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Soc 100

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Soc 100 SOC 100 Intro to Sociology


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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Y on Tuesday March 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 100 Intro to Sociology at Purdue University taught by in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 160 views.

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Date Created: 03/10/15
Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 1 In Emile Durkheim s views what is the cause of many social problems like suicide Suicide rates and how they varied from country to country including population focused on social facts religious social and occupational Even though it is a solitary act it is related to group life the suicide rates of a society re ected the extent to which people were or were not integrated into the group life of society relationship between suicide and social isolation Names of famous micro sociologists Charles Horton Cooley Micro quotLooking GlassSelf The self is the product of our social interactions 1 Imagine how we present ourselves to others 2 We imagine how others evaluate us 3 We develop some feeling about ourselves George Herbert Mead Micro Stages of Self Founded Symbolic Interactionism We form our understanding of quotmequot by assuming the attitudes and expectations of others The Preparatory Stage children imitate the people around them The Play Stage while children develop skill in communicating through symbols they gradually become more aware of social relationships roletaking The Game Stage the child of about 8 or 9 no longer just plays roles but begins to consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously the generalized other the collective that we perceive Erving Goffman Micro Dramaturgy Impression management individual learns to slant is or her presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences Dramaturgical approach people resemble performers in action FaceWork the need to maintain a proper image of the self if we are to continue social interaction Labeling Theory refers to labels people apply to others not always accuratebut people sometimes start to act the way they are labeled Downfall We can develop selfidentities based on incorrect perceptions To be quali ed as a scientific theory must a theory work well in terms of predictive power Yes may have both explanatory and predictive power What are the major theoretical perspectives in sociology And what are their major arguments Con ict Perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of ensign between groups over power or the allocation of resources including housing money access to services and political representation Functionalist Perspective emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability Interactionist Perspective generalize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to eXplain society as a whole Chapter 2 What is dependentindependent variable Dependent variable action depends on the in uence of the independent variable Independent variable variable hypothesized to cause or in uence another What is internal validity approximate truth about inferences regarding causeeffect or causal relationships What is measurement bias subjects make errors purposely or unintentionally produce systematic errors when similar groups of people will respond in similar ways What is measurement error difference between the actual value of a quantity and the value obtained by a measurement observational error or quantitive error What is reliability refers to the extent to which a measure produces consistent results What is sampling bias sample in which some members of an intended population are more likely to be selected or included over others What is sampling error is an error in a sample analysis due to the improper representation of a population from the sample taken Why researchers control some variables when studying the relationship between other variables Chapter 3 Interactionists views on how culture emerges Culture is socially constructed Marx s views on culture He believed all societies and cultures are de ned by the underlying material and economic conditions oppression under capitalism is a class struggle everyone should be equal and in the same class What are the examples of a type or element of culture element language nonverbal communication norms values Universals the developed common practices and beliefs of all societies essential human needs food shelter clothing Relativism means viewing people39s behavior from the perspective of their own culture Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to assume that one39s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others What produces cultural variations across groups A subculture is a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs rules and traditions that differs from the pattern of the larger society In a sense a subculture can be thought of as a culture eXisting within a larger dominant culture The eXistence of many subcultures is characteristic of compleX societies such as the United States What is culture the totality of learned socially transmitted customs knowledge material objects and behavior What is culture diffusionassimilationaccommodationinnovation cultural diffusion the process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society assimilation the process through which a person forsakes hi or her culture tradition to become a part of a different culture accommodation the larger culture accommodates sub culturally groups of the society Innovation indicatory go a new idea or object to a culture discovery invention What is cultural universal a common practice of belief found in every culture Chapter 4 and 5 What is dramaturgy A view of social interaction popularized by Erving Goffman in which people are seen as theatrical performers What is generalized other the attitudes view points and expectations of society as a whole that a child tales into account in his or her behavior What is primarysecondaryreference group Primary group a small group characterized by intimate facetoface association and cooperation Secondary group a formal impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding Reference group any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior What is impression management A term used by Erving Goffman to refer to the altering of the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences What is rationalization A pervasive process characterizing modern society in which traditional method or standards of social organization based on tradition belief and even magic are replaced with new methods and standards of social organization based on objectively calculable scientific criteria What is social structure social institution social interaction Social structure the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships Social institution An organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs Social interaction the ways in which people respond to one another Chapter 7 Do criminal offenders and victims have similar social characteristics for most crimes Yes Will a society with chronic shortages of young women tend to eXperience greater problems with crime and violence by younger men Yes Chapter 8 Is wealth distributed far more unequally than income in the US Yes Both are distributed unevenly across the country however wealth is even less equal than income Marx views on Capitalism and class Con ict theorists working class is oppressed favors the wealthy MaX Weber s views on social inequality He looked at inequality and strati cation as multidimensional economic political and cultural He believed change occurred through the rationalization of society institutions authority become more bureaucratic and ruleoriented over time Too much rationalization could lead to irrationality by creating an quotiron cagequot of rules and regulations What is social mobility Movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society s strati cation system to another What is strati cation A structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society Chapter 10 According to Allport s contact hypothesis does the type of interaction or situation affect interactions between different groups interaction would increase relationships the more people come together the better What is amalgamationassimilationpluralism amalgamation the process through which a majority group and a minority group combine to form a new group assimilation the process through which a person forsakes his or her own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture pluralism mutual respect for one another s cultures among the various groups in a society which allows minorities to eXpress their own cultures without eXperiencing prejudice What is discrimination the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons What is prejudice a negative attitude toward an entire category of people often an ethnic or racial minority Chapter 11 According to Camille Paglia is a society which openly sexualizes women prone to socially repress women Yes because it gives women unfair stereotypes According to Guttenberg and Secord is the in uence of dyadic power much stronger than structural power in terms of gender relations in the long run No structure has a greater in uence than dyadic power According to Margaret Mead what may cause cultural differences Physical environment economy political systems religion educationnature vs nurture Did the first bathing beauty contests occur during the same period when women were gaining the right to vote No the quotbathing beautyquot contests started rst in the attempt to sexualize and repress women Do men and women within a society agree upon gender roles No Do most patriarchal societies tend to have chronic shortages of men No Do imbalanced seX ratios change the relative dyadic power of men and women after a certain period of time or almost immediately Almost immediately Is the seX ratio theory supported by research on the hook up culture on college campuses Yes because when one seX is in short supply the individual is in a stronger position and is less dependent on the partner because of the large number of alternative relationships available The de nition of seX ratios ratios of males to females in a population What cause imbalanced seX ratios Geographic Mobility Female Infanticide Selective Abortion Health amp Diet Differential Life Expectancies Differential Incarceration Rates War Sexual Practices What is gender male or female What is instrumentality An emphasis on tasks a focus on more distant goals and a concern for the external relationship between one s family and other social institutions Where was women s rights movement in the early 1900s heavily centered New York Chapter 13 Compared with women in Italy Great Britain and the Czech Republic are women in the US burdened with a far greater share of housework No American women are still ahead of their time in comparison and men take over some of the work nowadays Functionalists perspectives on family and its relationship with social inequality patriarchal gender roles and homophobia Tries to find a function for everything gender equality eXists because it benefits the balance in society What is kinship based on kinship related to others What is polyandrypolygamyeXogamyendogamyhomogamy polyandry a form of polygamy in which a woman may have more than one husband at the same time polygamy a form of marriage in which an individual may have several husbands or wives simultaneously exogamy the requirement that people select a mate outside certain groups endogamy the restriction of mate selection to people within the same group homogamy the conscious or unconscious tendency to select a mate with personal characteristics similar to one s own What is serial monogamy A form of marriage in which a person may have several spouses in his or her lifetime but only one spouse at a time Which racial or ethnic group has not experienced an increase in single parent households over the past 40 years Asians or Paci c Islanders have experienced a 1 decrease over the past 40 years singleparent households maintained by mother and father combined Chapter 15 Are the rates of religious participation in the US higher than those in Germany France and Great Britain Yes US is 26 Germany is 10 France is 7 Great Britain is 13 Differences between Baptists and Episcopalians in terms of education and income Episcopalians better educated and wealthier than Baptists Does secularization make everything become profane Yes because profane distinguishes between the sacred and the ordinary elements of life Features of religious sects odds with society and do not seek to become established national religions require intensive commitments and demonstrations of belief by members exhibit a higher degree of religious fervor and loyalty than more established religious groups most sects are small informal and allow open expression of emotions in their services Maj or world religion by population Buddhism 67 Christianity 33 Hinduism 137 Islam 225 Judaism 02 Weber s views on religion and capitalism defined religion as a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things religion involves a set of beliefs and practices that are uniquely the property of religion argued religious faiths distinguish between certain transcending events and the everyday world What are the major denominations in the US denomination a large organized religion that is not of cially linked to the state or government Roman Catholicism Muslims Buddhism Hinduism or Christianity Judaism Islam 10


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