indirect genetic benefits Fisherian process sexy son Genetic variation in male trait and female preference Females with stronger preference tend to mate with males with a given trait Offspring have genes for both preference amp trait Leads to spread of preferenceamptrait Independent of any survival advantage can lead to spread of preference and trait Fisherian Process BIG gt CHOOSY males with big traits will get more mates even if females are not choosy Tuesday March 3 2015 SMALL gtNOT CHOOSY Fisherian Process TRAIT Association forms between genes for big and choosy traits look at graphs on slide Genes for big male trait spread So do genes for choosy females Genes for SMALL trait Genes for BIG trait Genes for CHOOSY Genes for NOT CHOOSY Fisherian Process Genes for big male trait spread So do genes for choosy females Activity What predictions can we make Good genes more elaborate males should sire offspring that survive better Fisherian runaway here males would have to have trait and females must have preference correlation between female preference and male trait within and among populations Fisherian process in sticklebacks Tuesday March 3 2015 Association between trait and preference within broods intensity of red color in sons relation between female preference and male trait females mate with males with most red sons are red Fisherian process in sticklebacks Association between redmale and red detection female across populations Lower detection threshold means stronger preference females have stronger preference for red preference and trait coevolve httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv411n6840figtab411944aOF1 html Good Genes Father s Eyespot Area mm Eyespot Number females prefer males with more eyespots more elaborate the trait higher number of offspring survival displaying that they have some genetic makeup that will help offspring survive Petrie et al 1991 Petrie 1994 Number of Mates Offspring Survive Peacock trains Darwin assumed that long trains interfered with male survival Testing assumptions amp peacock trains Do they The elaborate plumage in peacocks is not such a drag Birds withfilledand withoutopentrain how much lift can bird generate Tuesday March 3 2015 Butlow ranking males suffer predation anyway do data change amount of lift doesn t increase when train is snipped httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepii000334729290072H httpnewssciencemagorgbiology201409peacocksneednotsacrificeflying skillssexiness httpjebbiologistsorgcontent217183237abstract Alternative male strategies American elk males bugle the injured one bugle longer and louder how fit and large they are trying to show size is also a good display males can t fake size alternative male mating strategy httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvGUQcMZLpr8 Giraffe weevils Really long necks Giraffe weevils alternative behavioral mating strategies Sneaker male hides under mating pair A big male guards sneaker amp female B sneaker avoids detection by big male C Painting amp Hollwell 2014 Behav Ecol 25 14091416 httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontent 2561409short Giraffe weevils alternative mating strategies Males sneak if they are small top And competing against Tuesday March 3 2015 males bigger than they are bottom Painting amp Hollwell 2014 Behav Ecol 25 14091416 httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontent 2561409short Precopulatory competition Alternative mating strategies Majors and Minors minors are sneaky males that don t fight majors are big ones that fight different behavioral strategies step function in slides What can we hypothesize about relative fitness if have minors and majors in the pop at the same time both preserved through natural selection similar number of mates Similar fitness httpwwwjstororgstableinfo 1 01086444599 Precopulatory competition Alternative mating strategies Tradeoffs males with big horns have small testes httpwwwpnasorgcontent 1034416346abstract Postcopulatory competition Tuesday March 3 2015 90 of songbirds are socially monogamous but many of them not genetically monogamous Extrapair copulations Extrapair copulationEPCversus extrapair fertilization EPF sperm choice cryptic female choice females can store sperm may be competition after copulation postcopulatory competition Sperm storagereptiles7yearsbirds13year mammals 12 year max Can be hard to distinguish sperm competition from cryptic female choice Extrapair fertilization Many socially monogamous birds are not genetically monogamous Females engage in extrapair copulations Broods include individuals sired by other males Extrapair fertilization Extrapair copulation amp fertilization can be rampant 1520of Eastern Blue bird chicks are raised by own father Term cuckolded raising kids that aren t yours terms come from cuckoos that lay eggs in other bird s nests Only 10 of socially monogamous birds are genetically monogamous Multiple mating can be costly White blood cells are a measure of immune reaction Notice polyandry heredoesnotrefertothematingsystem but to females mating multiple times 10 11 Tuesday March 3 2015 Multiple mating can benefit females Depends on the organism and breeding system Female bluethroats and EPC s Wingswellingreferstoimmuneresponse EPYextrapairyoungWPYwithinpairyoung httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournal v406n6793full406296a0htm Female prairie dogs amp multiple mates Whatdoesthissuggest Whatotherinformationwouldbeuseful httpjmammaloxfordjournalsorgcontent 944731 Postcopulatory sperm competition Femalesoftenmatewithmultiplemales Difficulttodistinguishspermcompetition from cryptic female choice Possibiityofspermcompetitionshapes mae behaviors Guppies amp postcopulatory competition Precopulatoryfemalechoicefemaleslikebrightmales Post copulatoryspermcompetitionartificial insemination more colorful males fertilize more eggs httpwwwnaturecomnature journalv421n6921funature01367html Postcopulatory competition sperm competition SupeerairyWren top 57Mspermper ejaculate Tuesday March 3 2015 Relativesizeofape testes bottom Get there firstest with the mostest NB Forrest Postcopulatory competition sperm competition Male darkwinged damselflies have scrubbers on their penises Guard mates too PostCopulatory competition sperm competition Female discrimination among sperm Can lead to evolution of different sperm sizes Postcopulatory competition sperm Competition Female discrimination among sperm cryptic choice Can lead to evolution of different sperm sizes Here across populations of Drosophila mojavensis Hangingflies and nuptial gifts Sperm competition Nuptial gifts Postcopulatory sexual selection Nuptial gifts Duration of copulation as function of prey size Hangingflies and nuptial gifts Numberofspermtransferredasfunctionoftime Whatdoesthissuggest 12 Thursday March 5 2015 EEBio Wk 92 Subject Ecology and Behavior EEB 100 Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Group Living amp Social Behavavior Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Robert Cooper holding extended office hours Thursday noon2 pm roughly Announcements Changes to Syllabus 05 amp 10 March social behavior Class 12 March TBA Review session 16 March 68 pm Moore 100 Discussion sections for Week 10 Extra office hours for review with TA s Test 18 March 11 30230 Ackerman Ballroom Watch email for other announcements Reminder extrapair copulations ExtrapaircopulationEPCversusextrapairfertilization EPF sperm competition cryptic female choice Spermstoragereptiles7yearsbirds13year mammals 12 year max Allowsforpossibilityofspermcompetitionamporcryptic female choice Canbehardtodistinguishspermcompetitionfrom cryptic female choice Reminder extrapair fertilization Thursday March 5 2015 Manysocialymonogamousbirdsarenotgenetically sexually monogamous Femalesengageinextrapaircopulations Broodsincludeindividualssiredbyothermales Reminder extrapair fertilization Extrapair copulation amp fertilization can be rampant 1520ofEasternBluebirdchicksareraisedbyownfather Term cuckoded Ony10 of socially monogamous birds are genetically monogamous social mating system not a good descriptor Multiple mating can be costly White blood cells are a measure of immune reaction Notice polyandry here does not refer to the mating system but to females mating multiple times Multiple mating can benefit females Depends on the organism and breeding system polyandry helpful against infanticide kill babies to ensure mating with female but if female mate with multiple malesmae doesn t want to kill own child so may lower risk Female bluethroats and EPC s Wing swelling refers to immune response bigger swelling bigger immune responsecompetence having multiple partners might increase fitness of children Thursday March 5 2015 EPY extrapair youngWPY withinpair young httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv406n6793full406296a0html Female prairie dogs amp multiple mates What does this suggest What other information would be useful httpjmammaloxfordjournalsorgcontent944731 y axis is number of mates x axis is number of pups more mates higher chance of surviving offspring might be that females that mate with multiple males may be more fertile there is a fertility advantage More pups in the litter not just more pups surviving Postcopulatory sperm competition Females often mate with multiple males Difficult to distinguish sperm competition from cryptic female choice Possibility of sperm competition shapes male behaviors Guppies amp postcopulatory competition Precopulatory female choicefemaes like bright males Postcopulatory competitionartificial inseminationmore colorful males fertilize more eggs brighter males and smaller males generate more babies even just when have artificial insemination females not even choosing them they are just able to sire more babies genetic advantage crazy httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv421n6921fulnature01367html Thursday March 5 2015 Postcopulatory competition sperm competition Superb Fairy Wren top 57M sperm per ejaculate a lot males with largest ejaculate have more advantage in sperm competition Relative size of ape testes bottom Get there firstest with the mostest NB Forrest chimps and bonobos have larger proportional testes than humans because their females mate with many males good for competition gorilla try to dominate many females so have smaller testes Postcopulatory competition sperm competition Male darkwinged damselflies have scrubbers on their penises males have clasps that come from abdomen grabbing female head or eyes females grab penis scrub out sperm from prior males bursa copulatrix copulatory pocket Guard mates too males stay around as she lays her egg make sure that no one else tries to fertilize her postcopulatory competition PostCopulatory competition sperm competition drosophila make super long sperm thread way fthrough super long sperm storage organ Female discrimination among sperm can basically filter out too short sperm maybe choosing sperm like the way females choose males with long tails in peacocks except in postcopulatory competition Thursday March 5 2015 Can lead to evolution of different sperm sizes see which females have short or long organs kill offspring he didn t want artificially choose males by female receptacle length if choose long receptacle get sons with long sperm Postcopulatory competition sperm Competition Female discrimination among sperm cryptic choice Can lead to evolution of different sperm sizes Here across populations of Drosophila mojavensis different copulations have different preferences can know female preference based on length of receptacle Hanging flies and nuptial gifts Sperm competition Nuptial gifts male comes with present and female eats it and male gets to mate esp in insects hanging flies hang from things and catch small organisms in hind legs and bring to female better fed female will have ability to lay more eggs fertility tested hand nuptial gift and while eating male mate Postcopulatory sexual selection Nuptial gifts larger gift male can stay in copulation for longer but males can t stay any longer than a certain point despite how big gift males transfer more sperm with longer copulation to a point Hangingflies and nuptial gifts Thursday March 5 2015 Number of sperm transferred as function of time What does this suggest only bring enough food to stay long enough to leave entire ejaculate female will drop wings when see food alternative male strategy some males will see other male with gift drop wings and other male will mistake him for female give him the gift and male with steal gift for female some males can t find own gift or steal other gifts males do this to release full ejaculate NOT for fertility advantage Duration of copulation as function of prey size Social Behavior Groups Aggregates of individuals Afew to thousands Stable or ephemeral Active aggregationsanimals come together Passive aggregationEgplanktoniclarvae distributed by ocean currents Costs and benefits of groups Benefits Acquiring food Reducing predation risk Costs Increased competition Thursday March 5 2015 Reproductive suppression Risk of parasites amp disease transmission Resource acquisition passive attraction Butterfly aggregation at salt deposit area where male urinate Resource acquisition passive attraction Butterfly aggregation at saltdeposit Grouping around resource patches last as long as resource last Often flexible Maybe multispecies groups and ephemeral Last as long as the resources lasts Group members often unrelatednot families Group size limited by Amount of food How defensible food is Presence of other known patches Widely scattered food less defensible Less defensible food supports larger groups Other food related benefits Groups of insectivores or carnivores may flush more prey and have greater foraging success Group hunting in carnivores lnformationcentersampinformation transfer in birds Thursday March 5 2015 httpwwwoutsideonlinecomnewsfromthefieldWATCH FalconWearsa CameraGoes Huntinghtml httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvBQSoaNdJKx8 crows are smarter crow tries to fly higher than falcon but not as strong a flier crow tries to go to trees but most go slower and go downwards endangering itself as falcons try to attack from above Resource acquisition information transfer Birds figure out where food is by watching the rbirds How to test Resource acquisition information transfer Osprey and foraging directioncapture of alewivesfish Resource acquisition group foraging Gulls forage more effectively in small flocks Resource acquisition cooperative hunting List advantages amp disadvantages Larger prey vssharing Resource acquisition cooperative hunting Harris hawks and effect of group size can hunt bigger prey but have to share trade off maybe optimal group size must have a lot of birds to get enough bunnies to actually feed themselves Pack size in wild dogs Variation in group size Cooperative hunting httpyoutubedean8LzOt7m21s Tradeoff cooperative hunting vs competition Group size should find some optimum Pack size in wild dogs Group size does find some optimum Groups and predation risk Selfish herdampdiution effects Egpenguins and predators vigilance Detection of predatorsmore eyes amp ears httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvr3RElQWsh34 Prob Killed by predator Groups and predation risk Thursday March 5 2015 Tammar wallabies increase foraging amp decrease vigilance with group size more in group more can do Except in New Zealand rightbottom No predators in New Zealand httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontent135657full Zone of danger around predators Coyote Raptor Thursday March 5 2015 Area around a predator where prey likely to be killed Depends on predator speed amp agility use gps on sheep to test Prey in groups may be safer in center of group selfish use friend as buffer Zone of danger around predators Coyotes are terrestrialand influences which prey they can attack Selfish sheep seek centeregSay that 10timesfast httpnewssciencemagorg201207selfishsheepseekcenter httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepii80960982212005295 Raptors have a different range Group defensive behaviors Mobbing crows mob bigger birds in groups to protect eggs Alarm callssignaling squirrel make alarm call to others Group benefits thermoregulation Emperor penguins Change shape of huddle based on wind direction shuffle around so there are few penguins with backs to the wind httpyoutubeOL70507U4Gst10s httpthenaturalhistoriancom20121228huddlingpenguinsheatsharingselfish behavior httpjournalsplosorgplosonearticleid101371journalpone0050277 1O 11 Thursday March 5 2015 Group benefits thermoregulation Many bats here Myotis bats huddle together Alpine marmots Group benefits aerohydrodynamios Migratory bird flock shape aerodynamics draft off each other Dolphins drafting httpinkspringeroomartiole101186jbiol2 httpwwwpnasorgoontent1127211 5 Thursday March 12 2015 EEBio Wk102 Subject Ecology and Behavior EEB 100 Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Humans amp Behavior Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Changes to Syllabus 05 amp 10 March social behavior Class 12 March TBA Review session 16 March 68 pm Moore 100 Discussion sections for Week 10 Extra office hours for review with TA s Test 18 March 11 30230 Ackerman Ballroom Watch email for other announcements Announcements TA s answering questions during discussion this week Adriana is also holding office hours Wed1011 30 Thur 11 1530 Haplodiploidy AllHymenopterabees wasps ants are haplodiploid Someotheranimalstoo including Thrips Scaleinsectsbugs Thursday March 12 2015 Somespidermites Somebeetlesnotably bark beetles httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv359 n6397abs359724a0html httpwwwnewscientistcomarticle dn21698zoologgerthesoldiersthat double upas doctors httpbehavzoologyunibechindexphp p46 Haplodiploidy Females diploid males haploid Mothers can make males asexually female diploid male haploid so if female leave unfertilized egg get male must be fertilized for female Haplodiploidy activity Calculate the relatedness Motherdaughter r5 Father daughter r1 or 5 Motherson r5 or1 Sistersister r75 Halfsister r25 Haplodiploidy Consequence is asymmetrical relatedness Motherdaughter R 05 Thursday March 12 2015 Sistersister R 075 Sisters more related to each other than to own offspring Hamilton amp inclusive fitness rBgtC rgtCB rO75 among sisters Helping sisters can be more advantageous than having own offspring Colonies can be viewed as factories for new queens Extra relatedness gives sisters an evolutionary reason to make more sisters rather than start new colonies working to make new queens with whom you share a lot of queens Measuring relatedness Modern genetic tools allowed us to measure relatedness directly in haplodiploid eusocial organisms Many bees wasps have low relatedness rlt 075 often rlt 025 Estimate r 075 based on fullsisters Half sisters multiple fathers per colony expect r 025 Same as halfsibs in diploid organisms Expected evolutionary advantage of haplodiploidy does not match reality at least in some species when study actual relatedness between bugs in colony didn t see what was expected according to theory Other faults with haplodiploidy hypothesis and kin selection Thursday March 12 2015 naked mole rats termites Hymenoptera bees wasps ants are haplodiploid TherearedipoidorDiplodiploideusocialorganisms No special advantage over other diploid animals colonies exist with non related individuals not just not very related not related at all Other faults with haplodiploidy hypothesis and kin selection Unrelated Individuals sometimes cooperate Primitive termitesLand some waspsR merge colonies some primitive wasps have colonies started by unrelated queens two unrelated queens start colony together families unrelated but still protect each other etc httpwwwpnasorgcontent1064117452long httpinkspringercomartice101007s0026501315697fulltexthtml httpl wwwnaturecomnaturejournalv405n6788abs405784a0html Other faults with haplodiploidy hypothesis and kin selection Many haplodiploid organisms are not eusocial egsawflies amp solitary or parasitic bees amp wasps coocoowasp are parasitic solitary meaning they don t live in colonies Evidence suggests haplodiploidy neither necessary nor sufficient for eusociality Which evidence implies haplodiploidy is not necessaryNot sufficient know its not necessary because we have diploid organisms that are eusocial naked molerat not sufficient because it doesn t apply since some like solitary haplodiploid organisms live without colonies Thursday March 12 2015 Nowak Tarnita and Wilson Notice the authors Notice the title The evolution of eusociality Notice it is an Analysis has never been paper with this heading didn t go through usual peer review authors knew if they did it would never go through and get pubHshed popularize eusociality in Nature journal kin selection may not drive eusociality Nowak Tarnita and Wilson Stirring a hornets nest Hundreds of angry responses But shouldn t be such a surprise Inclusive fitness and sociobiology Edward O Wilson Now term Evolutionary Psychology applies to humans instead of sociobiology Humans behavior and evolution I am shying away from term Evolutionary Psychology Some studies related to human evolutionampbehavior Some things to keep in mind when asking questions about human behavior Caveatl m not an evolutionary psychologist citing old studies Humans behavior and evolution Thursday March 12 2015 Topics we will cover today Kin selection in humans Challenges to studying human evolution Jealousy amp mate preference Diet Caveat not making normative statements Kin selection in humans Two topics menopause amp stepparents Menopause in humans Female humans cease to be reproductive long before the end of life doesn t occur in most primates Japanese macaque VVhy Grandmother hypothesis Women live long enough to help rear grandoffspring httponinelibrarywileycomstore1010021521187820010323330282AD BIES10383E30CO29asset1038ftppdf httpencitizendiumorgwikiEvolutionofmenopause Menopause in humans Natural popuation of The Gambia BottomLeftmodeed menopause at different ages Centereffect of mother amp grandmother on child survival Right Model optimum age of menopause in human groups lots of child mortality in nature Thursday March 12 2015 that s why we survive once you get past age of 10 good chance of survival toddlers survive much better with grandma around not as important for infant effect of age on menopause of growth of the group somewhat a measure of group aness if close to age of 55 that is optimum real life it is about 52 so pretty close to optimum may have evolved and been chosen for inclusive fitness menopause really early it s bad around 45 yrs http rspb royalsocietypublishing orgcontent2741 6282943 Menopause in whales Postreproductive females lead pods J16aboveis an exampleabove left leaving the pod freq distr of females and males leaving the pod females leaving more often leaders of killer whale pods are menopausal females httpnewssciencemagorgbiology201503menopausalkillerwhalesarefamily leaders httpnewssciencemagorg201209adultkillerwhalesneedtheirmamas httpwwwcellcomcurrentbiologyabstract8096098221500069X Stepparents amp child abuse Children under 3yo living with one nongenetic parent at least 7 times more likely to be victims of abuse youngest ages prone to abuse if have one natural parent and one stepparent when compared to kid with two natural parents Does this make sense not genetically related Thursday March 12 2015 Kin selection Cinderella Effect in Depression years farmers have to have wives so if someone died or got sick farmers got remarried quickly and often the stepparents were abusive hard economic times this becomes more common httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepii0162309585900123 httpwwwcepucsbedubulIercinderela 020effect 020factspdf Stepparents amp child abuse A caveat Child abuse is relatively rare The overwhelming majority of step parents do not abuse children Challenges to studying evolution of human behaviors List some observational studies confounding variables did a pattern evolve before cultures differentiated our do cultures behave different ways according to different environments How do we test hypothesis just so stories cannot easily test fitness outcomes birth control hard to know how much humans have evolved recently assumptions related to that sample size n1 humans Challenges saber toothed cat example Thursday March 12 2015 This is an example of n 1 how much we can infer Great big canines Not very good teethbreak easilyforce required PMJAn ornament sexual ornament like monkey mandril can t measure fitness of these extinct animals predict males have bigger canines than females httpnewssciencemagorgpaleontology201410canopenercats httpwwwjstororgstable4524203 Challenges saber toothed cat example females and males have same sized teeth Not very sexually dimorphic Smilodon fatalis appears to have been significantly less dimorphic than living or fossil lions and more comparable to solitary living felids in canine and skull size dimorphism Thus it seems unlikely that S fatalis had a polygynous breeding structure like lions in which males compete intensely for access to females not sexually selected for canine size used fangs like can opener twist neck of prey with teeth hypothesis in paper below with sample size of one species can t tell httpnewssciencemagorgpaleontology201410canopenercats httpswwwsciencenewsorgblogwildthingshowsabertoothedcatcanopener httpwwwjstororgstable4524203 Challenges saber toothed mammals look across multiple species Thursday March 12 2015 Across saber toothed mammals good evidence for sexual selection slope very different rest of teeth match other species just fangs are different But can we extrapolate to Smilidon hard to make inferences httpjournasplosorgplosonearticleid101371journalpone0072868 Human mating behavior jealousy Questionnaire given to male and female college students And responses guys much more jealous than girls Let s assume this pattern is reaWhy do we see it guys don t have paternity assurance so something like having partner having affair has severe fitness consequences httppsssagepubcomcontent34251short httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepiiS1090513801000782 httpwwwjstororgstable27858334 Human mating behavior female amp male preferences 37 different cultures questionnaire on a 03 scale Why might we see this pattern females on average think its important that partner s have good financial prospects more so than men males value looks in partner more than females odd in nature males are the pretty ones and in human culture we emphasize female beauty httpendyffrynamanorgpsychologywpcontentuploadssites9201401Mixedpdf 1O 11 Thursday March 12 2015 Diet what humans evolved to eat Paleo diet Assumes humans healthiest when eating a diet similar to what humans ate in the paleolithic era 25 MYA to 10KYA High protein high fat low carb no dairy wheat or legumes Makes sense or does it httpncpsagepubcomcontent256594long httpthepaleodietcomthepaleodietblog httpwwwcnncom20140107healthbestdietsranked Diet have humans stopped evolving No By some genetic measures human evolution accelerating Lossofresolutionlt5KYA Some of fastest evolving genes are for diet reason agriculture Many human groups have had some form of agriculture for about 10000 years httpwwwpnasorgcontent1045220753ful Diet lactose tolerance persistence all mammals have milk but most lost tolerance after childhood Strong selection for lactose tolerancepersistencein humans Many human cultures grew around herding corresponding lactose tolerance had a lot of time to build tolerance Lactose tolerance in Northern Europe precedes cattle farming odd but it didn t precede reindeer farming must have originally had reindeer milk Thursday March 12 2015 httpwwwnaturecomngjournalv35n4fullng1263html httprstbroyalsocietypublishingorgcontent3661566863 httpwwwncbinlmnihgovpmcarticlesPMC1182075pdfAJHGV74p1111pdf Diet fire amp cooking Archeologicalpaleontological evidence refutes some aspects of paleo diet they ate starches carbs veggies actually did eat starches Long before agriculture humans started using fire Which also changed our diet and our ability to process foods httpnewssciencemagorgarchaeology201406neandertalsatetheirveggies theirfecesreveal httpwwwsciencemagorgcontent331I6013131short httpwwwsciencemagorgcontent30757118401 summary httpnewssciencemagorgarchaeology201409ancient campfiresledrise storytelling Diet what humans evolved to eat DNA from Neanderthalbones reveals they taste bitter where we taste sweet We have up to 20 copies of salivary amylase genes starts breaking down starches compared to ancient humans having one Both we and Neanderthals lack a gene that causes chimps to grow strong chewing muscles probably a result of cooking httpnewssciencemagorgarchaeology201502how modernhumansatetheir wayworlddominance httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepiiSOO47248414002644 My take on evolutionary questions of human behavior 12 Thursday March 12 2015 Should we ask questions of how human behaviors evolved Of courseWe re scientists Recognize the difference between hypotheses and tests of those hypotheses Subject claims to some scrutinybe smart Test assumptionsask how could we tell Genetic and genomic tools are giving us more and better ways to ask and answer real questions about the evolution of behaviors httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvBMOjVYgYaGS 13
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