Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide COMM 4820
Popular in Public Opinion & Communicaton
Popular in Communication Studies
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Becca Rickard on Monday March 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 4820 at Ohio State University taught by George Pearson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 172 views. For similar materials see Public Opinion & Communicaton in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/09/15
Public Opinion amp Communication 4820 Midterm Study Guide As this is a theory course this study guide is not meant as list of things you should remember However the folo wing points and questions are designed to help you pick out the important things to learn Much of this study guide will be written as a series of questions helping you pick out key points from the lectures Every question could be answered in a sentence or two 50 even when a question could be answered with an essay bear in mind you do not want to go into detail just provide a sentence or two You may use this as the basis for your notes for the exam The exam is open notes however no electronic notes However you may also wish to start from scratch You should bear in mind that you do not need to learn everything from every section The aim should be to have a general feel for most areas of the course and know a few well As you are picking your questions you could theoretically not learn anything from certain sections of the course Lecture 2 History of Public Opinion Key Moments in the History of Public Opinion Until 1800 Period Time approx Type of Key Democracy Scholars lFigures Greeks 4OOBCZOOBC Direct Aristotle Plato Romans 1008C None Juvenal 15OAD Middle Ages 1000AD None Aquinas 1700AD Machiavelli French 1700AD None pre Rousseau Enlightenme 1800AD revolution Necker nt amp Revolution America 1700AD Representati 19OOAD ve Utilitarianism 1800AD Representati Bentham Mill 19OOAD ve Printing Press When was the printing press invented What were the impacts of the printing press Lecture 3 The Public Who can vote For what reasons do we restrict people from voting The Public vs The Mass Mills creates de nition of The Mass Characteristics of the mass Very little interaction or communication among its members Includes people from across society Dispersed geographically Far fewer people express opinions than receive them The realization of opinion in action is controlled by authorities 5 Key Challenges 0 Lack of competence Lack of information Succeptability to persuasion Succeptability to tyranny the majority Succeptability to elite manipulation Lecture 4 Public Opinion in the Media Age How America Changed Public Opinion 0 Geographic size and population Technological advancements Birth of Media Newspapers 0 Why were the original newspapers set up 0 Boom of newspapers between 1800 and 1850 Radio Comes about in early 20th Century 0 Lots of people have access even with papers some people didn t have access most have access to a radio Television Grows in popularity in 19505 Atomized public grows from this people go out less TwoStep Flow Mass Media gt Opinion Leaders gt Interpersonal communication in uence Mass media have limited in uence Other points in history 0 Vietnam the rst 39televised war Watergate affair as media watchdog Media fragmentation in 19805 numerous media channels Lecture 5 Agenda Setting amp Priming What is Gatkeeping theory What is priming What is Issue Ownership What is some examples Agenda Setting What is agenda setting Why are people affected by agenda setting What are obtrusive and unobtrusive issues What is second level agenda setting Lecture 6 Issue Attention Cycle Built as criticism to rational earlier models eg Foote amp Hart Some of the assumptions of IAC 0 Attention dies without problem solved 0 Attention does not re ect real life severity Issues come and go as fads News is sold as entertainment so must appeal to novelty The Stages What are the ve stages of the Issue Attention Cycle What can cause transition between each stage How much attention does the topic receive at each stage Lecture 7 Framing What is a good basic de nition of framing What effect can frames have on an audience How can framing be used to engage people in an issue How do frames help the media What examples of frames can you think of Any question on framing in the exam Will not expect you to know the various types of frames or individual labels given to framing effects etc You should instead feel free to explain any frames you see in the media or frames being used in your own words There is no need to use preexisting terminology Lecture 9 amp 10 Media Systems What do we mean we say citizens can be consumers or citizens in relation to news What does Lippman mean by pseudoreality What is the key distinction between Lippman and Dewey think in relation to education and information What are the ve lters as presented by Manufacturing Consent What criticisms are there of Manufacturing Consent What does the burglar alarm model suggest is needed of the public What do we mean by the idea of a media 39watchdog What are the criticisms of four theories of the press What are Stromback s Four Models of Democracy And what media requirements do they each have Lecture 11 Social Media What differences are there between social media and other media TV Newspapers etc Changes to news caused by social media Increased selective exposure Free access Many more news sources News Replication What are some of the changes caused by the above changes Lecture 12 amp 13 Intro to Ideology What are the problems with the leftright ideology What is the political compass Why is it still used 4 sources of ideology Personal relationship Groups Psychological needs Genetics Ideology amp Opinion Most people take information from group leaders What are the effects of this Lecture 14 Emotions What is the difference between direct and indirect emotional effects What are the three primary emotions we study What are some of the effects of these You do not need to know them all but just pick out a couple of examples that will help How are emotions used in politics ads Lecture 15 What are the big ve personality types What political attitudes do they tend to correspond with You do not need to know them all but just pick out a couple of examples that Will help Lecture 16 Polarization Why do people af liate to parties and where do af liations come from What evidence is there that people always vote for the same party What does the history of voting tell us about partisanship Only about issues What do mean when we say issues are polarized How do the media affect polarization What is the partisan lter What evidence is there for it What do we mean by moderate polarization Why might we argue it is just politicians who are polarized Lecture 17 Knowledge Gap What is the knowledge gap What is the media s role in the knowledge gap How do different media effect the knowledge gap 3 Ways Media Media Messages Affect Knowledge Gap Selective exposure Message Complexity lssue Familiarity Lecture 18 amp 19 Digital Divide What is rst level digital divide What is second level digital divide What are some of the bene ts from bridging the divide What are some of the ways we can bridge the digital divide What do the following positions think about digital technology and democracy Digital Optimist Digital Skeptic Digital Cynic Lecture 20 Spiral of Silence What is a dual climate of opinion How do the media and polls perpetuate the spiral of silence What are avantgardes and hardcores What is the distinction What are some of the criticisms of the spiral of silence
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