Study guide for midterm 3/13
Study guide for midterm 3/13 MUSI3364
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey-Siamone Mason on Monday March 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MUSI3364 at University of Houston taught by Howard Pollack in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 264 views. For similar materials see Music History 3 in Music at University of Houston.
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Chapter 31 Enrico Carusowas an Italian operatic tenor Became one of the recording industries earliest superstars with the phonograph Paul Verlainewas a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement He is considered one of the greatest representatives of the in de siecle in international and French poetry Stephane Mallarmewas a French poet and critic He was a major French symbolist poet and his work anticipated and inspired several revolutionary artistic schools of the early 20th century such as Cubism Futurism Dadaism and Surrealism Paul Cezannewas a French artist and PostImpressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19thcentury conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th centuryCezanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19thcentury Impressionism and the early 20th century39s new line of artistic enquiry Cubism Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cezanne quotis the father of us allquot Pablo Picassowas a Spanish painter sculptor printmaker ceramicist stage designer poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France As one of the greatest and most in uential artists of the 20th century he is known for cofounding the Cubist movement the invention of constructed sculpture Franz Leharwas an AustroHungarian composer He is mainly known for his operettas of which the most successful and best known is The Merry Widow Die lustige Witwe The Merry Widowis an operetta by the AustroHungarian composer Franz Lehar The librettists Viktor Leon and Leo Stein based the story concerning a rich widow and her countrymen39s attempt to keep her money in the principality by finding her the right husband Victor Herbertwas an Mbom Germanraised American composer cellist and conductor Although Herbert enjoyed important careers as a cello soloist and conductor he is best known for composing many successful operettas that premiered on Broadway from the 1890s to World War I Naughty Mariettaan operetta in two acts with libretto by Rida Johnson Young and music by Victor Herbert Set in New Orleans in 1780 it tells how Captain Richard Warrington is commissioned to unmask and capture a notorious French pirate calling himself quotBras Priquequot and how he is helped and hindered by a highspirited runaway Contessa Marietta Gustav Holstwas an English composer arranger and teacher Best known for his orchestral suite The Planets he composed a large number of other works across a range of genres although none achieved comparable success His distinctive compositional style was the product of many in uences Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss being most crucial early in his development Suite No 2 for military bandGustav Holst39s second and last suite for concert band Ralph Vaughan Williamswas an English composer of symphonies chamber music opera choral music and film scores He was also a collector of English folk music and g this collecting activity in uenced both his editorial approach to the English Hymnal in which he included many folk song arrangements as hymn tunes and several of his own original compositions Scott J oplinwas an AfricanAmerican composer and pianist Joplin achieved fame for his ragtime compositions and was dubbed the King of Ragtime Writers During his brief career he wrote 44 original ragtime pieces one ragtime ballet and two operas One of his first pieces the Maple Leaf Rag became ragtime39s first and most in uential hit and has been recognized as the archetypal rag Treemonishais an opera composed by the famed AfricanAmerican ragtime composer Scott Joplin Though it encompasses a wide range of musical styles other than ragtime and Joplin did not refer to it as such it is sometimes incorrectly referred to as a quotragtime operaquot The music of Treemonisha includes an overture and prelude along with various recitatives choruses small ensemble pieces a m and a few E Maple Leaf Rag is an early ragtime musical composition for piano composed by Scott Joplin It was one of J oplin39s early works and became the model for ragtime compositions by subsequent composers Jelly Roll Morton known professionally as Jelly Roll Morton was an American ragtime and early jazz pianist bandleader and composer who started his career in New Orleans Louisiana Salome an pm in one act by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by the composer based on Hedwig Lachmann39s German translation of the French play Salome by Oscar Wilde Strauss dedicated the opera to his friend Sir Edgar SDever The opera is famous for its quotDance of the Seven Veilsquot It is now better known for the more shocking final scene where Salome declares her love to and kisses the severed head of John the Baptist Oscar Wildewas an m writer and 1m After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s he became one of London39s most popular playwrights in the early 1890s Today he is remembered for his epigrams his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray his plays as well as the circumstances of his imprisonment and early death Elektrais a oneact opera by Richard Strauss to a Germanlanguage libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal which he adapted from his 1903 drama Elektra Hugo von Hofmannsthalwas an Austrian novelist librettist poet dramatist narrator and essayist Claude Debussywas a French composer Along with Maurice Ravel he was one of the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music though he himself disliked the term when applied to his compositions Symbolism Pell as et Me lisandeis an opera in five acts with music by Claude Debussy The French libretto was adapted from Maurice Maeterlinck39s Svmbolist play Pell as et M lisande Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun a svahonic poem for orchestra by Claude Debussy Nocturnesusually a musical composition that is inspired by or evocative of the night Historically nocturne is a very old term applied to night Offices and since the Middle Ages to divisions in the canonical hour of Matins La meran orchestral composition by the French composer Claude Debussy Composed between 1903 and 1905 the piece was initially not well received but soon became one of Debussy39s most admired and frequently performed orchestral works Imagesdebussy piano piece Jeuxdebussy symphonic work L isle joyeuses an extended solo piano piece by Claude Debussy composed in 1904 According to Jim Samson 1977 the quotcentral relationship in the work is that between material based on the wholetone scale the lydian mode and the diatonic scale the lydian mode functioning as an effective mediator between the other twoquot octatonic scaleany eightnote musical scale The scale most often meant by this term is one in which the notes ascend in alternating intervals of a whole step and a half step creating a symmetric scale wholetone scalen which each note is separated from its neighbors by the interval of a whole step Maurice Maeterlinckwas a Belgian playwright poet and essayist who was a Fleming but wrote in French Maurice Ravel was a French composer known especially for his melodies masterful orchestration richly evocative harmonies and inventive instrumental textures and effects Along with Claude Debussy he was one of the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music Gaspard de la nuit ondine a suite of pieces for solo 1w by Maurice Ravel written in 1908 It has three movements each based on a poem or fantaisie from the collection Gaspard de la Nuit fantaisies a la mani re de Rembrandt et de Callot completed in 1836 by Alovsius Bertrand Because of its technical challenges and profound musical structure Scarbo is considered one of the most difficult solo piano pieces ever written Daphnis et Chlo a m with music by Maurice Ravel Ravel described it as a quotsymphonie choreographiquequot choreographic symphony At almost an hour long Daphnis et Chlo is Ravel39s longest work In spite of the ballet39s duration four discemable leitmotifs give musical unity to the score La valseRavel was conceived as a ballet but is now more often heard as a concert work The work has been described as a tribute to the waltz and the composer George Benjamin Isaac Albenizwas a Spanish pianist and composer best known for his piano works based on folk music idioms Iberiaa w for 1w composed between 1905 and 1909 by the Spanish composer Bari Albeniz It is composed of four books of three pieces each a complete performance lasts about an hour and a half It is Albeniz39s bestknown work and considered his masterpiece It was highly praised by Claude Debussv and Olivier Messiaen who said quotIberia is the wonder for the piano it is perhaps on the highest place among the more brilliant pieces for the king of instrumentsquot Stylistically this suite falls squarely in the school of Impressionism Enrique Granadoswas a Spanish pianist and composer of classical music His music is in a uniquely Spanish style and as such is representative of musical nationalism Goyescasis a piano suite written in w by Spanish composer Enrique Granados This piano suite is usually considered Granados39s crowning creation and was inspired by the paintings of Francisco Gova although the piano pieces have not been authoritatively associated with any particular paintings The suite forms part of the standard Romantic piano repertoire Francisco Goyawas a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns Manuel de Fallawas a Spanish composer With Isaac Albeniz and Enrique Granados he is one of Spain39s most important musicians of the first half of the 20th century The ThreeCornered Hats a M choreographed by Leonide Massine with music by Manuel de Falla commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev and premiered complete in 1919 It is not only a ballet with Spanish setting but one that also employs the techniques of Spanish dance adapted and somewhat simplified instead of classical ballet Harpsichord Concerto de Fallais a concerto written for hgpsichord and chamber ensemble Wanda Landowskaa Polish harpsichordist whose performances teaching recordings and writings played a large role in reviving the popularity of the harpsichord in the early 20th century Cecil Sharpthe founding father of the folklore revival in England in the early 20th century Norfolk Rhapsodiesthree orchestral rhapsodies by Ralph Vaughan Williams drafted in 190506 They were based on folk songs Vaughan Williams had collected in the English county of Norfolk in particular the fishing port of King39s Lynn in January 1905 The Planetsis a sevenmovement orchestral suite by the English composer Gustav Holst written between 1914 and 1916 Each movement of the suite is named after a planet of the Solar System and its corresponding astrological character as defined by Holst Leos J anacekwas a Czech composer musical theorist folklorist publicist and teacher He was inspired by Moravian and other Slavic folk music to create an original modern musical style Jenufaan pm in three acts by Leos J anacek to a Czech libretto by the composer based on the play Jejz pastorky a by Gabriela Preissova The composer dedicated the work to the memory of his dead daughter Olga as he also did with his choral composition called the Elegv on the Death of Daughter Olga Sinfoniettavery expressive and festive late work for large orchestra of which 25 are m players by the Czech composer Leos J anacek It is dedicated To the Czechoslovak Armed Forces and J anacek said it was intended to express contemporary free man his spiritual beauty and joy his strength courage and determination to fight for victory Jean Sibeliuswas a Finnish composer of the late Romantic period His music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identitv The core of Sibelius39 oeuvre is his set of seven symphonies Like Beethoven Sibelius used each successive work to further develop his own personal compositional style Kalevalaa 19thcentury work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lonnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology It is regarded as the national epic of Karelia and Finland and is one of the most significant works of Finnish literature The Swan of Tuonelaan 1895 tone poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius It is part of the Lemminka39inen Suite Four Legends from the Kalevala Op 22 based on the Kalevala ppic of Finnish mythology F inlandias a svahonic poem by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius The piece was composed for the Press Celebrations of 1899 a covert protest against increasing censorship from the Russian Empire and was the last of seven pieces performed as an accompaniment to a tableau depicting episodes from Finnish history Rotational formrotating elements toward a climactic passage repeatedly cycling through a series of thematic elements that are varied each time ABCABCDABCDE ABCDEF teleological genesisa goal directed process of generating a theme from motivic fragments account of a given thing s purpose Sergei Rachmaninovwas a Russian composer pianist and conductor Rachmaninoff is widely considered one of the finest pianists of his day and as a composer one of the last great representatives of Romanticism in Russian classical music Early in uences of Tchaikovsky RimskyKorsakov and other Russian composers gave way to a personal style notable for its songlike melodicism expressiveness and his use of rich orchestral colors Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganiniis a concertante work written by Sergei Rachmaninoff It is written for solo 1m and svahonv orchestra closely resembling a piano concerto Alexander Scriabinwas a Russian composer and pianist Scriabin who was in uenced by Frederic Chopin4 composed early works that are characterized by m language Poem of Ecstasya svmphonic poem written between 1905 and 1908 when Scriabin was actively involved with the Theosophical Societv Scriabin sometimes referred to The Poem of Ecstasy as his quotfourth symphonyquot although it was never officially called such and avoids the traditional division into separate movements Although played as a single movement there are traces of the classical sonata kevscheme that Scriabin had employed previously but it is no longer structurally important Prometheussymphonic work by scriabin Vers la ammeone of Alexander Scriabin39s last pieces for piano written in 1914 The melody of the piece is very simple consisting mainly of descending half steps However the unusual harmonies and difficult tremolos create an intense fiery luminance Erik Satiewas a French composer and pianist Satie was a colourful figure in the early 20th century Parisian avantgarde His work was a precursor to later artistic movements such as minimalism repetitive music and the Theatre of the Absurd Gymnop diesthree 1m compositions written by French composer and pianist Satie short atmospheric pieces are written in 34 time with each sharing a common theme and structure Collectively the Gymnope dies are regarded as an important precursor to modern ambient music gentle yet somewhat eccentric pieces which when composed defied the classical tradition Embryon dess ch sa piano composition by Erik Satie composed in the summer of 1913 The composition consists of three little quotmovementsquot each taking about two to three minutes to play Paradea m with music by Erik Satie and a oneact scenario by Jean Cocteau The ballet was composed for Sergei Diaghilev39s Ballets Russes with costumes and sets designed by Pablo Picasso choreOgraphv by Leonide Massine who danced and the orchestra conducted by Ernest Ansermet Futurismwas an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century It emphasized speed technology youth and violence and objects such as the car the airplane and the industrial city Chapter 32 Arnold Schoenbergan Austrian composer and painter associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art and leader of the Second Viennese School With the rise of the Nazi Party by 1938 Schoenberg39s works were labeled as degenerate music because he was Jewish he moved to the United States in 1934 Verkla39rte Nachta string sextet in one movement composed by Arnold Schoenberg in 1899 it is considered his earliest important work It was inspired by Richard Dehmel39s poem of the same name combined with the in uence of Schoenberg39s strong feelings upon meeting Mathilde von Zemlinsky the sister of his teacher Alexander von Zemlinsky whom he would later marry developing variationIn music composition developing variation is a formal technique in which the concepts of development and variation are united in that variations are produced through the development of existing material Schoenberg String Quartet in d minor Erwartungoneact monodrama by Arnold Schoenberg to a libretto by Marie Pappenheim uses expressionismexaggerated gestures angular melodies unrelenting dissonance Moses imd Arona threeact opera by Arnold Schoenberg with the third act unfinished The German libretto is by the composer after the Book of Exodus Pierrot lunaireis a melodrama by Arnold Schoenberg It is a setting of 21 selected poems from Otto Erich Hartleben39s German translation of Albert Giraud39s cycle of French poems of the same name Five Orchestral Piecesfurther develop the notion of quottotal chromaticismquot that Schoenberg introduced in his Three Piano Pieces Op 11 composed earlier that year and were composed during a time of intense personal and artistic crisis for the composer this being re ected in the tensions and at times extreme violence of the score mirroring the expressionist movement of the time in particular its preoccupation with the subconscious and burgeoning madness Atonalityits broadest sense is music that lacks a tonal center or key pitchclass setA collection of pitchclasses that preserves its identity when transposed inverted or reordered and used melodically or harmonically chromatic saturationthe appearance of all twelve pitchclasses within a segment of music expressionismwas a modernist movement initially in poetry and painting originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas Albert Giraudwas a Belgian poet who wrote in French Sprechstimmeare expressionist vocal techniques between singing and speaking Sprechstimme is closer to speech itself because it does not emphasize any particular pitches twelvetone methoda method of musical composition devised by Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg 1874 1951 The technique is a means of ensuring that all 12 notes of the chromatic scale are sounded as often as one another in a piece of music while preventing the emphasis of any one note rowseriesrefers to a nonrepetitive ordering of a set of pitchclasses typically of the twelve notes in musical set theory of the chromatic scale though both larger and smaller sets are sometimes found Primeconsidered to be the quotsimplestquot version of the pitch class set Inversionupside down retrogradebackwards retrograde inversionbackwards and upside downquot tetrachordschord built on 4th intervals hexachordschords built on 6th intervals Alban Bergan Austrian composer He was a member of the Second Viennese School with Arnold Schoenberg and Anton Webem and produced compositions that combined Mahlerian Romanticism with a personal adaptation of Schoenberg39s twelvetone technigue Wozzeckthe first 91m by the Austrian composer Alban Berg Georg BuchnerGerman dramatist and writer of poetry and prose librettist for wozzeck Lyric SuitesiXmovement work for string quartet written by Alban Berg Lulu Anton Webernan Austrian composer and conductor He was a member of the Second Viennese School As a student significant follower of and in uence on Arnold Schoenberg he became one of the bestknown exponents of the twelvetone technique Symphony op 21 klangfarbenmelodie Klangfarbenmelodietone color melodya musical technique that involves splitting a musical line or melody between several instruments rather than assigning it to just one instrument or set of instruments thereby adding color timbre and texture to the melodic line Igor Stravinskywas a Russian composer pianist and conductor Stravinsky39s compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev and first performed in Paris by Diaghilev39s Ballets Russes The F irebird 1910 Petrushka 1911 and The Rite ofSDring 1913 Sergei Diaghilevproducer bringing together choreographers dancers and composers Ballets Russes F irebird Petrushka The Rite of Spring L histoire du soldat Octet for winds Oedipus rex Symphony of Psalms Agona ballet for twelve dancers with music by Igor Stravinsky and choreography by George Balanchine George Balanchinewas one of the 20th century39s most prolific choreOgranhers Styled as the father of American ballet he took the standards and technique from his education at the Imperial Ballet School and fused it with other schools of movement that he had adopted during his tenure as a guest choreographer on Broadway and in Hollywood creating his signature quotneoclassical stylequot Neoclassicismwas a twentiethcentury trend particularly current in the period between the two World Wars in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of quotclassicismquot namely order balance clarity economy and emotional restraint The Rake s Progress Epithaphium Poetics of Music Bela Bartok a Hungarian composer and pianist He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century he and M are regarded as Hungary39s greatest COIIlpOSCl39S Zoltan KodalyHungarian composer ethnomusicologist pedagogue linguist and philosopher He is best known internationally as the creator of the KodalV Method Hairy JcinosHungarian folk opera that is a spoken play with songs in the manner of a Sin gspiel in four acts by Zoltan Kodaly to a Hungarian libretto by Bela Paulini 1881 1945 and Zsolt Harsanvi based on the comic epic The Veteran Az obsitos by Janos Gar y Bluebeard s Castleoneact opera by Hungarian composer Bela Bartok The Miraculous Mandarinact pantomime ballet composed by Bela Bartok between 1918 1924 and based on the story by Melchior Lengyel Concerto for Orchestraby bartok Music for Strings Percussion and Celestaby bartok M ikrokosmosbartok The In uence of Peasant Music on Modern Music essay by Bartok on contemporary music The Fibonacci Series golden meantwo quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities parlandorubatofree speaking rhythm style Charles Ivesan American modernist composer He is one of the first American composers of international renown though his music was largely ignored during his life and many of his works went unperformed for many years Polytonalityis the musical use of more than one key simultaneously Concord Sonata Essays Before a Sonata Holidays Symphony Three Places in New England The Unanswered Question Cumulative formparaphrases melodies so that they will work well in composition form used by Charles Ives and others in which the principal theme appears in its entirety only at the end of a work preceded by its development second symphony 114 Songs General William Booth Enters into Heaven Vachel Lindsay librettist Vachel Lindsayan American poet He is considered a founder of modern singing poetry as he referred to it in which verses are meant to be sung or chanted Chapter 33 James J oycewas an Irish novelist and poet considered being one of the most in uential writers in the modernist avantgarde of the early 20th century Bertolt BrechtGerman MarxistDoet Dlavwright and theatre director A theatre practitioner of the 20th century Brecht made contributions to dramaturgy and theatrical production the latter through the tours undertaken by the Berliner Ensemble the postwar theatre company operated by Brecht and his wife longtime collaborator and actress Helene Weigel Frank Lloyd Wrightwas an American architect interior designer writer and educator who designed more than 1000 structures 532 of which were completed Wright believed in designing structures that were in harmony with humanity and its environment a philosophy he called organic architecture Diego Riveraa prominent Mexican painter and the husband of Frida Kahlo His large wall works in fresco helped establish the Mexican Mural Movement in Mexican art Sigmund Rombergan AustroHungarian composer who spent most of his adult life in the United States He is best known for his musicals and operettas particularly The Student Prince 1924 The Desert Song 1926 and The New Moon 1928 The Student Prince Jerome Keman American composer of musical theatre and popular music One of the most important American theatre composers of the early 20th century he wrote more than 700 songs used in over 100 stage works Show Boat Irving Berlinan American composer and lyricist of RussianJewish origin born in Tyumen Russian Empire Widely considered one of the greatest songwriters in American history his music forms a great part of the Great American Songbook Alexander s Ragtime Band Cole PorterAmerican composer and songwriter Anything Goes George Gershwinn American composer and pianist12 Gershwin39s compositions spanned both popular and classical genres and his most popular melodies are widely known Ira Gershwinan American lyricist who collaborated with his younger brother composer George Gershwin to create some of the most memorable songs of the 20th century Of Thee I Singa musical with a score by George Gershwin lyrics by Ira Gershwin and a book by George S Kaufman and Morrie Ryskind The musical lampoons American politics blue notessung or played at a slightly different pitch than standard Typically the alteration is a between a guartertone and a semitone but this varies among performers and genres twelvebar bluesa chromatic chord progression is a logical formula for m music without the dominant39s major minor seventh chord in C G7 the sequence does not accord with the m quotBquot relationship Instead it would be based mostly on a plagal cadence an IVI change in C FC The key is fully verified with the V7 G7 chord but only after going over the subdominant F and m C the chord progression meshes elements of major and minor The majorminor dominant seventh chords used on each degree alone seem to fall in some grey area between the strong content major m and the somber con icted minor chord The subdominant39s seventh chord is of note here because of its odd relationship with the tonic Bessie SmithSmith was the most popular female blues singer of the 1920s and 1930s She is often regarded as one of the greatest singers of her era and along with Louis Armstrong a major in uence on other j vocalists2 Back Water Blues New Orleans jazzcombined earlier brass band marches French Quadrilles biguine ragtime and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation Joe King OliverAmerican jazz cornet player and bandleader He was particularly recognized for his playing style and his pioneering use of mutes in jazz Louis Armstrongwas an American jazz trumpeter singer and an in uential figure in jazz music West End Blues rhythm sectiona group of musicians within an ensemble who provide the underlying rhythm and pulse of the accompaniment providing a rhythmic reference for the rest of the band scat singingimprovisation with wordless vocables nonsense syllables or without words at all Duke EllingtonAmerican composer pianist and bandleader of iazz orchestras He led his orchestra from 1923 until his death his career spanning over 50 years Swingwhen big band swing music was the most popular music in the United States Cotton Cluba New York City night club located first in the Harlem neighborhood on 142nd St amp Lenox Ave from 1923 to 1935m and then for a brief period from 1936 to 1940 in the midtown Theater District The club operated most notably during America39s Prohibition Era Cotton Tail duke ellington Billy Strayhorn American jazz composer pianist lyricist and arranger best known for his successful collaboration with bandleader and composer Duke Ellington lasting nearly three decades Contrafactis a musical composition consisting of a new melody overlaid on a familiar harmonic structure Contrafact can also be explained as the use of borrowed chord progressions diegetic musicsource musicFor instance if a character in the film is playing a piano or turns on a CD player the resulting sound is diegetic nondiegetic musicunderscoringOther examples of nondiegetic music are the music between scenes music bridge and music under scene dialogue underscoring music or 39mood39 music Other nondiegetic elements are the play credits certain types of spoken narration and sometimes a symbolical sound effect Alfred Newmanan American composer arranger and conductor of film music Wuthering Heightsnewman Walt Disneyan American business magnate cartoonist animator voice actor and m producer As a prominent figure within the American animation industry and throughout the world he is regarded as a cultural icon4 known for his in uence and contributions to entertainment during the 20th century Carl Stallingas an American composer and arranger for music in animated films He is most closely associated with the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts produced by Warner Bros where he averaged one complete score each week for 22 years Fresh Harea Warner Bros theatrical Merrie Melodies cartoon It was directed by Isadore quotFrizquot Freleng written by Michael Maltese and produced by Leon Schlesinger Chapter 34 Les Sixa name given to a group of six French composers who worked in Montparnasse The name inspired by Mily Balakirev39s The Five originates in critic Henri Collet39s 1920 article quotLes cinq Russes les six Francais et M Satiequot Arthur Honeggera Swiss composer who was born in France and lived a large part of his life in Paris He was a member of Les Six His most frequently performed work is probably the orchestral work Pacific 231 which was inspired by the sound of a m locomotive Darius Milhaudwas a French composer and teacher He was a member of Les S ix also known as The Group of S ix and one of the most prolific composers of the 20th century His compositions are in uenced by m and make use of polytonality Francis PoulencFrench composer and pianist Germaine TailleferreGermaine Tailleferre was a French composer and the only female member of the group of composers known as Les Six Georges AuricFrench composer born in Lodeve Herault He was considered one of M a group of artists informally associated with Jean Cocteau and Erik Satie Louis DureyFrench composer Jean Cocteauwas a French writer designer playwright artist and filmmaker Newlyweds on the Ei el Towera ballet to a libretto by Jean Cocteau choreography by Jean Borlin set by Irene Lagut costumes by Jean Hugo and music by five members of Les Six Georges Auric Arthur Honegger Darius Milhaud Francis Poulenc and Germaine Tailleferre Pacific 231Honegger King DavidHonegger Le boeufsur le toit Saudades do Brasil The Creation of the World Dialogues of the Carmelites Neue SachlichkeitNew Objectivityis a term used to characterize the attitude of public life in Weimar Germany as well as the art literature music and architecture created to adapt to it Ernst Krenek Jormy spielt aufis a Germanlanguage opera with words and music by Austrian composer Ernst Krenek about a jazz violinist The work typified the cultural freedom of the 39golden era39 of the Weimar Republic Kurt Weilla German composer active from the 1920s in his native country and in his later years in the United States Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagormya politicalsatirical opera composed by Kurt Weill to a German libretto by Bertolt Brecht The Threepermy OperaKurt Weill Lady in the DarkKurt Weill Paul Hindemitha German composer violist violinist teacher and conductor Gebrauchsmusika German term essentially meaning utility music for music that exists not only for its own sake but which was composed for some specific identifiable purpose Mathis der Maler opera by hindemith Matthias Griinewalda German Renaissance painter of religious works who ignored Renaissance classicism to continue the expressive and intense style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century Ludus tonalihindemith piano work Carl Orff 20th century german composer Carmina buranacantata by or socialist realisma style of realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in other socialist countries Socialist realism is a teleologically oriented style having as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism Sergey ProkofievUkrainianborn Russian composer pianist and conductor Romeo and Juliet Peter and the Wolf Alexander Nevsky Sergei Eisensteina Soviet Russian film director and film theorist a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage Lady Macbeth 0f the Mtsensk Districtopera by Shostakovich Chaos Instead of Music shostakovich when he was about halfway through work on the symphony Pravda printed an unsigned editorial entitled quotChaos Instead of Musicquot which singled out his internationally successful opera Ladv Macbeth ofMtsensk for particularly savage condemnation Heitor VillaLobosa Brazilian composer described as quotthe single most significant creative figure in 20thcentury Brazilian art musicquot Bachaianas brasileirasvilla lobos Carlos Chaveza Mexican composer conductor music theorist educator journalist and founder and director of the Mexican Svahonic Orchestra He was in uenced by native Mexican cultures S infom a IndiaChavez Silvestre Revueltasa Mexican composer of classical music a violinist and a conductor Sensemayaa poem by the Cuban poet Nicolas Guillen adapted as an orchestral work by the Mexican composer Silvestre Revueltas Nadia Boulangera French composer conductor and teacher who taught many of the leading composers and musicians of the 20th century as well as leading living composers and musicians She also performed as a pianist and organist Leopold Stokowskia British conductor of Polish and Irish descent One of the leading conductors of the early and mid20th Century he is best known for his long association with the Philadelphia Orchestra Serge KousseVitzkywas a Russianbom conductor composer and doublebassist known for his long tenure as music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1924 to 1949 Edgard VareseFrenchborn composer who spent the greater part of his career in the United StatesVarese39s music emphasizes timbre and rhythm and he coined the term quotorganized soundquot in reference to his own musical aesthetic Hyperprismwork for wind brass and percussion instruments by Edgard Varese Poeme electroniquevarese Henry Cowellan American composer music theorist pianist teacher publisher and impresario tone clustersa musical chord comprising at least three adjacent tones in a scale Prototypical tone clusters are based on the chromatic scale and are separated by semitones For instance three adjacent piano keys such as C C11 and D struck simultaneously The Aeolian Harpcowell The Bansheecowell New Musical Resources Ruth Crawfordmodernist composer active primarily during the 1920s and 30s and an American folk music specialist from the late 1930s until her death She was a prominent member of a group of American composers known as the quotultramodernsquot and her music in uenced later composers String Quartet 1931crawfordquotregarded as one of the finest modernist works of the genrequot Rhapsody in BlueGerswhin Concerto in F gerswhin American in ParisAmerican musical film inspired by the 1928 orchestral composition by George Gershwin Porgy and Bessopera by George Gershwin Aaron Coplandan American composer composition teacher writer and later in his career a conductor of his own and other American music El Salo n Me xico Billy the Kid R0de0ballet Appalachian Spring The Tender Land Inscape William Grant Stillan AfricanAmerican classical composer who wrote more than 150 compositions He was the first AfricanAmerican to conduct a major American symphony orchestra the first to have a symphony his first symphony performed by a leading orchestra the first to have an opera performed by a major opera company and the first to have an opera performed on national teleVision He is often referred to as quotthe Deanquot of AfricanAmerican composers AfroAmerican Symphonyby William Grant Still was the first symphony written by an African American and performed for a United States audience by a leading orchestra Virgil Thomson was an American composer and critic He was instrumental in the development of the quotAmerican Soundquot in classical music Four Saints in Three Acts The Mother of Us All
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