Nutrition and Health Study Guide exam 2
Nutrition and Health Study Guide exam 2 HHP:2310
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Hunter on Wednesday March 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HHP:2310 at University of Iowa taught by Kathy Mellen in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/11/15
Nutrition and Health Unit 2 Study Guide 03112015 Foodln uences Differentiate food choice and food consumption 0 Food choice what we eat factors that in uence food choices 0 Food consumption How much we eat environment in uences consumption volume amount 0 List factors in our eating and food environments that in uence food consumption 0 Eating environment Atmosphere a lighting odor sound of music Effort n ease access or convenience Eating with others a Size of group consumption norms n Differences between men and women Distractions n Unable to monitor amount consumed 0 Food Environment SaHence n Seeing or smelling food Variety of food a More choices Container size a Large portionscontainers Stockpiling food a Large amounts available Service a Shapesize of serving containers Carbohydrates Compare and contrast the major types of carbohydrates in foods and in the body 0 Carbohydrates Sugars Monosaccharides simple a Glucose used by body a Fructose n Galactose Disaccharides two monosaccharides n Glucose Glucose Maltose n Fructose Glucose Sucrose n Galactose Glucose Lactose o Carbohydrates Polysaccharides complex Starch n Occasionallybranched glucose chains n Plants store glucose as starch which we then consume 0 Some easily digested white our others take longer beans while some starch isn t digested resistant starch Glycogen n Highlybranch glucose chains In Body s storage form of glucose n Structure is ideal for rapid release of glucose 0 Fiber Dietary n One example cellulose Long strands of glucose 0 Provides structure to plant cell walls Bonds can t be broken a Watersoluble ber Reduces blood cholesterol Pectins gums and mucilages Viscous bers Occur in various watery compartments of plant tissue a Waterinsoluble ber Seem to make development of certain types of cancer less likely o Improves digestive function Cellulose hemicellulose and lignin Make up cell walls and tough structures of plants Explain the importance of carbohydrates and ber in the body 0 Carbohydrates Energy a Our body uses foods with carbohydrates to make glucose main energy source 0 Fiber Lowers cholesterol soluble ber Blood glucose regulation Healthy bowel insoluble ber Weight management List and describe strategies for increasing ber in the diet 0 Choose high ber cereals breads 35 grams of ber per serving is high ber in cereal Eat legumes beans and lentils for protein Choose fruitsvegetables with edible skins or seeds Add ber to diet gradually 0 Maintain high uid intake Describe how hormones control blood glucose during fasting and feasting o lnsulin when blood sugar level is high insulin is in charge to bring it down by telling the body to put excess blood sugars into tissues store excess sugar in storage form of glycogen and tells liver to stop making glucose COO O O O Glycogen when blood sugar is low glycogen is in charge to bring it up by telling liver to start releasing glucose When one hormone is high the other hormone will be low Hormones are from the pancreas Describe the impact of celiac disease on digestion and absorption 0 00000 O Autoimmune disease Sensitivity to proteins gluten in wheat rye barley Consumption triggers immune response Small intestine villi and microvilli damaged Affects ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS BLOATING GAS DIARRHEA may also occur Can consume quinoa rice soy corn 0 Compare and contrast glycemic index and glycemic load 0 O Glycemic index Ranks CHO foods on how quickly they enter bloodstream and elevate blood sugar Based on 50 grams of food and compared to score of standard food glucose or white bread High GI foods are quickly digested Blood sugar response is fast and high Low GI foods are slowly digested Blood sugar response is slow and steady Glycemic load Product of GI and carbohydrate content of food Represents quality and quantity of food consumed Some food have high Gland GL while others have high GI but low GL Found by multiplying the glycemic index of a food by the amount of carbs in a 10 gram portion of the food Lipids Identify the roles of lipids in both the body and food 0 Fats in the body Energy stores muscle fuel padding insulation emergency reserve 0 Fats in food Nutrient energy transportation sensory appeal satiety texture Compare and contrast the chemical makeup physical properties and health effects of saturated fats polyunsaturated fats monounsaturated fats and trans fats 0 Chemical makeup Saturated a Single bonds between carbons Monounsaturated n Hydrogens are missing creating a point of unsaturation Polyunsaturated a Two or more points of unsaturation Trans n Hydrogenating unsaturated fats 0 Physical properties Saturated n Stearic acid which is found in meats and milk products tropical oils Monounsaturated n Oleic acid which is abundant in olive old avocados Polyunsaturated n Oils axseed walnut canola oil Omega3 and 6 Trans n Making liquid fat more solid and makes product more shelfstable 0 Health effects Saturated a Raise blood cholesterol LDLBAS n lt10 total cal Monounsaturated a High in antioxidants good for watching cholesterol Polyunsaturated n Reduce total cholesterol Trans n lncreases LDL cholesterol levels 0 List food sources for each of these types of fats Saturated n Hydrogenated oils fatty meats fullfat dairy products butter lard coconut oil cocoa butter Monounsaturated n Olive canola and peanut oils avocados nonhydrogenated margarines nuts and seets Polyunsaturated n Sesame sun ower corn oils ax seed omega3 eggs walnuts Trans n Shortening partially hydrogenated vegetable oil snack foods fast foods readyprepared foods Summarize the relationships between lipoproteins and disease risks 0 Lipoproteins transport fats through the blood stream Chylomicrons n Transport lips from intestinal cells to the liver and other tissues VLDL another type of lipoprotein made primarily by liver a Half triglyceridge carry TG from liver to body Ussues n Shrink after triglycerides removed and eventually gather cholesterol to form LDL LDL n Derived from VLDLs as cells remove TG from them a Circulate through the body making their contents available to cells of all tissues a quotbad cholesterolquot 0 affected by diet too much sat and trans fats will elevate HDL n Transport cholesterol back to the liver from peripheral cells a good cholesterol n help clean out the artery wall reverse blockages 0 List strategies for reducing saturated and trans fats in an average diet 0 O O 0 Proteins Choose meats that are loin or round cuts Prepare by baking broiling or grilling Choose lowfat dairy products such as 1 or skim milk reduced fat or low fat cheeses Avoid tropical oils commonly found in processed foods Coconut palm oil Avoid fats that are hydrogenated De ne nonessential essential and conditionally nonessential amino acids 0 O O 0 Amino acids are building blocks and contain nitrogen Non essential amino acids Body produces them Conditionally essential amino acids Obtain from diet if insuf cient amount produced Essential amino acids Body cant produce them 0 List examples of incomplete complete and complementary proteins 0 O Incomplete Plant foods such as corn Soy is an exception Complete Animal foods such as eggs Highest quality o Complementary Combining two incomplete proteins 0 List the functions of proteins in the body 0 Energy blood clotting structure acidbase and uid and electrolyte balance acts as buffers or maintain body uids transportation carry nutrients enzymes build up and break down all the compounds the body makes and uses acts as catalysts antibodies giant proteins formed in response to body invaders 0 List the MyPlate food groups that provide protein 0 Meat poultry seafood beans and peas eggs soy nuts and seeds Differentiate the various types of vegetarian diets lactoovo lacto and vegan o Lactoovo Includes dairy and eggs 0 Lacto Includes dairy 0 Vegan Only consume plant derived foods Important to include b12 Metabolism and Nutrient Reviews 0 De ne anabolism and catabolism and provide examples of these reactions in the body 0 Anabolism Requires energy Build up Insulin o Catabolism Break down Releases energy ATP released during breakdown of glucose fatty acids and amino acids Provides energy for all cell activities Glycogen De ne enzyme and coenzyme 0 Enzyme Facilitators catalysts Initiates a reaction 0 Coenzymes Organic Associate with enzymes Without conenzyme a enzyme cannot function 0 List and describe factors that affect metabolism 0 Muscle mass age body size exercise nutrients o For each energyyielding nutrient provide the recommended intake including RDA if appropriate Dietary Guidelines recommendation and AMDR o Carbohydrates 4565 4 Kcalg o Fats 2035 9 Kcalg 0 Proteins 1035 4 Kcalg Diet Wars 0 List health consequences shortterm and longterm with popular diets o Atkins Shortterm n Ketosis not consuming enough carbs n Fatigue n Rotten fruit smellbad breath Longterm n Headaches n Muscle cramps n Diarrhea a Heart disease U cancer Summarize research on macronutrient composition for weight loss 0 Does macronutrient composition matter No 4 diets tested with various macronutrient distributions all groups lost weight 0 summary of studies compliance is consistently an issue weight loss is result of calorie de cit low carbohydrate diet shown to consistently lower triglycerides and increase HDL n no studies longer than 1 year conducted Effect on LDL cholesterol uncertain I Some studies show increases others decline a Individual responses may vary
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