MTM 3010 Final Exam Study Guide
THE RECORDING INDUSTRY RECORD PRODUCTION
Mono – onetrack tape recorders. ¼ inch thick. Was an analog recording. Stereo – in the 1950’s two tracks became available on tape. ¼ inch thick. Analog recording. Multitrack digital recorders 4 or 8 track could be recorded on tape. In 1970s 24tracks became available. 2 inches thick.
Hard disc computer recording CD recording that became available in the 1990s ProTools most widely used Digital Audio Workstation to edit and create music. Punchin when an error is made while recording and a correction is punchedin to replace the error.
Executive producer usually the person who pays for the production to be done. Can choose the producer and engineer to work with artist. We also discuss several other topics like what is the physiological measures?
Producer person who orchestrates and organizes the music; works with artist to achieve a sound a complete the song.
Engineer person who understands how music and technology works in the recording environment and is responsible for setting up equipment and may also mix the finished song. Producer royalty fee – producers usually get a flat fee and they get 1% of wholesale or retail. Established producers may get 2%4%.
We also discuss several other topics like what is Statistics?
Escalating clause producer asks for a certain number of royalty point based on how many records that are sold.
Production fee fee charges for producin
Advance a loan of money from a label to an artist to record an album.
Letter of direction instructs a label to pay a producer on the artists’ behalf. EQ – timbre
Choosing a studio – factors to consider when choosing a studio are: location, gear, hit making reputation, room size, etc.
Block book – book large amounts of time specifically for one artist or band; lockout of studio Preproduction – done outside of studio is the planning and rehearsing part of production before going to the studio.
Tracking recording the instruments for each song.
Tracking sheet – sheet that helps producer know what has already been tracked; whiteboard Studio/session musicians a musician that is specifically skilled in recording an instrument in the studio.
Overdubbing – make fixes, add sweetener tracks, “final” vocals
Mixing – massage each individual track adjust levels and EQ and add effects to tracks. Mixing engineers usually put together the album song arrangement.
Mastering – sweetening the overall sound, ISRC’s added, volume of each track, and time between songs made in this part of production.
W4/work for hire forms used by employer to determine the amount of federal income tax from the employee’s paycheck. Don't forget about the age old question of What is Biodiversity?
Sample clearance getting a sample of a song cleared by the owner of the song to be used in a song.
Metadata encrypted data in a song that explains who helped create the song.
Where do producers come from? engineering, music arranger, studio musician, hit songwriter, former or current artist, psychologist
Composite vocal choosing the best vocal or recording of an instrument out of a group of recordings.
Pitch correction altering pitch on an instrument to correct pitch mistakes. HipHop producer typically a person who makes the beat; owns 50% of the copyright of the song and usually is the engineer and arranger.
Producer manager a person who manages producers specifically.
THE RECORDING INDUSTRY – LABELS/DISTRIBUTION
LP – long playing 1948
Mp3 – Late 90’s
P2P – early 2000’s
Major labels – function as distributors and banks mainly; generally well funded and have strong distribution and muscle.
Indie labels usually smaller more risk taking label, generally starts trends, offer more creative leadership, and generally have less money.
Specialty labels labels that work with specific genres of music.
Catalog – songs that are18 months or older become catalog.
Universal Music Group
Warner Music Group
Record Company Departments
Executive staff top management; CEO, CFOs etc.
A&R looks for talent to sign.
Distribution/Sales handles moving the physical music and digital sales. Don't forget about the age old question of What are missile defenses?
Marketing – product managers promote the music.
Special products handles any merchandise or special products If you want to learn more check out What is Loss Prevention?
International handles any international business that a label has.
Business/legal handles contracts and business affairs
Finance find ways to raise money or pay debt
Publicity get free exposure, magazines, tv shows, etc to get attention for an artists. New media/digital handles the digital distribution and media
RIAA – Recording Industry Association of America
NARAS – The Recording Academy, The Grammys, Music Cares
SWOT – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats of a song
Hook important piece of advertising that gets people’s attention. Don't forget about the age old question of Who is Herbert Hoover?
Product managercoordinate all activities in a label and get them to promote a release. Usually works with fewer than eight artists.
Payola – pay for play at a radio station, which is illegal.
Coop advertising ads by retailers that mention a manufacturers name/brand and the manufacturer pays for all or a part of the advertisement.
SKU – stockkeeping unit or a barcode.
Wholesalers Onestop, Rackjobber…..sell to retailers
Retailers – sell to the consumer
P&P – price and positioning
Endcaps end of isle in a store where people can see a product when they leave. Listening stations a set up station where someone can listen to music.
POP – Point of purchase (also referred to as “merch”) place where a good is sold to the consumer.
Cleans clean copies of a record.
Demographics statistical data concerning the population and particular groups in it. Multiformat radio station that plays different genres of music.
BDS – monitors radio airplay
Mediabase 24/7 – monitors radio airplay
Soundscan – monitors sales of recorded music
UPC – Universal Product Code – album identifier
ISRC – International standard recording code – individual track identifier
REGIONAL MARKETS, MUSICAL STYLES, INTERNATIONAL Regional music markets
Creators individual artists and multiple people making a music style.
Performance opportunities and promotion places for music to play venues, radio and local media support.
Music business infrastructure relies on majors, agents, attorneys, need producers and team builders.
Nashville Grand Ole Opry, National Barn Dance, Country Music Foundation Memphis – Sun in the 50’s, Stax in the 60’s, Hi in the 70’s
Sam Phillips/Sun Studios
Sun Records – Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins Stax Records Rufus Thomas/Otis Redding/Sam & Dave/Booker T & The MG’s Jerry Wexler – coined the term rhythm and blues
Hi Records – Al Green
Miami Miami Sound Machine
Atlanta La Face – Kenneth “Babyface” Edmonds and L.A. Reid
Minneapolis Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis
Specialized Musical Styles
Solo performance careers
Symphony Orchestra careers
Contemporary Christian Music
Latin Music LARAS
Ethnomusicology – the study of world music
Bluegrass, Folk and Americana
International Music Markets
MIDEM international trade organization and event where key people from the music industry gather to forge business connections and explore current music trends.
Small label licensing deals
Things that differ from country to country
Role of Government
MUSIC IN THE MARKETPLACE – BROADCASTING, FILM, THEATRE, ADVERTISING
AM – Amplitude modulation
FM – Frequency modulation
Station rating % of potential audience
Station share % of audience listening to the radio at a given time (with radios turned on) Formats
NPR – National Public Radio
Programming music director has DJ play certain songs and usually the DJ records his/her voice tracks and director makes all music decisions and image of a radio station. Commercial load minutes of commercials a station play a hour.
Morning Drive 6am10am
Afternoon Drive 3pm7pm
Satellite radio – SiriusXM
Internet radio Pandora , people can listen to radio stations online.
MTV – 8/1/1981 – “Video Killed The Radio Star” – The Buggles. Broke several bands through movies and shows.
Scoring happens for a lot of movies or for other media. Written music for motion pictures. Nowadays popular music is used.
Music Supervisor person who selects music for whatever type of media. Music library – blanket agreement. Music sold to media an outlet that is basically a collection of musical styles.
Jingle song typically in commercials and advertising.
Media buying procurement of media inventory where price and placement is negotiated for advertisements.
Foreground music music that directly impacts what happens on screen.
Background music music that isn’t part of action, in background.
Needle drop = cue when music is supposed to change.
THE ENTREPRENEURIAL MUSICIAN
DIY – do it yourself
D2F – direct to fan
Social media – used to drive traffic to website
Freemium free product given away; generate revenue by selling premium products to users. Topspin distribution
Bandcamp – multiple functions
CD Baby distribution
ReverbNation – multiple functions
Kickstarter – crowd funding
PledgeMusic – crowd funding
Loud Fund – crowd funding
Sound Cloud audio platform that lets people listen to music and promote songs. Affix Music licensing
Sole proprietorship one person is the owner of a business.
Partnership two or more people take stakes in a business and become owners. Corporation a company or group of people that act as a single entity.
LLC – limited liability corporation where the passthrough taxation of a partnership and limited liability of a corporation is combined.
CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
Climb the ladder
Broadcasting/Film/Video Game Careers
Music Related Careers
Science & technology
Job vs. career a job is something you’re doing now; a career is a series of jobs that has room for development.
Rapid change the music industry is an industry where there is rapid change and development everyday.
Charting career success
Build your network
Most people are unhappy at work Build a reputation for competence Build a strong network of contacts