Midterm Review - Intro to Archaeology
Midterm Review - Intro to Archaeology
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Date Created: 03/09/15
ANP 203 Midterm Review Wednesday October 15 2014 REVIEW DAY Exam Monday October 20 2014 from 3pm to 420pm scantron exam 57 questions 43 multiple choice 14 true or false This study guide is NOT intended to be an exhaustive list You are responsible for ALL material covered in the textbook videos and lectures Chapters covered 17 READREVIEW THE BOOK General Topics Definition of the field What is archaeology What are the basic goals Archaeology is the study of humans in the past not fossils not dinosaurs The basic goals are 0 Explain culture change how cultures differ operate and change 0 Discovery and description baseline data cultural history and cultural chronology 0 Understanding human behavior and thus ourselves Archaeology as science What is the importance of archaeology To move away from just looking at artifacts as cool or quotoldquot want to be more scientific and understand how it represents human behavior Lewis Binford first proposed that archaeology should be more scientific o Processualism Features of research design 0 Hypothesis the question you re asking 0 Background research knowing what other people have askedquestioned about the topic cannot repeat old findings 0 Has to be testible 0 Methods how you are going to testanswer your research question Importance of archaeology 0 Help predict the future Recover ancient knowledge Maintainmanage cultural resources Appreciate ancient traditions anthropology s influence on archaeology Conserve diversity past and present OOOOO Contribute to political debates understand the roles of gender power politics etc Understand ourselves O o Interactions with the environment 0 Cultural tourism 0 Commercial interests Development of archaeology What is the general history of archaeology Earliest cases of archaeological field work were from Egypt 0 Pharaoh excavated the Sphynx 4000 years ago Important 18th19th century archaeologists 0 Walter Taylor first to say archaeology should fall within anthropology I All cultures are relevant and important I All cultures should be based on their own standards cultural relativism o Other Lyell Boucher de Perthes Bishop Ussher see below Unilinear cultural evolution Savagery to barbarianism to civilization 0 Problematic I Ethnocentrism based on American standards I Inaccurate because it s so simplistic people don t easily fall into that simple of a model does not include complexity of cultures Contemporary archaeology What are the theoretical approaches to archaeology Unilinearculturalevolution o Savagery to barbarianism to civilization Processualism Middle range theory 0 Links the artifacts that you find to human behavior I Ethnoarchaeology U Go stay with a culture study their interactions with the material culture What they use how they use it where they discard it I Experimentalarchaeology U People trying to recreate past technologies Making pottery and stone tools Give us some insight into how past people could have created these items in the past I Ethnographic analogy U Go stay with a culture study their behaviorspractices to learn about past cultural practices The archaeological record How do archaeologists obtain information about the past The archaeological record is everything the total package of stuff from people in the past 0 Pollen from trees nearby when the sites was occupied artifacts animal bone old viruses etc 0 Includes the features I Nonportable remnant of human activity D Part of a building rock art remains of a trash pit only seen in the soil D If you remove it it loses its integrity and no longer holds the same degree of importance 0 Everything and anything that people may have left behind Relative dating and absolute dating 0 Relative dating 0 Absolute dating I Radiocarbon dating only applicable to certain ages of sites only apply to 30050000 yea rs I Obsidian dating obsidianhydration dating can see how long ago the artifact was made based on the water levelhydration marking on the artifact Fieldwork How do archaeologists access the archaeological record Classification 0 Very subjective not the same for everyone depends on the research questions you re working to answer and your research design Archaeological site 0 Can be big encompass an entire landscape or small a shipwreck 0 Different types can classify them by underwater vs terrestrial by the function of the site logging town hunting camps villages etc Analysis How do archaeologists identify and classify artifacts People and Ideas Charles Lyell and the principal of uniformitarianism 1830 s said that the earth goes through natural geological processes the things happening now have always been happening and will continue to happen through time Law of superposition bottom layer older than the top layers Jacques Boucher de Perthes and relative dating Found stone tools in association with extinct animals dated to be over 100000 years old the world has to be older than 6000 years old proof against Ussher Arch Bishop James Ussher and the notion of prehistory Formulated based on the Bible that the Earth was formed 4004 BC Christian Thomsen and the ThreeAge System Relative dating scheme for ordering and classifying all of the sites in Europe oldest to youngest 0 Stone Age Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic 0 Bronze Age 0 Iron Age Franz Boas and cultural relativism Cultural relativism ethnographic work trained a lot of people in anthropology Lewis Henry Morgan and Edward B Taylor and unilinear cultural evolution quotOne line evolution savagery to barbarianism to civilization Widely adopted at first but was later dismissed as inaccurate and simplistic Augustus PittRivers Flinders and Hilda Petrie and Mortimer and Tessa Wheeler and improvements in archaeological field methods Mortimer and Tessa Wheeler 0 Early 1900 s came up with the use of a grid system for mapping archaeological sites Augustus PittRivers 0 Taking notes drawing maps making sure you could interpret what you were finding based on your notes afterwards Flinders and Hilda Petrie 0 Worked as a team in Egypt their detailed measuring of the pyramids led to specific measurements being adopted into archaeology 0 Taking very detailed measurements for archaeological work I Take notes measurements sketches Walter Taylor and applying anthropology to archaeology Believed archeology the study of the human past should be included in anthropology the study of humans including their biology culture and language both past and present Lewis Binford and the scientific method Published a series of papers calling for a more scientific approach to archaeology Pushed for the use of scientific method being more rigorous in archaeological studies Concepts and Terms Branches of archaeology Prehistoric before written records Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Historical archaeology of recent past Biblical Egyptology Medieval between 5th and 15th centuries Classical quotclassical states Greece Rome Maritime underwater nautical Public cultural resource management public outreach Archaeological cultures Model cultures based on a normative view Archaeological record Material remainspatterns of people of the past Stratigraphy and scientific dating Archaeological cultures Paradigm Inductive vs Deductive reasoning Synchronic vs diachronic Synchronic Only looking at a moment in time Diachronic Looks at the entire history leading up to that event takes entire timespan into account Scientific method Data hypothesis test retest model building theory laws Research design Statement of research questions discussion of what is already known description of how questions will be tested expected data Pseudosciencefrauds Pseudoscience using scientific terms to appear scientific but the data doesn t meet standards and there are untestable hypotheses ie moundbuilders Frauds people fake data to fool archaeologists Myth of Moundbuilders Importance of Archaeology Help predict the future Recover ancient knowledge Maintainmanage cultural resources Appreciate ancient traditions anthropology s influence on archaeology Conserve diversity past and present Contribute to political debates understand the roles of gender power politics etc Understand ourselves Interactions with the environment Cultural tourism Commercial interests Ancient archaeology The records of archaeological investigation dates from the last thousand years Antiquarians collectors of objects treasurehuntinglooting Discovery of prehistory Early excavations Professional archaeology Historical approach An early base in history Focus on when and where Discovery Classification Description Cultural history and chronologies Diffusion Postulates in the 19305 Geographic movement of traits civilization diffused from several initial centers requires contact Political influences in the history of archaeology Colonialism o Europeans viewed others as savages went around and colonized places Nationalism o A strong pride in and love for one s home nation General biases 0 Any biases that you come into the field with personally I Ex viewing every artifact to have been made by men only believe that women planted corn etc o How your paradigm influences what you do out in the field Bronze Iron Stone Ages Used in Europe for relative dating scheme Paleoindian archaic woodland contact historic periods used in US MiddleRange theory You look at the artifacts but you can only look at them as they exist right now you cannot directly observe the past meaning you can only gain an indirect understanding of it all Ethnoarchaeology 0 Gather data on living cultures Ethnographic analogy 0 Look at contemporary cultures somewhere and use that as a model for thinking about past cultures I Living cultures I Models of past cultures Experimentalarchaeology o Replication of artifacts and features Cultural materialism Technoenvironmental materialism the technology of the culture developed as a response to the environment present at the time Material payoffs what you gain from doing that action otherwise why else would you do it 0 Le why farm unless you were going to get a large crop yield Dietary analysis why were they hunting rabbit as opposed to deer when deer would provide more meat ProcessualismNew Archaeology Binford said we needed to use the scientific method in archaeology needed to be more rigorous in archaeological studies 0 Pushed for the use of the scientific method a more scientific approach to archaeology Criticisms 0 Too ambitious o Interpretations too subjective o Biased perspective the influences of colonialism and nationalism on scientific endeavors 0 Too dehumanizing you were focusing more on the culture as a system like a machine rather than on the people involved 0 Working out quotthe bugs Postprocessualism The past is subjective and all narratives of the past are valid Need to look at gender power structures etc from the past all things that scientists hadn t been looking at Brought a more humanistic approach to archaeology Became more inclusive of everyone s ideas recognizing our biasesparadigm o Influenced how the archaeological record was viewed Archaeological sites Localities of past human activity Artifacts ecofacts features human remains 0 Show a pattern of distribution throughout an area Site boundaries 0 Distance between concentrations Large sites 0 Loci Types of sites Geographic locationcontext o Situation relative to surroundings Function 0 Where people lived or did certain activities Agetime period Stratum Stratigraphy Vertical vs horizontal Law of Superposition the strata towards the bottom is older than the strata layered above it given that the soils have not been disturbed Relative dating Cultural deposits stratigraphy law of superposition Determines the age of items in relation to one another Actual years are not determined Items arranged in chronological sequence of events Context location of artifact and association what else is around it are very important in our understanding of the artifact Absolute dating Provides a specific temporal assignment in terms of years Crossdating dendrochronology radiometric methods Seriation Radiocarbon dating 0 Allows for more precise dating 0 However you can only use radiocarbon dating on things with carbon aka organic materials Methods 0 Radiocarbon dating I Used on objects that were once alive I Dating limits 30050000 years 0 Dendrochronology I Used on trees 0 Potassiumargon I Used on materials within earth s crust I Dating limits over 100000 years 0 Uranium I Used on limestone caves I Dating limits 5000500000 years 0 Fission tracking I Used on volcanic glass and crystalline materials in ceramic artifacts o Thermoluminescence I Used on pottery burnt clay features clay formations I Dating limitations 50500000 years 0 Electron spin resonance microwaves Chronometric dating Primary vs secondary context Artifacts Geofacts Ecofacts Primary in its original condition found in the exact place where it was deposited also known as quotitsitu Secondary artifact was taken from the site of initial deposition and moved to a new location Portable objects made modified or used by humans Looks like an artifact but was not made by people 0 Ex rocks that look like they ve been carved into Biological organic remains bones wood charcoal pollen from flowersfruitsnuts decomposing things that have been preserved that humans did something with but did not create The unmodified remains of biological materials used by or related to the activities of people such as discarded animal bone or charcoal from hearth fires or natural pollen in an archaeological site 0 Cultural origins I Bones from food corncobs paleofeces etc o Noncultural origins I Rodent bones insect remains palynology the study of pollen tells you about the season environment etc etc Features Only visible in the soil modified by humans Nonportable constructions that people made for a particular purpose 0 Architecture hearths pits roads dams rock art Earthworks Sites Any place that has artifacts geofacts or features shows evidence that people modified the landscape in the past Debrislithic debitage The tiny piecesflakes that are the remnants of stone tool making Don t show any direct evidence of being used as a tool but are the result of humans making tools so it s still considered an artifact Manuports An object found at a site that doesn t show signs of human use but was brought in the area by humans 0 Ex Wyandotte chert found in Michigan typically found in Indiana wouldn t naturally be found in Michigan was brought in by humans Tools Usewear Transformational processes Geology and hydrology Taphonomy The study of all of the processes that help form soils and thus the archaeological record Linked with site transformational processes decomposition of organic matter soil creation etc how things decompose can vary Bioturbation The disturbancemovement of materials by organisms o Animals burrowing and nonburrowing 0 Plant roots and fallen trees When tree roots moles rats mice chipmunks etc go through the soil and disturb the strata of the soil Human agency As soon as sites form humans begin to alter them 0 Pits for burial and building 0 Reusing and recycling materials Preservation Physical objects as well as their archaeological context 0 Preservation conditions I Biological activity I Inorganic action 0 Preservation and the environment I Extreme conditions I Warm and dry I Cold I Anaerobic conditions little to no oxygen stalls decomposition Survey techniques Surface reconnaissancepedestrian survey Shovel testing 0 Dig one layer beneath the layer you find an artifact in 0 Better for shallow pits Trenchessoil probes 0 Used for deeper pits 0 Soil probe takes a core of the soil to show the stratigraphy I Shows if there are buried ground surfaces often flooding etc Geophysical survey 0 Noninvasive Metal detector Magnetometer Ground penetrating radar GPR 0000 Electrical resistance survey Mapping a site Site datum 0 Reference point to tie it to a larger site I Vertical context xaxis I Horizontal context yaxis I Elevation zaxis Grid lines Provenience Digging units In situ Excavation units vary depending upon the type of information sought 0 Auger probes 1030 cm diameter 0 Shoveltest pits 50 cm2 0 Standard units 12 m2 0 Block excavations 2 m2 and up 0 Trenches 1 meters wide Each type of unit excavated to the bottom of the cultural deposit no longer finding human modificationsyou re in sterile soils The methods and the excavation tools you use depend on the questions you re askingwhat information you want to find Trowels brushes toothpicks shovels bulldozers Mapping unit locations reveals contextual information quotI nsite Excavate map photograph Ethics in fieldwork Typology Legal issues 0 Permits land owner permission Humanistic issues Professional obligations according to the Society of American Archaeology SAA o Stewardship accountability commercialization public outreach and education intellectual property public reporting and publication records and preservation training and resources Morphology and function Communication via shared terminology Documenting and explaining changes in types form and functions 0 Le bottle classification spearhead classification Quantitative vs qualitative attributes Quantitative length width thickness weight Qualitative descriptions of material and condition ie style decoration color etc Temporal type Sites or artifacts tied todated back to specific time period when you see it you know the time context ie architectural style Can be used for dating 0 Architecture tools ceramics Assemblage type All artifacts and ecofacts collected from a site Sample of evidence for all activities that took place there Sitetosite comparison 0 Similarities and differences Hunting camp logging camp village will see more of a functional type May not be equivalent to a specific time period Stone ceramic metal glass shell and bone perishables Other Classmate s questions Pipestem dating Measure the bore width the hole through the stem changes with time Can use approximations use the average of the bore diameters to come up with an age for a site Works much better if you have a large sample size White clay smoking pipe with a bowl and stem found all over the place in historic sites Electronic spin resonance esr Can measure the energy given off by excited particles to let you look at uranium levels and come up with an approximate date Uses microwaves to excite the particles Women in archaeology Gertrude CatonThompson o Excavations at stone ruins at Great Zimbabwe 0 Born in 1851 died in 1916 Jane Dieulafoy o Excavations at the Palace of Xerxes Susa in Persia Esther B Van Deman 0 First American woman archaeologist in Italy 0 Graduated from U of M in 1892 o Focused on Roman archaeology specifically architecture Margaret Alice Murray 0 Worked with the Petries Gertrude Bell 0 Worked in the Middle East 19051914 0 Director of the Department of Antiquities in Iraq and founderdirector of the Iraq Museum 19221926
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