Midterm review PSYC 2344
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Reyes on Wednesday March 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2344 at University of Houston taught by Hadden in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 306 views. For similar materials see Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/11/15
Chapter 1 Introduction Cultural v crosscultural psychology 0 Cultural psych is nding the link btwn cultures amp psychology of individuals living in that culture Crosscultural psych is the cultural effects on human psychology Takes account of similarities AND differences What is culture Race Ethnicity Nation 0 Culture passing down of beliefs amp traditions Race distinguished by genetics Your skin color Ex BlackAfrican American WhiteEuropeanAsian Hispanic etc 0 Ethnicity people who share common ancestral origin language amp region 0 Nation people who share common geographical origin history amp frequently language Iceberg Theory of Culture what is the surface what is deeper On the surface what you see or hear clothing ageappearance language What you cannot see modesty emotional response morals family structure perceptions of health patterns in superior and subordinate roles concept ofjustice etc Traditional v nontraditional 0 Traditional based on beliefs rules symbols amp principles Predominantly in the past Restricting Intolerant to social Chapter 2 Methodology Observational method qualitative answers Looks at how often a behavior occurs Survey method correlational Groups of people answer questions about opinions or behaviors Experimental method Manipulated variable independent to detect changes in subject s behaviors attitudes or emotions 9 steps to research design 1 Describe a problem to investigate 2 Identify goal 3 Identify research sample of study groups of ppl newspaper reports drawings etc 4 Choosedesign a methodology 5 Conduct pilot study see how methodology works amp whether there are any obstacles to data collection 6 Collect research data 7 Interpret data using statistical procedures 8 Present results amp analyze 9 Suggest where amp how your data should be or could be used Ex in education counseling advertisement con ict resolution innovations Ex Amish Mormons middle east cultures 0 Nontraditional based on modern beliefs rules amp symbols Open to other cultures Absorbing amp dynamic Tolerant to social innovations Amurica Etic v emic cultural v universal Power distance members accept that power in institutions and organizations are distributed unequaHy Uncertainty orientationavoidance o Orientation ways people handle uncertainty on a daily basis 0 Avoidance members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity Collectivism v individualism Collectivism based on concern for others and traditions o Individualismindependence Withingroup v betweengroup variance within group your own group betweengroup those outside of your group quotEach one of my friendspeople are unique We re not alike but those they re all the samequot Social cognition how people process store and apply information about other people and social situation Equivalence evidence that the method for the study measure the same phenomenon across other cultures Test translation translation is not always accurate quotSexual harassmentquot Turkish cinsel quotCinsel rahatsizlikquot English sexual discomfort NOT the same Better to have a variety of people doing the translation Then multiple versions of the questionnaire will be looked over by bilingual individuals Ethics in research Internal v external validity 0 External validitv refers to which the results of a study can be generalized to other settings people or times Can be improved by setting exps in more natural setting and using randomization 0 Internal validity refers to whether the effects observed in a study are due to manipulation of the IV and not another factor Can be improved by controlling extraneous variables Chapter 3 Critical Thinking Dichotomous v continuous Dichotomous mutually exclusive categories Always two nothing in btwn Yes or no male or female on or off etc Continuous anything which lies on continuum Relationship satisfaction wealth extroversion subjectiveobjective o Marriedsingle dichotomous o Youngold continuous Similarityuniqueness paradox tendency to simplify comparisons btwn objects by seeing them as either similar to one another or different from one another when in reality they are probably both Barnum effect refers to ppl s willingness to accept validity of such overly inclusive and generic appraisals e horoscopes Assimilation v accommodation Assimilation modify data to t the schema distort new info to t preexisting beliefs Accommodation modify schema to t the data chance preexisting beliefs Belief perseverance tendency to maintain our beliefs even in the face of new evidence contradictory evidence Chapter 7 Motivation Evolution v psychology Origin of motivation is biological based on evolutionary views It fails to explain diversity of human motivation and overlooks in uence of individual choice and reason Drives directs to satisfy a psychological need The pressure of poverty might generate a need for nancial security Needs bio amp psych motivated state caused by psychological or physiological dep va on Bio food water shelter Psych social amp Selfhandicapping action or choice which prevents a person from being responsible for failure quotI didn t do well on my exam bc I was sickquot Psychoanalysis needs having no disorder Humanist needs human dignity individual choice amp self worth Motivation Articles Selfdetermination theory supporting our natural or intrinsic tendencies to behave in effective and healthy ways Vaccinations causes autism there is no relationship but ppl will still believe this Especially if they heard a professional say it on TV media etc Availability bias what are the odds of sustaining a fatal accident traveling by car as compared to traveling by commercial plane What s more accessible What news do you hear of more Car or plane accidents It is safer to y Fundamental attribution error tendency to overestimate personal attributes as the cause of a person s actions amp underestimate situational in uences Evaluative v descriptive eg warmcold Evaluative to describe is to prescribe Words both describe amp evaluate can we describe wo showing value Difference btwn calling someone con dent v cocky clean v anal retentive 0 Material substances this drink is cold LO this drink is hot quotVquot o Describing a person this person is cold ee this person is warm Ill this person is hotA f5 Maslow s needs at the bottom psychological then safety then lovebelonging then esteem and then selfactualization at the top Selfdetermination theory s needs Competence feeling of being capable Autonomy feeling independent or in control Relatedness feeling connected Need for achievement to strive for excellence and accomplishment Collectivist v individual success Individualist type of motivation that affects one s attitudes amp actions and is directed to the attainment of personal goals Collectivist directs a person to connect w others Aggression includes physical verbal hostile anger Sex culture beliefs and norms regarding sexuality and its expression Bulgaria v USA sampled workers in America and Bulgaria former communist country Unbalanced groups more Bulgarians than USA workers more American females Bulgarian workers were also given choice to participate Need ful llment more powerful in USA Anxiety more strong in Bulgarians Needs amp wellbeing Wellbeing awareness and self acceptance how a person copes w life Autonomy support A boss that shows understanding and support asks for feedback gives advice and offers choices instead ofjust demands If a boss demonstrates this you may feel more relatedness towards them Culture amp aggression Japan v Spain across culture Japanese women were seen as most physically aggressive Chapter 8 Development Nature v nurture importance of innatism or personal experiences Epigenetic involving nature amp nurture or rather nurture by nature Socialization by which an individual becomes a member of a particular culture What happens during this Learning how to share Piaget s 4 stages Stage 1 sensorimotor stage age 02 becoming familiar with using muscles When you poke a baby s hand they ll grab it Stage 2 preoperational 27 when they re imaginative Mental math is difficult at this age Stage 3 concrete operations 711 egocentrism Stage 4 formal operations 11 thinking abstract algebra age Prenatal factors time btwn conception and birth 38 week period Exposure to favorable or unfavorable conditions e hunger violence excessive radiation exposure to chemicals air amp water poHu on Infant factors birth to 2 years Environmental to social conditions in which the new life begins have a crucial impact on the child s life Childhood factors 212 years Demands conveyed to himher from parents or caregiver Chapter 10 Social Perception Perceptioncognition Regarding gender males were more hostile and verbally aggressive Physicalinstrumental Physical intentionally hurting someone s football aggressive Yes but it s the intention The players are aggressive to win it s not personal Instrumental the aim to hurt another from feeling angry Verbaemotionaexpressive Verbal slander starting a rumor so you can undermine the other person compared to doing so bc you hate Emotional the feeling of anger Expressive loss of control over oneself Adolescence 1320 years Change in height amp weight Crossculturally girls mature earlier than boys Adulthood 21Iate adulthood Develop sense of identity Middle adulthood associated w accomplishments Late adulthood begins w retirement Crystalized v uid intelligence Crystalized individual s accumulated experience amp knowledge Fluid ability to form concepts think abstractly amp apply knowledge to new situations Kohlberg s moral development Preconventional level judgments of what is right or wrong are based on fear of punishment same moral conduct produces pleasure whereas immoral conduct results in unwanted consequences Conventional level any behavior is good if it is approved by signi cant others Conventional level The existing laws determine what is moral and immoral Postconventional level moral behavior based on individual rights and underlying social circumstances same moral conduct is regulated by universal ethical principles that rise above government and laws Perception understanding other people amp ourselves Cognition interpret remember amp then use info about the world amp ourselves Attitudevalue Attitudes Values represent attitudes that re ect a principle standard or quality These are stable attitudes change Conservative v autonomy tradition v variety America falls under autonomy Hierarchy v egalitarianism legitimacy of inequality v equality Egalitarianism is no equal distribution of power Mastery v harmony like the Astrodome debate should it be taken down or is it a piece of history we should keep Control amp exploitation of surroundings amp environment v preservation enjoying what s around you Around the world there are ancient monuments and sacred buildings still standing Western v nonwestern values according to Weber most fundamental values of Social Interaction Articles Selfserving bias take personal credit for success while blaming outside sources for failures India v Canada Asked to visualize 12 life events 3 positive achievement 3 negative achievement 3 positive interpersonal 3 negative interpersonal 58 is universal and cultural speci c Other studies have shown that eastern cultures don t show 558 More internal selfdriven for positive and external situational for negative Correspondence biasFundamental attribution error Japan v USA Chapter 11 Social Interaction Norms established by group and indicate how members of that group should and should not behave ie manners simple responses and complex behaviors Status social position within a group formal or informal Can be earner or given at birth Roles sets of behaviors that individuals holding a speci c position are expected to do Ex In Asian amp African cultures children do not date before marriage lngroupoutgroup Sanctions certain action rewards those who follow the norm and reprove those western cultures are work achievement striving amp consumption of material goods Nonwestern values respect for tradition reverence to authority and overall stability Consistency balancedissonance Balance Dissonance discomfort caused by performing an action that runs counter to one s conception of oneself seek positive selfview amp consistent view of the world Social attribution internal v external attempt to explain causes of one s behavior Internal person is source of behavior External situation is source of behavior Unassuming bias tendency to explain personal success as result of external factors such as luck or help from others and failure as result of one s personal mistakes or weaknesses manipulate diagnosticity pro or anti death penalty attitudes 12 of participants read story and generated impressions 12 made attributions during memory recall Americans make CBFAE regardless of essay diagnosticity and Japanese do but don t depends if conditions are met Gilbert s 2step process Notice behavior step 1 internal attribution step 2 adjust for situation Cognitivememory load total amount of effort used in working memory who are deviant Collectivist cultures have stronger system sanctions Embeddedness the degree to which individuals are enmeshed together The more embedded people are in a culture the less likely they are to help strangers Prosocial behaviorsupport seeking actions that bene t others in a society Honor in Southern USA Conformity normativepublic dressingacting a certain way to t in Asch s line study nonambiguous task judge length of line Participants were asked to say the wrong line on purpose One of them doesn t know that What does he say He conforms and gives the same answers as the rest Conformity in collectivist v individualist higher in low socioeconomic groups High in strati ed and authoritarian societies Collectivist cultures show more conformity Obedience form of conformity when a person follows an order given to them Milgram s shock study 1963 1 participant 1 confederate the one who knows what s really going on in the exp Shock generator ranged from 15 to 450 volts The learner had prerecorded shocks of screaming and yelling in pain Even though concerns rose from the participant and asked to drop out of the study they were still asked to keep going 63 of the participants went all the way to 450 v Avg max was 360 v Social loafing tendency of group members to exert less effort on a task than they would if they were working alone or when group size is bigger Social loafing is NOT universal individualist cultures show more social loafing
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