Study Guide Exam 3
Study Guide Exam 3 PSY-P 102
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniel Kahn on Tuesday March 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P 102 at Indiana University taught by Jim Cuellar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 327 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/10/15
Study Guide Exam 3 Social Psychology Introduction 0 Sense of self unique sense of identity include but social cultural and psychological expenences 0 Three key research areas 0 0 social cognition refers to how we from impressions of other people how we interpret the meaning of other people s behavior and how other behavior is affected by our attitudes social influence focuses on how our behavior is affected by other people and by situational factors social behavior focuses on how we relate and communicate with each other Social Cognition 0 mental processes that people use to make sense of out their social environment 0 person perceptions O 0 mental process we use to for judgments about other people we can judge a person attractiveness likeabliity competence trustworthiness aggressiveness in about 110th of a second 0 social categorization O O O conscious processes explicit cognition deliberate conscious mental process involved in perceptions judgments decisions and reasoning unconscious or automatic processes implicit cognition automatic non conscious mental processes that influence perceptions judgements decisions and reasoning assumption that people share traits and behaviors implicit personality theory network of assumption or beliefs about relationship among various types of people traits and behaviors leads to use of cognitive schemas 0 One Schema Attractiveness 0 what is beautiful is goodquot 0 attractive people are perceived as more intelligent happier and better adjusted o attractive people also tend to be higher in self esteem intelligence and other desirable personality traits than people of more average appearance beginning in infancy and continuing throughout their lives attractive people receive more attention and more favorable treatment form other people such as parents teachers employers and peers Brain Reward when Making Eye Contact with Attractive People direct eye contract with a psychically attractive person activates ventral striatum ventral stratum is a brain area that predicts rewards orbital frontal cortex nucleus accumbens and amygdala are all selectively responsive to the reward value of attractive faces 0 Attribution Theory 0 process of inferring the causes of people s behavior including one s own 0 the explanation given for a partials behavior 0 helps psychologically insulate us from the uncomfortable thought it could have just as easily been mequot c we explain others or our own behavior by crediting the situation situational attribution persons disposition o Causal Attributions things that cause people to behave a certain way in that situation 0 Internal Attribution the interference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person such as attitude character or personality 0 External Attribution the interference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation is causing the behavior 0 Fundamental Attribution Error when trying to understand the case of someone s current behavior we ten to overestimate the influence of personal traits underestimate the influence of the situation Common Attributional Biases and Explanatory Patterns fundamental attribution error blaming the victim hindsight bias self serving bias self efficacy of modesty bias The Actor Observer Effect most commonly this means overestimating the influence of person traits when explaining the behavior of others and yes when explain our own behavior particularly our failures and problematic actions to overestimate the influence of the situation The Social Psychology of Attitudes o attitude learned tendency to evaluate object people or issues in a particular way 0 has three components 0 Cognitive thoughts and conclusions about given topic of situation 0 Affective feelings or emotions about topic 0 Behavioral your actions regarding the topic or situation 0 effects of attitudes on behavior 0 you re most likely to behave in accordance with your attitudes when you anticipate a favorable outcome or response from others for behaving that way your attitudes are extreme or are frequently expressed your attitudes have been form thought direct experience you are very knowledgeable about the subject you have a vested interest in the subject and personally stand or gain or lose something on a specific issue Where do attitudes originate 0 Genetic Component twin studies related to temperament and personality 0 Social Experience observational learning television influential people religion etc 0 some attitudes are more cognitive affective or behavioral o Operant and Classical Conditioning Explicit Atitudes o attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report lmplicit Attitudes o attitudes that are involuntary uncontrollable and at times unconscious o lmplicit Association Test the lAT is a measurement of one s implicit hidden or automatic attitudes Interpersonal Attraction and Liking 0 what makes one more attractive personal characteristics such as warmth trustworthiness adventurousness and social status physical appearance especially facial features most significant factor in attraction o Interpersonal aspects of attractiveness people whom we perceive as being like us more familiar birds of a feather flock together socioeconomic and cultural environment men in societies where food and resources are in short supply tend to prefer heavier women preference for thinner women is more common in society where resources are abundant proximity the mere exposure effect repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases our liking them or we like people we see often 0 Cognitive Dissonance c we seek ways to decrease the discomfort caused by the inconsistency motivation to be consistent o if you can rationalize or explain your behavior the conflict and the tension is eliminated or avoided Self Justification o if you can t explain your behavior you may change your attitude so that it is in harmony with your behavior Cognitive Consistency 0 when you are torn between two choices then pick one and not the other you emphasize the negative features of the choice you rejected which his commonly called a sour grapes rationalization you also emphasize the positive features of the choice you made a sweet lemons rationalization Cognitive Dissonance Theory states if our behavior and attitudes are in conflict than we usually change our attitudes Understanding Prejudice 0 negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group 0 important points 0 racial and ethnic groups are far more alike than are different 0 any difference that may exist between members of different racial and ethnic groups are far smaller than differences among various members of the same group 0 Social Identity Theory Tajfel 1979 0 states that hone you re assigned to a group you automatically think of that group as ingorup for you Social Categorization we categorize people in order to understand them and to predict their behavior We then define behavior appropriate to the group based on norms we believe define a groups attitudes and behavior Social Identification we adopt the identify of the group which we belong and then follow the norms of that gouger the more emotionally bound we are to the group the more your self esteem is tied to group membership Social Comparison once we identify our group membership we then begin comparing our group to theories in order to maintain self esteem we need to compare favorably 0 other groups sometimes by reducing the status of other groups when compared to our group 0 From Stereotypes to Prejudice o in groups and out gorups social categories can be defined by relatively objective characteristics age language religion notational origin and ethnic group etc stereotypes typically include unites that are unrelated to the objective criteria the tendency to stereotype is a natural cognitive process to simplify social information o Stereotypes can cause problems can blind us to the courses of events stereotype threat once formed stereotypes are hard to shake stereotypic beliefs become expectations that are applied to all members of a given group can be both misleading and damaging creating expectations allow people to maintain stereotypes in the face of contradictory evidence 0 The Out Group Homogeneity Effect 0 social categories ln group bias tendency to make favorable attributions to members of your in group ethnocentrism is one type of in group bias Merica is the best Out Group homogeneity effect tendency to see members of the out group as all alike 0 The Extreme Emotion of Prejudice o prejudice and intergroup hostility increase when different groups are competing for scare resources 0 prejudice and intergroup hostility are also likely to increase during the times of social change 0 people are often prejudiced against groups that are perceived as threatening important in group norms and values example homophobia religious prejudice 0 Class Room Experiment with color of eyes 0 Stereotype Threat o ironically can course a person to behave in ways that confirm the stereotype This is a particularly true if one feels that they are being judged by others such as in a testing situation 0 Overcoming Prejudice How to o The Robbers Cave Experimentt Sheriff conducted with 11 to 12 year old boys at camp boys were divided into two groups and kept separate from one another researchers arranged fro the groups to meet in a series of competitive games fierce rivalry quickly developed demonstrated the ease with which mutually hostile groups could be created nasty incidents occurred each group took characteristics of distinct social groups with leaders rules norms of behavior and nicknames simple increased contact did not reduce hostility harmony between the groups was established by having two groups cooperate to achieve a common goal but might have not worked if the two artificial groups were not homogeneous all were white and middle class o The Jigsaw Classroom promoting cooperation o Aggression adapted Robber s Cave techniques to a newly integrated schools Aronson 1992 brought together students in small ethnically diverse groups to work on a mutual project each student had a unique contribution to make toward the success of the gourd interdependence and cooperation replaced competition called the Jigsaw classroom technique Results children in the jigsaw classrooms had higher self esteem and a greater liking for children in other ethnic groups than those in traditional classrooms less negative stereotypes and prejudice and a reduction in intergroup hostility cooperation changes our tendency to categorize the out group from 39those people39 to 39we people39quot 0 FrustrationAggression Principle frustration the blocking of some goal generates aggression can be a response to an unpleased state aversive stimuli such as pain heat insults and bad smells can evoke hostility and aggression Social Influences on Behavior 0 Conformity 0 Definition adjusting your opinions judgment or behavior so that it matches that of other people or the norms of a social group or situation 0 social influences the psychological study of how our behavior is influence by the social environment and other people 0 Asch s Experiment all bu one in a group was confederate seating was rigged asked to rate which line matched a standard line confederates were instructed to pick the wrong line 12of the 18 times Results Asch found that 76 participants conformed to at least one wrong choice subjects gave wrong answer conformed 37 of the critical trials remember that on about twothirds of trials participants stuck to their guns 0 Why did they conform to clearly wrong choices informational influence subjects reported having doubted their won perceptual abilities which lead to their conformity 0 Factors Influencing Conformity Three basic reasons hedonic motive person rewards food sex and attention normative social influence the desire to be accepted as part of a group leads that group having an influence informational social influence other people can provide useful and crucial information Asch identified several reasons that promote conformity facing an unanimous group giving your response in front of a group doubting your abilities or knowledge factors wich decrease conformity having an ally any dissent lessens conformity even if some dissent is incorrect 0 Culture and Conformity conformity is higher in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures individualistic cultures individualistic cultures tend to emphasize independence conformity tends to carry a negative connotation Collectivistic cultures 0 Obedience 0 Definition the performance of a behavior in response to a direct command typically an authority figure or a person of higher status such as a teacher or supervisor gives the command 0 Stanley Milligram he was curious about the holocaust and the nazi s obedience to Hitler and how they could obey orders even though they went against their moral code 0 Milgram s Original Obedience Experiment Procedure Volunteers were recruited for a lab experiment investigating learning re ethics deception Participants were 40 males aged between 20 and 50 whose jobs ranged from unskilled to professional from the New Haven area They were paid 450 for just turning up At the beginning of the experiment they were introduced to another participant who was actually a confederate of the experimenter Milgram They drew straws to determine their roles learner or teacher although this was fixed and the confederate was always the learner There was also an experimenter dressed in a grey lab coat played by an actor not Milgram Two rooms in the Yale Interaction Laboratory were used one for the learner with an electric chair and another for the teacher and experimenter with an electric shock generator The learner Mr Wallace was strapped to a chair with electrodes After he has learned a list of word pairs given him to learn the quotteacherquot tests him by naming a word and asking the learner to recall its partnerpair from a list of four possible choices The teacher is told to administer an electric shock every time the learner makes a mistake increasing the level of shock each time There were 30 switches on the shock generator marked from 15 volts slight shock to 450 danger severe shock The learner gave mainly wrong answers on purpose and for each of these the teacher gave him an electric shock When the 0 Obedience cont teacher refused to administer a shock the experimenter was to give a series of orders prods to ensure they continued There were 4 prods and if one was not obeyed then the experimenter Mr Williams read out the next prod and so on Prod 1 please continue Prod 2 the experiment requires you to continue Prod 3 It is absolutely essential that you continue Prod 4 you have no other choice but to continue Results 65 twothirds of participants ie teachers continued to the highest level of 450 volts All the participants continued to 300 volts Milgram did more than one experiment he carried out 18 variations of his study All he did was alter the situation IV to see how this affected obedience DV Conclusion Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure even to the extent of killing an innocent human being Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up People tend to obey orders from other people if they recognize their authority as morally right and or legally based This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations for example in the family school and workplace 0 abuse at Abu Ghraib american soldiers abused prisoners Iraq why did this occur 0 Deindividuation ingroups versus outgroup think gin negative stereotypes dehumanization and prejudice process similar to Zimbardo s Stanford Prison Experiment Not just following orders but also following implied social norms and roles 0 Stanford Prison Experiment o Bystander Effect 0 prosocial behavior describes any behavior that helps another person including altruistic acts whatever the motive o alturism is fundamentally selfless the individual is motivated purely by the desire to help someone in need No expectation of person benefit 0 The Kitty Genovese Case the girl that was attacked in New York and no one helped her 0 Bystander Effect the story of Kitty Genovese prompted social psychologists Bibite Latene and John Darley to study who no one came to her aid they found that before helping we must first notice the incident then interpret it as such and then fell responsible Diffusion of responsibility when group members fell anonymous reduction of self awareness and inhibitions when person is part of a group in which members feel anonymous example wearing hoods in the Ku Klux Klan large riots one way to contract deindividuation is to heighten self awareness presence of others leads to decreased help response the more people present the less likely one will help we wall think someone else will help so we don t have to help factors that increase bystander intervention being in a good mood feeling guilty seing others who are willing to help perceiving the other person as deserving of help knowing how to help a personalized relationship the person is similar to us not rushed or in a hurry Decrease likelihood of intervention 0 Social Loafing 0 people tend to expend less effort on collective tasks than they do when performing the same task alone 0 pronounced when it s difficult or impossible to asses each individual s contribution to collective effort 0 the greater the number of people involved in a collective effort the lower each individuals output 0 diffusion of responsibility occurs among group members working on a collective task 0 Social Facilitation the presence of other people being in a big city or very small town vague or ambiguous situations when personal costs outweigh the benefits of helping o the tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance when a task is relatively simple or well rehearsed the presence of other people tends to enhance individual performance the presence of others tends to increase our level of arousal and motivation 0 complex or poorly learned tasks presence of there people is likely to hinger performance arousal coupled with apprehension about being negatively evaluated tends to work against us 0 Group Polarization o enhancement of group s prevailing tendencies c this self amplify effect in a coup can be good increases the determination and common mission in selfhelp groups 0 polarizing effect can be bad prejudice groups 0 Group Think o groupthink results when group members try to maintain harmony in a decision making group and ignore conflicting evident or opinions o behavior includes examining few alternatives selective gathering of information pressure to conform within the group pressure to withhold criticism collective rationalization The Persuasion Game 0 the rule of reciprocity o if someone gives you something or does you a favor you feel obligated to return the favor the Foot in the Door Phenomenon 0 first ask fro something small 0 later maken a larger request 0 small request pace the way for compliance with the larger request the low ball technique Central persuasion o a change in attitude brought about by an appealing reason to logic 0 strong evidence and arguments are presented Peripheral Route Persuasion o a change in attitude brought about by appeals to habit and emotion o incidental cues such as celebrity endorsements are used
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