Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide
Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide SOC101
Popular in Sociology 101-001 Intro To Sociology
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Wednesday March 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lesley Williams Reid in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views.
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Date Created: 03/11/15
Rachel Counce March 8 2015 Sociology 101 Exam 2 Study Guide Social Inequality The Stratification Process 0 Sssiai differentiation division of labor 0 Sssiai iii 1ti3lii unequal access to valued resources and position 0 Sssiai StiqgltifiCCatitDii is a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy The four principles of stratification systems 1 Principle 1 Social stratification is a trait of society not simply a re ection of individual differences 2 Principle 2 Social stratification carries over from generation to generation 2 Example parents passing their social positions on to their children this is a societal trait rather than an individual trait 2 Some especially those in highincome societies experience social mobility a change in position within the social hierarchy 3 Principle 3 Social stratification is universal but variable 2 Social stratification is everywhere but what is unequal and how unequal it is varies from one society to another 4 Principle 4 Social stratification involves not just inequality but beliefs as well 2 Just like how inequality varies between societies so does the explanation as to why people should be unequal vary between different societies Basis of Stratification Systems Formal versus informal stratification Closed caste versus open class stratification systems 0 Closed caste systems allow for little change in social position 0 Open class systems permits much more social mobility The Caste System Caste system a system by which a society ranks categories of people social stratification based on ascription or birth agrarian societies 1 Determines the direction of a person s life at birth perform one type of work 2 Demands that people marry others of the same ranking endogamous within 3 Guides everyday life by keeping people in the company of their own kindquot 4 Rest on powerful cultural beliefs Rachel Counce March 8 2015 The Class System Class system a system by which a society ranks categories of people social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement 0 O O 0 More open than caste systems so people who earn schooling and skills can experience social mobility Categorizing people by their sex color or social backgrounds is seen as wrong Work is not fixed at birth and involves personal choice Families can have different social standings Meritocracy refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people social stratification based on personal merit which includes a person s knowledge abilities and effort 0 The degree of uniformity in a person s social standing across various dimensions of social inequality Ascribed status vs Achieved status 0 O Ascribed not earned but something people are born with and have no control over 2 Ex being born into poverty it is usually harder to overcome obstacles to upper classes Achieved acquired on the basis of merit position that is earned or chosen and re ects a person s skills abilities and efforts 2 Ex Lawyer or doctor professional athlete Theories of Stratification Functionalist theories the DavisMoore thesis States that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society 0 0 Some form of social stratification has been found in every society Increases society s productive efficiency more important positions require higher rewards to draw talented people to those jobs not let anybody do any job ie a surgeon Those who have jobs with the greatest functional important gain the most rewards According to the structuralfunction approach social stratification plays a vital role in the operation of society Scarcity o Talent control of access to training by powerful and privileged groups creates artificial scarcity of talent much of the society s potential talent will go unutilized because of wealth education and professional associations Training high income power and prestige of a particular position are due to functional importance or scarcity of trained personal Rachel Counce March 8 2015 Several critiques of the functionalist perspective 0 0 How we assess the importance of a particular occupation Melvin Tumin claimed that Davis and Moore ignores how caste elements of social stratification can prevent the development of individual talent Living in a society that places so much emphasis on money we tend to overestimate the importance of highpaying work People in this society who are born wealthy aren t given the opportunity to develop their talents like those who are not wealthy The DavisMoore thesis ignores how social inequality may promote con ict and even outright revolution Con ict theories Marx Dichotomous class structure and how it is determined by one s relationship to the means of production ourgeoisie in industrial class systems they own the factories also called capitalists O roletariat workers that labor in the factories Marx s labor theory of value 0 The economic value of a good or service should be decided by the total amount of labor that was required to produce it Socialcon ict analysis argues that rather than benefiting society as a whole social stratification benefits some people and disadvantages others 0 O Drawn on ideas of Karl Marx Explained two basic relationships to the idea of production either own property or are laborers Supports overthrowing capitalist society arguing that it reproduces the class structure in each generation passing wealth down from generation to generation Believed a socialist society would replace capitalism tending to the needs of many rather than an elite few Marx believed that need should form the basis of rewards given to people in a society Criticism of Marxism O Denies a central idea of the DavisMoore theory system of unequal rewards is necessary to place talented people in the right jobs and to motivate them to work hard Revolutionary change Marx predicted has not happened in advanced capitalist societies Rachel Counce March 8 2015 No Marxist revolution according to Ralf Dahrendorf 1 Fragmentation of the capitalist class ability to hold stocks 2 Higher standard of living most people hold whitecollar j obs 3 More worker organizations allowed to hold strikes labor unions etc 4 Greater legal protections safer unemployment insurance disability and Social Security VVeber What does Weber mean by life chances Theory of opportunities each individual has to improve their quality of life 0 These opportunities refer to the extent that someone has access to resources food school shelter health care etc Weber felt that Marx s economicbased dichotomous class structure as too simple Instead Weber claims that social stratification involves three distinct dimensions of inequality 1 Class economic inequality 2 Status social prestige 3 Party power 0 Each dimension stands out at different evolutionary points in society s growth 0 gocioeconomic status SEES refer to a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality Marx thought societies could eliminate social stratification by taking away private ownership overthrowing capitalistic ideas but weber doubted that overthrowing capitalism would significantly lessen social stratification Some additional terms to know gocial mobility a change in position within the social hierarchy social mobility goes upward or downward 0 Ex Jay Z didn t graduate high school but still ended up with fame and fortune Hmtergeneraiiomal mobiliw upward or downward social mobility to children in relation to their parents Hmtragemeraiional mobility social movement between social classes and occupations the change occurring within an individual s lifetime 0 A caste system has limited social mobility and high status consistency 2 The degree of uniformity in a person s social standing across various dimensions of social inequality Rachel Counce March 8 2015 The greater mobility of class systems produces less status consistency Social hierarchies endure is ideology cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements including patterns of inequality 2 Ex the idea that rich people are smart and poor people are lazyis ideological to that extent that it supports inequality by defining it as fair Kuznets curve Shows that greater technological sophistication is generally accompanied by more pronounced social stratification As an economy develops market forces first increase and then decrease economic inequality Technological advances first increase and then moderate the extent of social stratification o Agrarian societies greater inequality is functional 0 Industrial societies benefit from a more equal society Curve reverse itself as greater equality comes about Broken line represents the postindustrial society in which economic inequality increased Criticisms 0 Income inequality re ects not only technological development but also political and economic priorities of a country 0 This curve was developed by comparing societies at different levels of economic development Social Class in the US Contemporary Models of Social Class in the United States Superclass Four types of capital 1 Consumption capital demand privileged Class is manipulated in the favor of the 20 sellers marketing techniques 2 Investment capital funds and assets invested into in order to further a business and or make a New pm t Working V 3 Skill capital what a person can Class Cont39ngent Class I contribute to the overall profit 80 4 Social capital collective economic benefits from the cooperation between individuals and groups social networks Rachel Counce March 8 2015 Conventional Model of Class in the United States Defining classes in the US is difficult because of our relatively low level of status consistency Toward the middle of the hierarchy people s standing in one dimension may not be the same as their standing in another 0 Ex a government official may have the power to administer a multimillion dollar budget yet may earn a modest income 1 Upper Class 0 5 of US population 0 Earn at least 205000 or more 0 Most are business owners executives in large corporations or senior government officials o Historically upperclass was composed of AngloSaxon Protestants no longer accurate UpperUppers 0 Include 1 of US population Almost always the result of being born into Primary inherited wealth in the form of stocks bonds real estate and investments 01d moneyquot Children typically go to private schools and prestige colleges Women do volunteer work to broaden power and build networks LowerUpper 00000 0 Most upper class people fall under this category 34 0 Working richquot instead of inherited rich 0 Not usually associated with old moneyquot families Made up of 4045 of US population Great in uence on our culture More diversity and ethnicity than the upper class 000 UpperMiddles 0 Income of 116000 205000 0 2 3 graduate from college and postgraduate degrees are common 0 Play an important role in local Political affairs AverageMiddles 0 Close to the center of US class structure 0 Income between 48500 116000 0 Build up a small amount of wealth over the course of lives 0 Less than 5050 that they will complete a 4year college degree 3 Working Class 0 About 13 of the US population 0 Income is between 27000 48500 Rachel Counce March 8 2015 Little or no wealth and are vulnerable to financial complications In Marxist terms forms the core of the industrial proletariat Iobs hold little personal satisfaction 0 Only 14 of children get a 4year college degree 4 Lower Class 0 20 of US population 0 75 complete high school but only 15 complete 4year college degrees 0 Struggle with unemployment or minimal income 000 Up to 51 in 2013 Shaw of Minimum Population wealth Anrdgi39mg m Percentage of All US Income Percentage 01 All USWealh 26 quot395 14 Enchant 20 percent Second 20 percent Third 20 percent Fourth 20 percent Poorest 20 percent of families of families Top 1 398 Up to 418 in 2012 Income Inequality Income earning from work or investments 0 US has never had a caste system or titled nobility however we are highly stratified 0 Rich receive the most school services highest incomes and benefit from the best health 0 During recent decades income inequality has increased How income inequality is measured using shares of aggregate income 0 The highest paid 5 of US families earn at least 205000 or 213 of all income which is more than the total income of the lowest paid 40 o The richest people now receive a much larger share of all income In 1978 the top 01 of all earners received 27 of all income in 2010 the total was 3 times this Rachel Counce March 8 2015 Statistics to know 51 of income received by the top 20 earners as of 2013 Minimum annual income for the top 1 is 370000 minimum annual income for the top 20 is 116000 Income share of the top 1 was at it s peak in 1928 with income share at around 25 since then these numbers have declined until 1988 and increasing ever since then As of 2013 there is a little under 20 income share Wealth Inequality Wea th the total value of money and other assets minus outstanding debts 0 Includes stocks bonds personal property insurance policies investments and real estate Does not include debt or home mortgage Distributed more unequally than income Income is a part of a person s wealth Wealth lessens vulnerability increases opportunities a creates a source of power Occupational prestige refers to the fact that people give more respect to those who have an quotimportantquot job such as a physician or lawyer and less respect to those with modest jobs such as a waitress or janitor Wealth is cumulative meaning it s value tends to increase through investment Can be passed down from generation to generation giving those who inherent wealth a considerable disadvantage in accumulating more resources Negative wea th families are living in debt and are at the bottom of the income distribution 0 Versus those who are at the bottom due to poverty How wealth inequality is measured using shares of aggregate income 0 The top 1 own 35 of the nation s private resources 0 The top 5 owns 63 of all private property 0 The top 20 own 89 of the country s wealth 0000 Statistics to know Percentage of wealth controlled by the top 20 and the top 1 of wealth holders as of 2011 o 889 ofwealth controlled by top 20 o 398 ofwealth controlled by top 1 Minimum wealth threshold of the top 10 and top 1 of wealth holders 0 Minimum wealth threshold for top 10 is 3964000 0 Minimum wealth threshold for top 1 is 20561000 Wealth share of the top 1 was at its peak in 1928 with wealth share over 50 numbers declined around 1988 and have increased since with over 40 of wealth share in 2013 Rachel Counce Poverty Federal peveuqty lime the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of a March 8 2015 household as determined by the government Below this line is considered poor To determine FPL the social security administration takes a low cost food budget and multiples by a factor of 3 assuming that the family spends approximately 13 of its budget on food 5 Problems associated with how we measure poverty using FPL 1 2 3 4 5 Inadequate baseline its headcount approach identifies only the share of the people who fall below the poverty threshold but does not measure the depth of the economic need No InKind Income Does not re ect modern expenses and recourses excluding significant draws on income such as taxes work expenses outof pocket medical expenses and inkind benefits food assistance No regional adjustments Does not vary by geographic location differences in cost of living in the US Only adjusted for in ation Arbitrary Threshold Relative bevequ the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more Abselmte peveuqty a lack of resources that is life threatening O 46 million men woman and children have been classified as poor 15 of US population Statistics and Trends in Poverty As of 2011 O O O O 15 or 46 million of the population is considered poor Family of four poverty line is 23624 Average income of a poor family was only 59 of this amount Poverty rate fell in the 1960 s rising and falling in narrow range in the decades since Poverty by Age 20 1 1 People over 65 87 fell from 30 in 1967 Elderly that are poor 78 Poverty in children under 18 219 Age 1824 206 48 of the US poor are ages 24 or younger Better retirement programs offered today by private employers and the government has decreased the poverty rate for the elderly Rachel Counce March 8 2015 Variations in Poverty The greatest concentration of poverty is found in central cities 20 Rural Appalachia Deep South Along the border with Mexico Near the four corners region in the Southwest 0 The Dakotas Chronicity 2 of poor OOOOO Concentration 12 of poor overall Severity 43 ofpoor Race and Ethnicity Minority Majority Dichotomy Miaerity greaps any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates Six characteristics of minority groups 1 Shared physical or cultural characteristics 2 Does not have to be a numerical minority 3 Eadegaiiiy custom of marrying only within the limits of a local community or group 4 Involuntary membership 5 Unequal treatment 6 Relatively high solidarity Race a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important Rtiiriicity a shared cultural heritage Race biological traits ethnicity cultural traits Rrejiiciice a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people Stereewpe a simplified description applied to every person in some category Racism the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another Cciermiiaci Racism ignoring legitimate racialethnic cultural and other differences insisting that the race problem in America will go away if race is ignored altogether o Accompanying this belief is the opinion that race differences in America are merely an illusion and that race is not real 0 The use of the principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo disregards Race biological traits Rachel Counce March 8 2015 Race as an illusion what we perceive as race is one of the first things we notice about each other and attached to those characteristics is a mosaic of values assumptions and historical meanings Race as a sociohistorical process Omi and Winant racial categories are created inhibited and transformed o Sociohistorical process according to Omi Winant s racial formation theory 0 Racial f rmati m thecmy theory that instead of race being something that is concrete due to biology and upbringing is what constructs their identity 2 Omi and Winant suggest instead that race is uid and is based on the person s individual interactions with other people and the social structures and common ideologies of a society Consequences of colorblind racism Disregards racial characteristics when deciding if someone will participate in certain activities or receive certain services People use colorblind racism as a way to avoid the topic of racism and racial discrimination Colorblind racism operates under the assumption that we are living in postrace world when in fact race is still an issue Colorblind racism undercuts the legal foundation of integration and affirmative action 0 Ex people claim to believe in race neutrality except when it hurts them Statistics and Trends Patterns of income and wealth inequality by race and ethnicity 0 Median family income by race from 19732013 approx Asian 19872013 60000 low 75000 high White 49000 low 62000 high Hispanic 35000 low 45000 high Black 28000 low 41000 high Trends in poverty by race and ethnicity 0 Rates of poverty by race from 19732013 White 7 low 13 high Hispanic 21 low 31 high Black 23 low 36 high 0 Rates of child poverty by race Asian 10 low 24 high White 9 low 15 high Hispanic 27 low 41 high Black 30 low 47 high Rachel Counce March 8 2015 D HU1F segregation different racial classes are separated by one another by law De Facto segregation segregation in US during 1950s and 1960s was discrimination and not segregation by law Assimiiation process by which a person acquires the social and psychological characteristics of a group 0 Ex waves of immigrants have been assimilated into the American culture institutionai Racism any system of inequality based on race 0 Ex public government bodies private business corporations and universities gaiieiice Printipie we categorize people on the basis of what appears initially prominent and obvious characteristics are culturally determined 0 Ethnicity gender social class and religion are among the most prominent features by which people are categorized gtereowpe intei changeabiiiw the principle that negative stereotypes are often interchangeable from one racial group to another social class to another from a racial group to a social class or from a social class to a gender
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