Exam 2 Study Chart
Exam 2 Study Chart JMC:1100:0AAA
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Tuesday March 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JMC:1100:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Patrick Wright in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Media Uses and Effects in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/10/15
Media Uses and Effects Exam 2 Need for cognition Political sophistication Agenda setting Framing Where framing comes from Spiral of silence theory Dualcoding theory Role of emotion Werther effect Public opinion Solomon Asch LineConformity study findings A need to structure relevant situations in meaningful integrated ways Media often satisfy this need for cognition High like to think Lowless personal opinion more susceptible to taking public opinion Function of knowledge and poetical ideology Press doesn t tell us what to think it tells us what to think about News media set the public agenda More coverage on a topic 2 higher importance in the minds of the public Agenda setting 2 how much The central organizing idea for news content that supplies a content and suggests what the issue is through the use of selection emphasis exclusion and elaboration Journalists and editors Lobbyists and PR Based on the idea that most people don t feel comfortable speaking out about our views if we perceive that we are a minority for fear or isolation or rejection Noelle Neumann Mass media trigger this because it tends ot cover majority opinion Limits our social growth Images are processed different than verbal information When facts are presented with an image people did not remember the facts Visual may distract from the verbal Photos can change what people think they read Images provoke intense emotion Physiological arousal gt increased memory If it bleeds it leads Most memorable anger and fear lmitative suicide effect General public s attitude toward an issue or subject has a large effect on people If people are divided you go with your belief When everyone else is in agreement you will agree as well even if it is wrong Especially if they look and act like you Milgram Shock Study News Julius Caesar s news Merchant s journals German s mass production 4th Estate Gatekeeping theory Hostile Media Effect Ways people consume their media Selective exposure Selective perception Selective attention Selective retention Tests peoples response to authority 23 would shock another person to death because someone told them to Conclusion shouldn t be surprising that German s followed Nazi s orders Information that the public sees to connect to their community local or national or to make informed decisions to better their lives Acta Senatus written details about Senate discussion and policy Act Diurna written details on his life first newspaper Wanted to create a connection to the empire for others and to be less willing to rebel 14001600 Track prices of goods at European ports fashion tends sports etc 1600 Printing press allows for mass production and journals start to include social and cultural information first newspapers in Europe and then in US Media other 3 are the 3 branches of government is responsible ideally for filing the people in on what is happening Media determine what we read and discuss Gate 1 Should the media cover the event Gate 2 How much of the media should cover the event timespace Gate 3 Audience response can be sent back to gate 2 Gatekeeping what Viewers with strong beliefs see bias against them and their views even when coverage is neutral Walter Lippmann 1982 Stanford Student Study Selective exposure Selective perception Selective attention Selective retention Choosing media channels that agree with your views amp ignoring those that don t Perceiving information through your own desires and attitudes Viewing messages that fit your worldview and ignoring those that don t Remembering information that fits your worldview and forgetting what doesn t Chapel Hill Study Zucker s findings Types of Issues Agenda setting problem Media triangle Walter Lippmann 4 phases of researching agenda setting 3 primary factors of influence 3 things that persuasion is meant to influence 2 types of messages Psychographics Demographics Tested Lippmann s ideas Tested voters on their view of issues for Presidential Race Found media emphasis 2 public perception Found that when they showed horserace type coverage people that whoever was in the lead must be the best Found news coverage did increase prior to public opinion increase confirmed agenda setting Personal experience filters could override media emphasis media lose power Unobtrusive those with which we have little to no direct experience More susceptible to agenda setting no frame of reference Obtrusive those the public experiences directly Agenda setting does NOT occur public may influence media agenda Hard to show cause and effect FFJONT L FJON PONT Reality Media reality media agenda Public perception of reality public agenda Stated that news media is responsible for shaping peoples perceptions of the world agenda setting News media projections of the world create a pseudo environment for each news consumer exists in addition to the actual environment Initial study Chapel Hill Replication Contingent factors Who sets the media Person s behavior Person s cognitive ability Environmental events to which a person is exposed Attitude Beliefs Behaviors News messages objective info Marketing messages persuasive Focuses on what we do Used to find our attitudes beliefs and behaviors Better way than demogrpahics Focusses on race age ethnicity gender etc Persuasion Persuasion tries to alter 3 behavioral responses to persuasion Common forms of persuasion Buzzstealth marketing ELM Elaboration Likelihood Model Landscape model Explicit memory Implicit memory Theory of Media Cultivation 2 processes that show evidence of media cultivation The act of using rational andor emotional arguments to convince others to change there attitudes beliefs or behaviors Attitude Beliefs Behaviors Persuasion shaping Response reinforcing Response changing Debt Expert opinion Newspaper editorials Direct advertisement World of mouth endorsements accounts for 23 of all sales Relies on opinion leaders or early adaptors Central route to persuasion Occurs when audience is interested attentive and intellectually involved able and motivated Especially likely is message is counter attitudinal Defenses up Peripheral route to persuasion Occurs when people are influenced by secondary cues like attractiveness sex status or humor Defenses down When people watch a movie their primary focus is on the story what viewers cognitively do with different information in a movie depends on the implications of the information for comprehending the movie Stored material that you consciously try to remember or recall Information stores that we don t purposely try to remember unconscious and unintentional Exposure to media cultivates not persuades an attitude or perception of reality attitude change George Gerbner Gradual media result World of media presents a view of social reality Mainstreaming Resonance Mainstreaming Resonance Accessibility principle Drench hypothesis Dripdripdrip hypothesis Entertainmenteducation Great American Values test Components of credibility Message features Subliminal persuasion Third person effect 6 principles of persuasion Reciprocity Scarcity What happens when people of different groups are exposed to the same media What happens when a person s reallife environment strongly resembles the environment depicted Draws upon information that is most accessible to answer a question Media cultivation tends to emphasize the effects of repeated exposure to the same sorts of images over a long period of time Power of critical images that stand out Effects that emerge after steady long term exposure Persuasive effort from media to share a meaning or something educational Took place on a TV advertisement to avoid lab setting Exposed people to freedom equality and a world of beauty Those who viewed it gave 9 times more money to soliciors Expertise Trustworthiness Simplicity and repetition Fear Guilt Humor Media advertising containing hidden or subliminal appeals that penetrate into the unconscious mind of the consumer unlocks repressed urges and motivates a person Tendency to think that media influence is stronger for other people than it is for oneself Reciprocity Scarcity Authority Consistency Liking Consensussocial group 97975903 Robert Cialdini Obligation to give when you receive People want more of things they can have less of Authority Consistencycommitment Liking Consensusgroup Selfenhancement Illusion of personal involvenability Theory of planned behavior Uses and gratifications theory Criticisms of Use and Gratifications Why we use media Displacement hypothesis People follow lead of experts Looking for small initial commitments then getting larger ones voluntary active commitments 3 important factors people who are similar to us people who compliment us people who cooperator with us Look to the actions and behaviors of others to determine own Human tendency to perceive the self in ways that make us look good or at least better than other people Human tendency to be overconfident about the objective chances of experiencing a positive event or avoiding a negative event Helps predict and explain whether and how a persuasion message ex anti smoking ad would persuade a media consumer ex smoker to change hisher behavior ex quit smoking Attitude towards behavior Felt social pressure to act Belief in own ability to complete a task self efficacy gt lead to intention to act or not gt behavior People use particular media to gratify certain needs Shifts from viewing people as victims of media use to actors of media use Assumes that media consumption is rational and individualistic Relies on selfreporting and we are include to give socially desirable responses Learning Habit Companionship Arousal sensation seeking Relaxation Escape Social interaction enhancer Passing time The time we spend with media displaces time we could spend on more important activities
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