Crisis Comm 3333 Final Exam Study Guide
Crisis Comm 3333 Final Exam Study Guide COMM 3333
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Dahlin on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 3333 at Ohio State University taught by Lanier Holt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Crisis Communication in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Crisis Comm Final Exam Study Guide Current Events (since April 5 ) th Library of Congress drops term “illegal alien” after Dartmouth students protest Jamar Clark: No charges against Minneapolis cops involved in shooting Chipotle plans to open burger chain- “Better Burger” Panama Papers leak casts light on a law firm founded on secrecy o Powerful rich people with offshore accounts Manziel named Browns’ new starting QB, cleared by NFL Teenage girl killed by exploding Takata air bag in Texas (2002 Honda Civic) Deutsche Bank Freezes North Carolina Expansion, Citing Transgender Law o If you are transgender you have to go into bathroom of your original gender Off-color: Hillary Clinton and NYC mayor spoof ‘Colored People Time’ joke, backlash ensues Former defensive end for OSU buckeyes Will Smith was shot and killed in New Orleans (shot 6 times) Hillary Clinton- indirectly called a whore by Bernie Sanders Chicago Police Department released statement after Laquan McDonald shooting that stated 74% of people shot by Chicago Police Department are black, ¾ of people stopped are black, have history of racism/being racist 2 hours ago: 85 million more Takata Airbags may need a recall Just received word today of the Stop-Sale on all vehicles with Takata airbags through work. Good timing Flooding in Houston – remnants of Hurricane Patricia Trump 2016-Build The Wall-written in chalk on oval Big Topics Takata Airbags How many airbags may need to be recalled? o 85 million Roughly what percentage of cars does it affect? o 50%, 1 in 2 cars on the road What mistakes/lies did Honda and Toyota tell the NHTSA? o Honda and Takata knew about faulty inflators since 2004 and FAILED to notify NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) o Failed to tell NHTSA about injuries and deaths due to airbags In 2002, what percentage about acceptable limits was Takata’s actual defect rate? o Defect rate 600% above acceptable limits What things did Takata blame for their airbag problems? o (1) Propellant chemicals mishandled and caused metal airbag inflators to burst open due to excessive pressure inside them o (2) July 2015: Humid weather is to blame; need to recall b/c of it o Reuters: Takata blames: Rust, bad welds, even chewing gum Which newspaper initially reported that Takata was lying to regulators? o NYT 2004 o Runs story saying Takata knows there’s a problem and running secret tests to verify the problem o Takata orders engineers to destroy evidence rather than fix the problem What three lessons should you learn about crisis from Takata? o People do not listen to the media until there is a crisis o Management will not listen o Management will lie to keep making money What are four things that are “Makings of a Disaster?” o (1) Arrogance o (2) Indifference o (3) Government involvement o (4) Secrecy/lies Hurricane Katrina Traits about New Orleans that led to this being worse than expected o Poverty rate: 28% o About 7,000 people: 14% had incomes that were 50% BELOW the poverty line o Percent who were functionally illiterate: 40% o “Before the hurricane, it was already a large-scale humanitarian crisis”-National Housing Institute What about timing of Katrina made it hard for the poor to leave? o Welfare checks are mailed on the first of the month Katrina happened at the end of the month so they didn’t have money o Poorest of the poor had no money and lacked transportation to leave What mistakes did FEMA make? (2 big ones) o Michael Brown, Director Appointed by G.W. Bush Had little to no emergency experience (Arabian Horse Association; unclear; Oklahoma Christian Home) o FEMA was slow to respond Budget cuts and personnel losses: FEMA “no longer up to task of dealing with major disasters” o No preparation: Hurricane Camille lessons were not heeded Hurricane exercise showed levees were not strong enough to support a storm o Federal authorities to blame Trent Lott (R-MS) – 20,000 trailers in Atlanta waiting for contractors to move them to Mississippi and Louisiana Hundreds of volunteers waited for instruction that never came Thousands of victims waited for weeks for help that did not arrive What mistakes did Gov. Blanco and Mayor Nagin make? o Gov. Kathleen Blanco blocked attempts to streamline command and control with National Guard o Mayor Ray Nagin failed to coordinate efforts with state officials for the relief effort (now in jail) What did GWB do/not do? o In Texas when Katrina hit o Went to D.C o California for a fundraiser o Eventually went to Louisiana o Federal gov.t Failed to evacuate more than 100,000 people o “Bush dithered while the relief effort stalled and people needlessly died” Effects of episodic framing on perception o One-shot isolated event coverage; simply covers an event without context as an isolate phenomenon o Most poor people, and people of color are covered episodically: crime and problems are their fault o Leads to believing the INDIVIDUAL is responsible for the problem and can bring about the solution o Nearly all of Katrina’s coverage was episodic o Ex: black people “loot” food, White people “find” food Effects of thematic framing on perception o Puts an issue into context; explaining the larger picture (i.e the factors that lead to an event occurring; background, etc) o Tends to make people believe SOCIETY is to blame for an issue o Blame extraneous factors for the problem and solution Toyota What was the problem with Toyota vehicles and what did the manufacturer say was the problem? o PROBLEM: Car would suddenly accelerate and then not stop (pedal entrapment) o Fall 2007: 55,000 automobiles recalled; floor mats blamed for gas pedals sticking on Lexus o January 2010: recall 2.3 million cars for gas pedal problems Claimed unrelated to previous recall 2 million vehicles in Europe recalled that month too 6.5 million cars recalled worldwide for either floor mat or pedal “entrapment” 34 deaths over a 10-year-period o Company leadership did not admit to there being a systemic problem with their vehicles What’s “hubris” and what does it have to do with Crisis Comm and management? o Overconfidence; thinking very highly of yourself o People never learn from the past o Nothing new under the sun What were the three important elements missed in the Toyota crisis? o Transparency-have to be as open as you can to the media o Timeliness o Opportunity Three things that make up the “Triple Convergence of the Elimination of Walls” o The world is flat o Borders are non-existent o Businesses are interconnected and problems are no longer just local Black Swan Situation: Crises are inevitable (test question) o Crises are unpredictable Don’t know depth/ramifications o They will cause massive financial and brand impact o After they happen an explanation will be concocted, invented or generated to make it seem like the crisis was more random and unpredictable than it was in reality Not necessarily true… especially with Toyota What happens at the Acute stage of a crisis? o Usually has very obvious warning signs o Can be ignored by senior management o Largely determines how deep/magnitude of the crisis/its’ longevity o “Analysis paralysis”—too much debate and decision- making and not enough action from management Delayed decision on blame and corrective action for the actions o Most important to recognize scope/magnitude of the problem at this stage AND GET MANAGEMENT TO KNOW IT TOO o If scope is not handled at this stage companies often CANNOT recover ground/reputation later o “Corporate leaders often find difficulties managing a crisis during the acute phase b/c of the avalanche-like speed and intensity that often accompany and characterize this stage” o Management hate surprises, and this stage is a surprise for them What happens at the Chronic Crisis stage? o Crisis needs to come under control as quickly as possible at this stage o Period that requires greatest resources Government can get involved here (YIKES!) o Analysis & Opportunity What did we do right and wrong? How can we use this to better our brand? (e.g Tylenol) What happens at the crisis resolution stage? o Usually: When you pay the price Money to victims Answer questions from gov.t regulators (if necessary) MOST IMPORTANTLY: Reputation hit! Tylenol When did it take place? 1982 Near what major city? Chicago Crises Role of the media: friend/foe/neither? o Neither o The media are not your friends, but they are also not your enemy Role of crisis comm professionals during a crisis? Specifically the NUMBER ONE role? o Calm and sooth the public o Provide information Rumors, Rumors, Rumors What types of people are most easily swayed by rumors? o Easily swayed people are more important than influential people in passing on a rumor Least knowledgeable people Younger people People who consume a lot of media When to respond? o When it starts affecting your bottom line o If they start costing you money, then you respond How to respond? o Often companies do not respond to rumors b/c this provides validation and commenting on rumors can start other rumors o Not all rumors deserve a response o Respond if it affects bottom line with truth/openness What happens to a rumor as it travels? o Tends to grow shorter, more concise, and more easily told o More original details are leveled out, and fewer words are used What’s “snowballing”? o Rumors spread and get more exaggerated over time o Rumor’s importance grows with each telling What are the best ways to stop or diminish rumors? o When it starts affecting your bottom line, you get out in front and tell the truth in full; answer questions by bullet points o Truth and openness o Absence of ambiguity reduces anxiety and in turn diminishes rumors Dow Corning What did they do? o Product was defective o Simple Denial o Reducing Offensiveness of event Didn’t work: led to investigation of breast implants in general Mariann Hopkins: $7.3 million o Minimization Done poorly o Transcendence “part of normal business operations” Reality: considered “travesty to millions of women” o Attack accuser Total “mischaracterization of facts” Criticized FDA o Mortification Admitted to making errors Expressed regret NEVER said sorry o Corrective action Warn customers about dangers of massaging implants to reduce scar tissue Stop making silicone breast implants $4.75 billion settlements What did they try to do? o Pay people $5000 to stop What did they not do? o Apologize Stages of image restoration o Denial It didn’t happen, we didn’t do it o Evasion of Responsibility It’s someone else’s fault, out of our control It was an accident and not intentional o Reducing the Offensiveness of an Event Bolstering: emphasizing good traits and/or beneficial past acts in an effort to offset damage from wrong act Minimization: attempt to portray the wrongdoing as minimal and unimportant Differentiation: suggests that an offensive act should be distinguished from similar but more offensive acts Transcendence: attempts to place a misdeed as part of a larger context where more important values would pervade the situation Attack One’s Accuser: attempt to reduce the accuser’s credibility, thus reducing the offensiveness and/or plausibility of the accusation Compensation: offers payment or restitution to the victim o Corrective Action Fixing the damage from the wrongful act and/or taking steps to assure the problem never occurs again o Mortification An apology, an expression of sorrow or regret for an offensive act Specific terms and info Priming o Media technique in which certain aspects of an issue are made more prominent and thus more influential in guiding people’s judgment of issues, people, and events Ex: BP-oil spill; Clinton-Monica Lewinsky, OSU- football, Nixon-Watergate, Enron-scandal o Continually connecting 2 or more phenomena in media coverage tends to cause audience to conflate the two to be related or one aspect being inextricably linked with the other Perception is reality! People are cognitive misers! Cognitive misers o People do not pay attention to all the information available to them, but that which is most readily-available and easily accessed o Which is the MEDIA! What state has the highest emission standards? o CA Which toxic chemical was found to be killing people in the Tylenol case? o Potassium cyanide Issues Roughly how many bullet points should you have prepared for a press conference? o 5-6 bullet points What is spreading activation? o Thoughts send out messages along cognitive pathways that trigger related thoughts o Not only trigger thoughts, but emotional reactions and behaviors o The strength and ability for these angry thoughts to be activated increases with repetition: the more frequently ticked off, the easier it is to get ticked off in the future. In fact, it takes less to do it! o People who are PRIMED with violent images/activities are more likely to have aggressive thoughts/behaviors o Watching violence tends to prime negative cognitive associations for viewers o Cognitive trickle down effect: words linked with other related words o MEN tend to have more violent responses than women regardless if they are primed with violent or non-violent images Hypodermic needle theory o Belief that media have grand affects on your perception of reality o The media inject messages into their audiences o The audience is seen as passive and unable to resist these media messages o Theory associated with Marxist academics – Marxists are traditionally hostile to the media-seeing it as vehicle to enable ruling class to maintain their dominance over society Agenda setting o More the media covers something, the more likely the public is to know about it and find it to be important o That is, in the same proportion and priority in which the media covers it Most important issue of the day? Climate change? Global War on Terror? Cyber security? Media does not reflect reality Media coverage is a distortion Need for orientation o The less people know about a topic, and the more they are interested in finding out, the more influence the media have on their perception Why did Target’s CEO get fired? o LIED o Didn’t apologize fast enough for Emmer! Take-away message from influence of social media and people’s perception of your company o Today, your social media presence IS your presence o People make assumptions about you based on how you handle or mishandle media What happens to crisis comm/PR people when they lie or tell half-truths to the media? o Get fired Who first broke the story about Tiger’s affairs? o National Inquirer- broke story “Tiger Woods Cheating Scandal”-alleges Tiger had months-long affair with NYC nighclub hostess Rachel Uchitel (Mistress #1) What was the MAJOR takeaway from Tiger Woods fiasco? o Openness trumps secrecy EVERY TIME! o Catastrophes can be averted at times, but they still do happen o The mishandling of an event is often worse than the event itself o You can never lie and hide your way out of a problem o Mistakes (1) Took too long to admit to his wrongdoing (2) He tried to dictate to the media how to do (and not do) their jobs (3) He tried to hide from the media (4) He didn’t take any questions from the media
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