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Exam 2 Review - BIOL1320

by: Ailia Owen

Exam 2 Review - BIOL1320 BIOL 1320

Ailia Owen
GPA 2.9
General Biology
Brian C Mahon

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About this Document

Here are the notes for all chapters in exam 2. All the bolded areas are where you can find the information from the posted review from blackboard. Good luck :)
General Biology
Brian C Mahon
Study Guide
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ailia Owen on Monday March 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1320 at University of Houston taught by Brian C Mahon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 310 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at University of Houston.

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Date Created: 03/09/15
CH 21 Nutrition and Digestion 31015 1233 AM All animals must eat to provide 0 Energy 0 Building blocks to assemble new molecules 0 Essentials vitamins and minerals Humans Developed countries cheap calorie dense food short less active lives 0 Combined with sedentary jobs and inactivity leads to obesity US 68 of people are overweight 100 million obese OBTAINING AND PROCESSING FOOD 3 diets o Herbivores eat plants cattle snails sea urchins Longer digestive tract Specializations in the gut that promote growth of cellulose digesting bacteria and protists n Lack enzymes needed to digest cellulose in plants a Cecum coyote and koalas a Large intestine and cecum rabbits n Stomach ruminants cow sheep deer o Carnivores eat meat lions hawks spiders o Omnivores eat both plants and animals humans roaches raccoons crows Obtaining food 0 Suspension feeders sift small organismsfood particles from water 0 Substrate feeders live inon food and eat their way through it caterpillars o Fluid feeders suck nutrientrich fluids from living host mosquitos 0 Bulk feeders ingest large pieces of food pelican Processing food 0 Ingestion eating 0 Digestion breaking down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb Mechanical chewing Chemical hydrolysis n Protein gt protein digesting enzymes gt amino acids n Polydisaccharides gt Carbohydrate digesting enzymes gt monosaccharaides n Nucleic acid gt nucleicacid digesting enzymes gt nucleotides a Fat gt fat digesting enzymes gt Glycerol and fatty acids Compartments vacuole organelle in cell a Gastro vascular cavity one opening mouth to take in food and eliminate waste a Alimentary cavity mouth ingestion and anus elimination One way flow of food beginning to end 0 Pharynx throat o Esophagus down to Crop food softened and stored Gizzard food ground and stored Stomach food ground and stored o Intestines chemical and nutrient absorption 0 Anus undigested food expelled 0 Absorption take up products of digestion usually by cells lining digestive tract 0 Elimination removal of undigested materials out of digestive tract THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Length diet Herbivores and omnivores longer Carnivores shorter 0 Oral cavity ingested and chewed in the mouth 0 Mechanical chewing breaking up to swallow easier 0 Tongue tastes and pushes food to pharynx Bolus shaping of food into a ball 0 Teeth incisors canine premolars molars wisdom o Salivary glands Glycoprotein moistens and lubricates food Buffers neutralize acids Salivary amylase begins enzymatic hydrolysis of starch Antibacterial agents kill bacteria in food Pharynx throat air moves to o Larynx gt past vocal cords in voice box gt trachea gt lungs o Epiglottis small flap tip of larynx prevents food from getting into trachea windpipe Esophagus o Swallowing reflex Starting Epiglottis up larynx down Esophageal sphincter contracted Swallowing Epiglottis down larynx up esophageal sphincter relaxed Completed Epiglottis up larynx down Esophageal sphincter contracted o Peristalsis waves of contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle along walls to push food down 0 Stomach can stretch and store up to 2L of foodliquid o Sphincters how food enters and exits rings of muscle that cinch between compartments 0 Lumen cavity 0 Chemical digestion Gastric juice El El El Mucus Proteindigesting enzyme pepsinogen Strong acid HCL pH of 2 kills bacteria breaks food cells denatures proteins Gastric gland top to bottom El El El El El Pit opening in interior surface Epithelium Mucous cells Chief cells releases pepsinogen Parietal cells releases HCL HCL Pepsinogen Pepsin active enzyme El El El Secreted into lumen Chain reaction pepsin activates release of pepsinogen Pepsin begins chemical digestion o Preventing stomach lining Pepsin inactive form protects Mucus protects against HCL and pepsin New cells every 3 days 0 Ailments Acid reflux chyme comes up into esophagus Gastroesophageal reflux GERD frequent severe acid reflux Ulcers sores in stomach lining Bacterial infection Helicobacter pylori can produce ulcers 0 Small intestine final steps of digestion and absorption Named for small diameter 6 meters long Surface area increased by folds in lining villi microvilli projections on surface of intestinal cells Duodenum first 25 cm chyme squirts from stomach mixing with digestive juices from Pancreas pancreatic juice mix of digestive enzymes and an alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate Liver produces bile breaks up fat into small droplets making them more susceptible to attack by digestive enzymes n Hepatic portal vein blood from digestive tract drains to liver n Converts glucose in blood to glycogen stores and releases back to blood a Synthesizes proteins bloodclotting and lipoproteins transport fat and cholesterol to body cells n Modifies substances in digestive tract to less toxic forms Gallbladder stores bile Intestine wall produces digestive enzymes Enzyme digestion Carbs Polysaccharides gt pancreatic amylase gt Maltose other disaccharides gt Maltase sucrase lactase gt Monosaccharaides Proteins Polypeptides gt trypsin chymotrypsin gt smaller polypeptides gt various peptidases gt amino acids Nucleic acids DNA amp RNA gt Nucleases gt Nucleotides gt other enzymes gt Nitrogenous bases sugars phosphates Fat Fat globules gt bile salts gt fat droplets emulsified gt lipase gt Fatty acids and glycerol Absorption Nutrients pass into epithelial cells by diffusion and against concentration gradients Fatty acids and glycerol recombined into fats coated with proteins and transported to lymph vessels Amino acids and sugars out of intestinal epithelium gt across capillaries into blood gt to liver Large intestine colon undigested food 15 m long 5cm diameter 0 Cecum pouch nearjunction with small intestine Appendix fingerlike extension 0 Contains E coli produce important vitamins Absorbs vitamins and water into blood 0 Diarrhea too little water reclaimed from LI 0 Constipation too much water reclaimed from LI 0 Rectum feces stored Anus feces expelled O Heimlich maneuver Forceful elevation of the diaphragm Pushing air into trachea Dislodges food from tracheapharynx Brain damage in minutes of restricted airways NUTRITION All animals have similar nutritional needs 0 Fuel to power all body activities 0 Organic molecules to build animal s own molecules 0 Essential nutrientssubstances the animal cannot make for itself 0 Cellular respiration produces the body s energy currency ATP 0 Oxidizing organic molecules from food 0 Carbsfat fuel 0 Gram of fat more then 2X calories as gram of carbprotein Kilocalories 1000 calories energy content measurement of food 0 Dietary calories are kCal written as cal 0 Metabolic rate rate of energy consumption 0 The sum of all energyrequiring biochemical reactions over a given period of time o BMR energy for physical activity 0 Excess energy stored as glycogenfat Basal Metabolic Rate BMR required resting energy 0 Essential nutrients cannot be made from any raw material 0 Essential fatty acids linoleic acid Make phospholipids of cell membranes Seeds grain vegetables 0 Essential amino acids Make proteins o Vitamins organic nutrients Meats eggs milk Water soluble Blthiamine Pork legumes whole grains peanuts Remove C02 from organic compounds Beriberi tingling poor coordination reduced heart function BZriboflavin Dairy meats grains Component of FAD Skin lesions 33niacin Nuts meats grains Component of NAD and NADP Skin and gastro lesions delusions confusion BSpantothenic acid Meats dairy whole grains fruits vegies Component of A Fatigue numbness tingling handsfeet B6pyridoxine Meats vegies whole grains Coenzyme in amino acid metabolism Irritability convulsions muscular twitch anemia B7biotin Legu mes vegies meats Synthesis of fat glycogen amino Scaly skin neuromuscular disorders acids 39folic acid Green vegies oranges nuts legumes Nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism Anemia birth defects BlZcobalamine Meats eggs dairy Production of nucleic acid and Anemia numbness balance loss RBC BlSascorbic acid Citrus fruit broccoli Collagen Scurvy delay wound synthesis healing antioxidant Fat soluble A D E K A retinol Dark greenorange veggies Visual pigments maintain Blindness skin fruits dairy epithelia tissue disorder impaired immunity D Dairy egg yolk Absorption and use of Rickets children calcium and phosphorus bone softening aduks E tocopherol Vegie oil nuts seeds Antioxidant prevent cell membrane damage Nervous system degradation Green vegies tea colon bacteria Blood clotting Defective blood clotting Minerals simple inorganic nutrients Calcium and phosphorus required in large amounts Iron hemoglobin Iodine thyroid hormone Most ingest more salt then needed 0 Vitamins and minerals Required in minute amounts Essential to good health Overdoses can be harmful n Excess WS eliminated in urine n Excess FS accumulate to toxic levels 0 Cholesterol 0 Lowdensity lipoproteins LDL contribute to Blocked blood vessels High blood pressure Trans fat increase levels Consuming mainly unsaturated fats lower levels 0 Highdensity lipoproteins HDL help reduce blocked blood vessels Exercise increases levels Smoking decreases levels 0 Malnutrition chronic deficiency in calories or 1 essential nutrients 0 Protein deficiency most common 0 Occurs when Diets do not supply enough chemical energy Someone suffers from anorexia nervosabulimia 0 Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA 0 Minimum amounts of nutrients that are needed each day 0 Determined by national scientific panel Epidemiology study of human health within a population 0 Sailors need for Vitamin C o Newborns folic acid to prevent neural tube defect in women in low socioeconomical status 0 Food labels indicate 0 Serving size 0 Caloriesserving 0 Amounts of selected nutrientsserving as daily values 0 Recommendations for daily limits of selected nutrients Overnutirition more food for energy consumed then needed 0 Obesity excess accumulation of fat World Health Organization obesity major health problem Why a Lack of exercise a Amount and quality of food Leads to a Type 2 diabetes a Cancer colon breasts n Cardiovascular disease 0 US 30 obese 35 overweight Adolescents 15 obese 17 overweight 300000 deathsyear obesity surpasses smoking in contribution to disease and shortening of life spans market for weight loss a 1999 60 million a today 48 billion 0 Leptin weight control Produced in fat cells Suppresses appetite Obese children with mutated leptin gene lose weight after leptin treatment High levels of healthy people do not suppress appetite CH 22 Gas Exchange 31015 1233 AM MECHANISMS OF GAS EXCHANGE 0 Gas exchange respiration requires continuous exchange 0 Interchange of 02 and C02 between and organism and its environment 0 3 phases 0 breathing 0 transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood 0 exchange gases with body cells body tissues take up oxygen release carbon dioxide 0 Respiratory surfaces must be 0 Moist and thin for diffusion of 02 and C02 0 Skin may be used for gas exchange in animals that are Wet and small earthworms Specialized body parts for gas exchange 0 Gills fish Extension of the body Increase surface to volume ratio Increase surface area for gas exchange a 02 absorbed a C02 released Ventilation of gills Countercurrent flow of water and blood Gas exchange with water has its limits a Water holds about 3 oxygen in air a Cold water has more 02 then warm water a Fresh water has more 02 then salt water a Turbulent water has more 02 then still water Air breathing compared to water 2 advantages Higher concentration of 02 Lighter and easier to move 0 Tracheal systems arthropods Tiny branching tubes n Reduce water loss a Pipe air directly to cells 0 Lungs amphibians reptiles mammals tetrapods that live on land evolved in shallow water a fossil fish with legs had lungs and gills 0 legs to lift up and gulp air a Tiktaalik fossil fish 0 375 million years ago 0 shows air breathing adaptations a First tetrapods diverged into 3 lineages Amphibians use lungs and body surfaces Nonbird reptiles lower metabolic rates and simpler lungs Birds and mammals higher metabolic rates and complex lungs HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS Diaphragm separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity and helps ventilate the lungs 0 Breathing alternate inhalation and exhalation of air ventilation o Inhalation negative pressure breathing pressure in alveoli is below atmospheric pressure Rib cage expands Diaphragm moves down Pressure around lungs decreases Air drawn into respiratory tract 0 Exhalation Rib cage contracts Diaphragm moves up Pressure around lungs increases Air forced out of respiratory tract Not all air is expelled in exhalation a Air remains in trachea bronchi bronchioles and alveoli n Inhalation mixes fresh air with dead only 25 of 02 is retained 0 One way flow of air in birds Reduces dead air Increases ability to obtain oxygen 0 Automatic Breathing control centers in brain medulla oblongata sense and response to rising C02 levels higher COZ means less oxygen In Brains nerve signals trigger contraction of rib muscles and diaphragm gt Breathing control center responds to the pH of blood and cerebrospinal fluid gt Nerve signals indicate C02 and OZ levels in aorta and carotid artery A drop in blood pH increases the rate and depth of breathing Flow of air 0 Nostrils gt nasal cavity gt pharynx gt larynx past vocal cords gt trachea held open by cartilage rings gt paired bronchi gt bronchioles gt alveoli grapelike air sacs where gas exchange occurs Nasal cavity air inhaled 0 Air filtered by hairs and mucus surfaces 0 Warmed and humidified o Sampled for odors Alveoli high surface area of capillaries 0 OZ diffuses into blood 0 C02 diffuses out of blood Surfactants specialized secretions required to keep the walls of the small alveoli from sticking shut 0 Babies born 6 weeks early respiratory distress syndrome due to inadequate amount of lung surfactant Artificial surfactant given to preterm infants Fetus does not breathe through lungs exchanges gases with maternal blood and placenta capillaries in fetal blood run past maternal blood DO NOT SHARE SAME BLOOD n Fetal hemoglobin Attracts OZ more strongly than adult 0 Take oxygen from maternal blood a At birth C02 in fetal blood increases breathing control center initiates breathing I Smoking during pregnancy reduces supply of oxygen by up to 25 0 Exposure to pollutants can cause irritation and inflammation of the lungs 0 Air pollution 0 Tobacco smoke one of the worst lungdamaging air pollutants 4000 chemicals Without healthy cilia smokers cough to remove mucus Can cause u Lung cancer 90 of all n Cardiovascular disease a Emphysema Increase risk of heart attack and stroke Raises BP Increases harmful cholesterols Every year in US a Kills 440000 people a More then deaths from accidents alcohol drug abuse HIV and murders combined Shortens life by 1314 years 0 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD can result Limiting lung ventilation and gas exchange Mucus and cilia in respiratory passages o Sweep contaminant laden mucus up and out of airways 0 Can be damaged by smoking TRANSPORT OF GASES IN THE HUMAN BODY 0 Heart pumps blood in 2 regions 0 Right side oxygen poor blood to lungs 0 Left side oxygen rich blood to body Lungs OZ picked up COZ dropped off 0 Body tissue Drops OZ and picks up COZ Mixture of gases air exerts pressure 0 Partial pressure individual gas each gas in a mixture accounts for a portion of the total pressure Exchange of gases between capillaries and surrounding cells is based on partial pressure Molecules of each kind of gas diffuse down a gradient of its own partial pressure moving from regions of a Higher PP to lower PP Gases in alveoli in lungs have more 02 and less C02 then gases in blood 0 02 moves from alveoli to blood 0 C02 moves from blood to alveoli Tissues have more C02 and less 02 then gases in the blood 0 02 moves from blood to tissues 0 C02 moves from tissues to blood 0 Respiratory pigments proteins in blood 02 binds to 0 Blue copper containing pigments mollusks and arthropods 0 Red iron containing hemoglobin 4 polypeptides heme group can hold 4 irons Used by all invertebrates and vertebrates Transports 02 and C02 buffers blood a Most C02 enters RBC some binds to hemoglobin D Other reacts with water forms carbonic acid which breaks into Hydrogen ions Bicarbonate ions reversible reaction Hemoglobin binds most of the H produced by this reaction minimizing blood pH C02 H20 ltgt H2CO3 carbonic acid ltgt H hydrogen ions HCO3 bicarbonate CH 23 Circulation 31015 1233 AM In animals gravity influences the flow of blood through the body Regulate BP in head of giraffe 0 Special valves Saclike sinuses Humans one way valves in veins to prevent blood from flowing backward to legs CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS facilitate exchanges o All cells must 0 Receive nutrients 0 Exchange gases 0 Remove wastes Diffusion only inadequate for large bodies 0 Internal transport system assists diffusion by moving materials between 0 Surfaces 0 Internal tissues 0 Gastrovascular cavities cnidarians and flatworms 0 Promote digestion o Distributes substances 0 True circulatory system most animals 0 Circulatory fluid blood 0 Muscular pump heart 0 Tubes blood vessels to carry fluid 0 Open circulatory system arthropods and molluscs 0 Heart 0 Open end vessels 0 Blood as interstitial fluid direct to cells 0 Closed circulatory systems vertebrates squids octopus 0 Heart 0 Vessels confine blood distinct from interstitial fluid 0 Cardiovascular system vertebrate circulatory system 0 Arteries away from heart 0 Veins to heart 0 Capillaries blood from veins to arteries 0 2 chamber heart fish Atrium receive blood Ventricle pumps blood to gills by large arteries that branch to n Smaller Arterioles gt Capillaries smallest blood vessels gt capillary beds a Larger Capillaries gt venules gt larger veins 0 Double circulation land vertebrate Pulmonary circuit System circuit 0 3 chamber hearts amphibians turtles snakes separates oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood 2 atria 1 ventricle o 4 chamber hearts mammals 2 atria 2 ventricle 2 circuits do not mix oxygen poor and rich blood THE HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AND HEART Heart chambers are labeled according to organisms perspective looking at heart Left and Right are switched 0 Double circulatory system blood flow 0 Superior vena cava drains from head and arms 0 Inferior vena cava drains from legs and lower trunk To right atrium 0 Pulmonary artery out of lungs o Aorta leaves heart 0 Blood flow 1 Right ventricle 2 pulmonary artery 3 capillaries of lungs 4 pulmonary vein 5 left atrium 6 left ventricle 7 aorta 8 body capillaries 9 Superior and Inferior vena cava o 10 right atrium 0 Cardiac cycle contraction and relaxation of pumping blood 72 BPM o Diastole blood flows from veins to heart chambers Heart relaxed I Semilunar valves are closed a AV valves are open 0 Systole blood flows from atria to ventricles OOOOOOOOO Atria contract Ventricles contract a Semilunar valves open a AV valves closed Cardiac output amount of blood pumped per minute from ventricles Heart rate HR number of BPM heartbeats per minute Heart valves prevent back flow of blood Heart murmur defect in 1 hear valves Permits backflow Reduces cardiac output 0 SA node sinoatrial pacemaker 0 Electrical signals to atria 0 Sets rate of heart contractions AV node atrioventricular o Relays signals to ventricles o Ventricular contraction ECG electrocardiogram records electrical changes in the heart 0 HR adjusts to body needs 0 Abnormal heart attack 0 Automatic external defibrillators AEDs Shock heart Reset SA node Save lives 0 Heart attack damagedeath of cardiac muscle 0 Usually from blocked coronary artery 0 Cardiovascular disease disorders of the heart and blood vessels 0 Stroke death of brain tissue from blockedruptured arteries in head 0 Atherosclerosis fatty deposits in the walls of arteries narrow blood vessels and restrict blood flow OOOO STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BLOOD VESSELS Capillaries thin walls of single layer epithelial cells 0 Narrow one blood cell wide 0 Increase surface area for gas and fluid exchange with interstitial fluid Diffusion Pressure driven flow between epithelial cells 0 Precapillary sphincter blood flow restriction Opening and closing can increase or decrease blood flow to certain areas 510 of capillaries are open at one time 0 BP forces fluid out of capillaries at the arterial end 0 Osmotic pressure draws in fluid at venous end 0 Arteries and veins lined with single layer epithelial cells 0 Elastic fibers in outer connective tissues allow vessels to recoil after stretching o Arteries thick layer of smooth muscle in the walls that can constrict and reduce blood flow 0 Veins oneway valves restrict back flow of blood 0 Blood pressure BP force blood exerts on vessel walls 0 Depends on cardiac output and resistance of vessels to expansion Decreases as blood moves away from the heart Systolic pressurediastolic pressure 12070 less than 80 Highest in arteries Lowest in veins Measured by sphygmomanometer Hypertension consistently high BP 14090 Heart has to work harder Increased plaque formation Rick of blood clots Contributes to a Heart attacks stroke kidney failure 0 Against gravity 0 Veins squeezed by pressure from muscle contractions between 2 muscles muscle and boneskin o 1 way valves blood flow to heart OOOOOO STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BLOOD Plasma fluid cells are suspended in 55 of blood 0 90 water solvent for carrying other substances 0 Ions blood electrolytes Sodium potassium calcium magnesium chloride bicarbonate Osmotic balance pH buffering maintaining ion balance of interstitial fluid 0 Plasma proteins osmotic balance and pH balance Fibrinogen clotting Immunoglobins antibodies defense 0 Substances transported by blood Nutrients Waste products of metabolism Respiratory gases Hormones Cellular Elements 45 of blood 0 Red blood cells erythrocytes 56 million Transport 02 and some C02 bound to hemoglobin 0 White blood cells leukocytes 510 thousand defense and immunity Function in and out of circulatory system Fight infection and cancer Basophils Eosinophils lymphocytes Neutrophils monocytes called phagocytes engulf and digest bacteria and debris from our own dead cells 0 Platelets 250400 thousand blood clotting Anemia causes fatigue due to lack of oxygen in tissues 0 low amounts of hemoglobin RBC Erythropoietin EPO hormone that regulates RBC production 0 Athletes artificially increase RBC production by Training at high altitudes Injecting EPO Withdrawing storing and reinjecting RBC before competition Can lead to stroke clotting heart failure or death 0 Blood vessel damaged 0 Platelets attach to exposed connective tissue Cluster forms a plug 0 Clotting factors released from platelets and in plasma trigger conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin threadlike protein that helps form a clot Within an hour fibrin clots form gt platelets contract pulling torn edges closer together Chemicals released by platelets also stimulate cell division in smooth muscle and connective tissue healing Multipotent stem cells are unspecialized and replace themselves throughout the life of an organism in bone marrow Lymphoid stem cells can produce 2 types of lymphocytes immune system 0 Myeloid stem cells differentiate into 0 Erythrocytes o Other WBC o Platelets Leukemia 0 Cancer of WBC 0 Extra leukocytes that do not function properly 0 Fatal unless treated by Radiation Chemo Replace cancerous bone marrow with healthy Ch 25 Control of Body Temp and Water Balance31015 1233 Bears in hibernation Physiological processes aid in homeostasis keeping body temperature about 5 C below normal 0 Body fat and fur insulation 0 Blood flow to extremities is reduced Nitrogencontaining wastes are metabolized differently Homeostasis maintenance of steady internal conditions despite fluctuations in the external environment 0 Thermoregulation maintenance of internal temperature within normal limits tolerable range 0 Ectothermic get body heat from outside sources Fish amphibians lizards and most invertebrates o Endothermic get body heat from metabolism Birds mammals insects 0 Heat exchange with the environment Conduction transfer of heat by direct contact cold seat Convection transfer of heat by movement of airliquid past a surface wind Radiation the emission of electromagnetic waves sun Evaporation loss of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as a gas 0 5 adaptations Increased metabolic heat production hormonal changes boost metabolic rate birdsmammals n Shivering Bees cluster and shiver n Increase physical activity Insulation hair feathers fat layers Circulatory adaptations increaseddecreased blood flow to skin a Countercurrent heat exchange warm arteries from core and cold blood veins to core flowing in opposite directions Evaporative cooling sweating panting spreading fluids on body surfaces Behavioral responses moving into sunshade migration bathing n Endotherms and ectotherms Osmoregulation control of the gain and loss of water and solutes o Osmoconformers body fluid with a solute concentration equal to seawater No challenge in water balance invertebrate marine life 0 Osmoregulators body fluid with a solute concentration that differs from the environment Actively regulate water movement land mammals humans 7580 water a face dehydration I lose water by evaporation and waste disposal a gain water by drinkingeating n conserve water reproduction and behavior adaptations waterproof skin and effective kidneys freshwater fish a gain water by osmosis through gills I lose salt by diffusion u take in salt by gills and food a excrete excess water by dilute urine Seawater fish n Lose water by osmosis from gills and body surface a Drink seawater I Use gills and kidneys to excrete excess salt sharks Excretion disposal of nitrogencontaining wastes animals dispose of wastes in different ways 0 Metabolism produces toxic byproducts o Nitrogen wastes toxic breakdown products of proteins and nucleic acids 0 Ammonia NH3 poisonous too toxic to be stored in body soluble in water easily disposed of by aquatic animals o Urea produced in vertebrate liver combining ammonia and C02 less toxic easier to store highly water soluble o Uric Acid relatively nontoxic insoluble in water uses a lot of energy to produce excreted by some land animals as a semisolid paste to conserve water a insects land snails many reptiles Proteins gt Amino acids Nitrogen bases lt Nucleic acid NH2 amino groups Most aquatic animals Mammals sharks Birds reptiles most bony fish amphibians insects land snails some bony fish Ammonia Uric acid Urea Urinary system many roles in homeostasis Forms and excretes urine Regulates water and solutes in body fluid Aorta Inferior vena cava 0 Renal artery 0 Renal vein Kidneys main processing centers 0 Nephrons functional units of kidneys Extract filtrate from blood Refine filtrate to produce urine Orientation of n Renal cortex outer Bowman s capsule filtration occurs Tubule exchange of solutes 0 Renal artery n Renal medulla inner get water back 0 Collecting duct to renal pelvis 0 Renal vein a Renal pelvis o Urine travels through Ureters drain from kidneys Urinary bladder stores Urethra expels from body 0 Failure from hypertension diabetes and prolonged use of common drugs alcohol Dialysis machine artificial kidney removes waste from blood and maintains solute concentration Filtration blood pressure forcer water and many small molecules through capiary wall into the start of the kidney tubule Reabsorption refines filtrate o Reclaims valuable solutes glucose salt amino acids Returns to blood 0 Proximal and distal tubes removes Nutrients salt water 0 High NaCI in medua promotes reabsorption of water 0 Secretion substances in the blood are transported into the filtrate Excretion urine final product expelled from body 0 pH balance 0 reabsorb HCO3 o secretes H ADH antidiuretic hormone regulates the amount of water excreted by kidneys by o Signaling nephrons to reabsorb water from the filtrate returning it to blood 0 Decreases amount of water excreted Diuretics inhibit release of ADH alcohol caffeine


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