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DNA replication Study guide

by: Kaitlyn Mukai

DNA replication Study guide Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Kaitlyn Mukai

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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Mukai on Tuesday March 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.

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Date Created: 03/10/15
Section 3 DNA replication Reading Chapter 13 concepts 131 133 Basic Key Concepts 0 Describe the structure and basepairing of DNA 0 Purine A G o P rimidine C T O property shared between two DNARNA sequences antiparellel to each other C paired with G A paired with T purine w pyrimidine O Nitrogenous bases connected by hydrogen bonds 0 Have sugarphos hate backbones connected I linkage between the 339 carbon atom of one sugar molecule and the 539 carbon atom of another Strong covalent bonds form between the phosphate group and two pentoses over two ester bonds 0 Identify and describe the functions of the enzymes used for DNA replication 0 enz me that synthesizes short RNA sequences called primers 0 l Finds primer read template and build new strand Synthesize DNA only in 5 gt 3 direction Extend primers build okazaki fragment on lagging strand 0 I Remove primers and replace with DNA nucleotides mostly on lagging strand bc lot of primers 0 join fragments together 0 unzips helix 0 Summarize the basic mechanism of DNA replication 0 Open up helix copy of each strand using complementary base pairing and H bonding I Produces 2 new double helices each is a hybrid of one new and one old strand 0 Semiconservative replication each strand in a double helix serves as a template 0 Summarize the difference between leading strand synthesis and lagging strand synthesis 0 continuous synthesizing O Makes pieces that are stitched together I Continual rimase activity primers for each fragmen I short newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication 0 Describe the function of the primer in DNA replication 0 DNA polymerase cannot initiate replication wo a primer I Primer short preexisting double stranded sequence of template 0 RNA polymerase can initiate synthesis DNA synthesis uses RNA polymerase to start 0 Consequence newly synthesized DNA has RNA at the start primer is removed and replaced later 0 Characterize DNA proofreading and repair mechanisms 0 enz me ca able of cleaving phosphodiester bonds hydrolyze them 0 3 gt 5 if wrong base inserted by polymerase can t pair w other strand removes wrong base and occurs as new strand is being synthesized DNA polymerase III 0 5 gt 3 nuclease I Removes and replaces damaged nucleotides I Fixes errors missed by proofreading I Removes RNA rimer se ments re laces w DNA nucleotides DNA polymerase I 0 Name the three steps in the p 0 Identify piece of DNA want to copy increase temperature to about 90 C break hydrogen bonds to separate two strands of DNA 0 Lower temp 55 C so primers can nd part of DNA that it matches 0 Raise temp 72 Cso enzymes work the best enzyme do job Advanced Key Concepts 0 Predict lossoffunction consequences for enzymes used in DNA replication 0 Explain the importance of complementarity to DNA replication 0 Summarize the directionality of polymerase and nuclease activities 0 DNA polymerase builds in the 5 to 3 direction 0 Nuclease proofreads in the opposite direction I The mismatch and excision repair work in the direction DNA synthesized 0 Describe the energetics of DNA replication 0 Relate the impact the nuclease function of DNA polymerase to replication accuracy and DNA repair 0 Checks on accuracy of base pairing I Selecting correct base I Removal of incorrectly paired nucleotide by the proofreading activity I Postreplication DNA mismatch repair I Error rate l in a billion nucleotides 0 Detail the polymerase chain reaction PCR and describe what it is used for 0 Needs to be supplied with one enzyme nucleotides and primers 0 Only one copy is made during DNA replication 0 Can cycle over and over has 3 stages 0 Used to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence 0 Mimic DNA replication in the lab 0 Be able categorize the cause of a mutation given a new example describe the consequence of the mutation O Consequence of chromosomal mutations are hard to predict I May depend on where chromosomes are broken and rearranged I Deletion repeats a segment I Inversion segment reverses orientations win a chromosome I Translocation move from one chromosome to another 0 Identify types of bases substitutions and predict the type substitution given nucleotide sequences 0 Singlebase substitutions O Deletion insertion of singlecouple bases I Base substitutions O O purine to purine A ltgt G or pyrimidine to pyrimidine CltgtT purine to pyrimidine or pyrimidine to purine Vocabula 0 enzymes that regulate the overwinding or underwinding of DNA 0 organize enzymes so they work ef ciently 0 Area where helix is open and synthesis is active 0 Contains all necessary components for replication of DNA 0 Happens because helicase unzips the helix 0 chromosome caps Don t contain any genes Contain repetitive DNA sequence Protect chromosomes from deterioration and fusion w other chromosomes They shorten with every DNA replication event in most cells Can t be fully extended by regular DNA replicating enzymes Telomere shortening will tell a cell to stop dividing Hay ick limit and cell senescence living but refuse to divide o maintains and lengthens telomeres in stem cells and germline cells Defective cell cycle checkpoints prevents senescenceapoptisis can maintain telomeres but is inactive in most cells Part RNApart protein RNA of telomerase acts as a builtin template Template overlapsbinds with last four 3 nucleotides of telomere adds 6 nucleotides to extend Realign at the new 3 end and repeat 0 physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material usually DNA of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level 00000 00000


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