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4/27/16 Final Study Guide Intro to Music Industry

by: ljackson60 Notetaker

4/27/16 Final Study Guide Intro to Music Industry MTM 3010

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Music > MTM 3010 > 4 27 16 Final Study Guide Intro to Music Industry
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Any blanks have been left intentionally blank because the notes don't need more detail.
Steve Jones (P)
Study Guide
intro, to, Music, Industry
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by ljackson60 Notetaker on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MTM 3010 at Georgia State University taught by Steve Jones (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 221 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO MUSIC INDUSTRY in Music at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
MTM 3010 Final Exam Study Guide THE RECORDING INDUSTRY ­ RECORD PRODUCTION Mono – one­track tape recorders. ¼ inch thick. Was an analog recording. Stereo – in the 1950’s two tracks became available on tape. ¼ inch thick. Analog recording. Multitrack digital recorders­ 4 or 8 track could be recorded on tape. In 1970s 24­tracks became  available. 2 inches thick.  Hard disc computer recording­ CD recording that became available in the 1990s ProTools­ most widely used Digital Audio Workstation to edit and create music. Punch­in­ when an error is made while recording and a correction is punched­in to replace the  error. Executive producer­ usually the person who pays for the production to be done. Can choose the  producer and engineer to work with artist. Producer­ person who orchestrates and organizes the music; works with artist to achieve a sound  a complete the song.  Engineer­ person who understands how music and technology works in the recording  environment and is responsible for setting up equipment and may also mix the finished song. Producer royalty fee – producers usually get a flat fee and they get 1% of wholesale or retail.  Established producers may get 2%­4%. Escalating clause­ producer asks for a certain number of royalty point based on how many  records that are sold. Production fee­ fee charges for producin Advance­ a loan of money from a label to an artist to record an album. Letter of direction­ instructs a label to pay a producer on the artists’ behalf. EQ – timbre Choosing a studio – factors to consider when choosing a studio are: location, gear, hit making  reputation, room size, etc. Block book – book large amounts of time specifically for one artist or band; lockout of studio Preproduction – done outside of studio is the planning and rehearsing part of production before  going to the studio. Tracking­ recording the instruments for each song. Tracking sheet – sheet that helps producer know what has already been tracked; whiteboard Studio/session musicians­ a musician that is specifically skilled in recording an instrument in the  studio. Overdubbing – make fixes, add sweetener tracks, “final” vocals Mixing – massage each individual track­ adjust levels and EQ and add effects to tracks. Mixing  engineers usually put together the album song arrangement. Mastering – sweetening the overall sound, ISRC’s added, volume of each track, and time  between songs made in this part of production. W­4/work for hire forms­ used by employer to determine the amount of federal income tax from  the employee’s paycheck. Sample clearance­ getting a sample of a song cleared by the owner of the song to be used in a  song. Metadata­ encrypted data in a song that explains who helped create the song. Where do producers come from? ­ engineering, music arranger, studio musician, hit songwriter,  former or current artist, psychologist Composite vocal­ choosing the best vocal or recording of an instrument out of a group of  recordings. Pitch correction­ altering pitch on an instrument to correct pitch mistakes. Hip­Hop producer­ typically a person who makes the beat; owns 50% of the copyright of the  song and usually is the engineer and arranger.  Producer manager­ a person who manages producers specifically. THE RECORDING INDUSTRY – LABELS/DISTRIBUTION Cylinder ­ 1877 78rpm ­ 1894 LP – long playing ­ 1948 CD ­ 1982 Mp3 – Late 90’s P2P – early 2000’s Major labels – function as distributors and banks mainly; generally well funded and have strong  distribution and muscle. Indie labels­ usually smaller more risk taking label, generally starts trends, offer more creative  leadership, and generally have less money. Specialty labels­ labels that work with specific genres of music. Catalog – songs that are18 months or older become catalog. Three majors Universal Music Group Sony Music Warner Music Group Record Company Departments Executive staff­ top management; CEO, CFOs etc. A&R­ looks for talent to sign. Distribution/Sales­ handles moving the physical music and digital sales. Marketing – product managers­ promote the music. Special products­ handles any merchandise or special products  International­ handles any international business that a label has. Business/legal­ handles contracts and business affairs Finance­ find ways to raise money or pay debt  Publicity­ get free exposure, magazines, tv shows, etc to get attention for an artists. New media/digital­ handles the digital distribution and media  RIAA – Recording Industry Association of America NARAS – The Recording Academy, The Grammys, Music Cares SWOT – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats of a song Hook­ important piece of advertising that gets people’s attention. Product manager­coordinate all activities in a label and get them to promote a release. Usually  works with fewer than eight artists. Payola – pay for play at a radio station, which is illegal. Coop advertising­ ads by retailers that mention a manufacturers name/brand and the  manufacturer pays for all or a part of the advertisement. SKU – stock­keeping unit or a barcode. Wholesalers ­ One­stop, Rack­jobber…..sell to retailers Retailers – sell to the consumer P&P – price and positioning Endcaps­ end of isle in a store where people can see a product when they leave. Listening stations­ a set up station where someone can listen to music. POP – Point of purchase (also referred to as “merch”) place where a good is sold to the  consumer. Cleans­ clean copies of a record. Demographics­ statistical data concerning the population and particular groups in it. Multiformat­ radio station that plays different genres of music. BDS – monitors radio airplay Mediabase 24/7 – monitors radio airplay Soundscan – monitors sales of recorded music UPC – Universal Product Code – album identifier ISRC – International standard recording code – individual track identifier REGIONAL MARKETS, MUSICAL STYLES, INTERNATIONAL Regional music markets Creators­ individual artists and multiple people making a music style. Performance opportunities and promotion­ places for music to play venues, radio and  local media support. Music business infrastructure­ relies on majors, agents, attorneys, need producers and  team builders. Local support Nashville ­Grand Ole Opry, National Barn Dance, Country Music Foundation Memphis – Sun in the 50’s, Stax  in the 60’s, Hi in the 70’s Sam Phillips/Sun Studios Sun Records – Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins Stax Records ­ Rufus Thomas/Otis Redding/Sam & Dave/Booker T & The MG’s Jerry Wexler – coined the term rhythm and blues Hi Records – Al Green Miami ­ Miami Sound Machine Atlanta ­ La Face – Kenneth “Babyface” Edmonds and L.A. Reid Minneapolis ­ Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis Specialized Musical Styles Classical Solo performance careers Symphony Orchestra careers Jazz Contemporary Christian Music Latin Music ­ LARAS World music Ethnomusicology – the study of world music Hip­Hop music Children’s music Bluegrass, Folk and Americana International Music Markets MIDEM­ international trade organization and event where key people from the music industry  gather to forge business connections and explore current music trends. Small label licensing deals Things that differ from country to country Role of Government Taxes Unions Performing rights Legal Touring Piracy Copyright laws MUSIC IN THE MARKETPLACE – BROADCASTING, FILM, THEATRE,  ADVERTISING AM – Amplitude modulation FM – Frequency modulation Station rating ­ % of potential audience Station share ­ % of audience listening to the radio at a given time (with radios turned on) Formats CHR/Top 40 Adult Contemporary Country Urban Alternative Rock Oldies Talk Sports Christian NPR – National Public Radio Programming­ music director has DJ play certain songs and usually the DJ records his/her voice  tracks and director makes all music decisions and image of a radio station. Commercial load­ minutes of commercials a station play a hour. Dayparts Morning Drive­ 6am­10am Midday­ 10am­3pm Afternoon Drive­ 3pm­7pm Nights­ 7pm­12pm Overnights­ 12pm­6am Weekends Satellite radio – SiriusXM Internet radio­ Pandora , people can listen to radio stations online. MTV – 8/1/1981 – “Video Killed The Radio Star” – The Buggles. Broke several bands through  movies and shows. Music videos Scoring­ happens for a lot of movies or for other media. Written music for motion pictures.  Nowadays popular music is used. Music Supervisor­ person who selects music for whatever type of media. Music library – blanket agreement. Music sold to media an outlet that is basically a collection of  musical styles. Jingle­ song typically in commercials and advertising. Spots­ Advertisements. Media buying­ procurement of media inventory where price and placement is negotiated for  advertisements. Foreground music­ music that directly impacts what happens on screen. Background music­ music that isn’t part of action, in background. Needle drop = cue when music is supposed to change. THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MUSICIAN DIY – do it yourself D2F – direct to fan Social media – used to drive traffic to website Freemium­ free product given away; generate revenue by selling premium products to users. Topspin ­ distribution Bandcamp – multiple functions CD Baby ­ distribution Tunecore ­ distribution ReverbNation – multiple functions Kickstarter – crowd funding PledgeMusic – crowd funding Loud Fund – crowd funding SonicBids ­ touring BandsInTown ­ touring Eventful ­ touring Sound Cloud­ audio platform that lets people listen to music and promote songs. Affix Music ­ licensing Sole proprietorship­ one person is the owner of a business. Partnership­ two or more people take stakes in a business and become owners. Corporation­ a company or group of people that act as a single entity. LLC – limited liability corporation where the pass­through taxation of a partnership and limited  liability of a corporation is combined. CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT Career Options             Get prepared             Define goals             Climb the ladder Creative Careers             Songwriters             Arrangers             Editors             Copyists Performance Careers             Singers             Instrumentalists Teaching Careers  Studio teacher  School Educator  College Professor  Music Therapy Broadcasting/Film/Video Game Careers  Radio  TV  Advertising Music Related Careers    Journalist  Science & technology    Managerial/Executive    Legal  Graphic/Visual arts Job vs. career­ a job is something you’re doing now; a career is a series of jobs that has room for  development. Rapid change­ the music industry is an industry where there is rapid change and development  everyday. Charting career success             Counselors             Self­assessment tests             Be competent             Build your network Most people are unhappy at work Build a reputation for competence Build a strong network of contacts


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