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Introduction to Sociology Principles Study Guide Exam 1

by: Elizabeth Hunter

Introduction to Sociology Principles Study Guide Exam 1 SOC:1010

Marketplace > University of Iowa > Sociology > SOC:1010 > Introduction to Sociology Principles Study Guide Exam 1
Elizabeth Hunter
GPA 3.8
Introduction to Sociology Principles
Donna Lancianese

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This is the study guide for exam 1 in Introduction to Sociology Principles
Introduction to Sociology Principles
Donna Lancianese
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Hunter on Wednesday March 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC:1010 at University of Iowa taught by Donna Lancianese in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology Principles in Sociology at University of Iowa.


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Date Created: 03/11/15
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY PRINCIPLES Review Sheet Exam 1 Exam 1 Wednesday 22515 9301020 Your rst exam will be a combination of multiple choice matching and short essay The material you are responsible for information from lectures book material that overlaps with the lecture working knowledge of concepts from the book that I may not have de ned inclass and research evidence of concepts general patterns or ndings from both lecture and the book Additionally the book offers great examples Below are terms people theories and research since the start of the class from lecture For studying purposes know de nitions examples and what the peopleresearchers did why are they important In terms of research just know general patterns Compares these to information from the book what is missing Lecture 1 Sociology o The study of groups of all different sizes and focuses on patterns The study of the diverse contexts within which society in uences individuals Sociological Imagination o The capacity to think systematically about how many things we experience as personal problems 0 For example debt from student loans 0 All social issues that are widely shared by others born in a similar time and social location as us It involves taking into account how our individual lives are impacted by historical and social contexts o Helps us to ask hard questions and seek answers about the social worlds we inhabit 0 Biography amp History 0 Connecting history and biography 0 Private Troubles amp Public Issues 0 Private personal what happens to the individual 0 Public troubles on a macro level institutional or societal level 0 Private troubles are really part of public issues To solve private troubles one must nd other with the same troubles form coalitions and work to change public issues This is overall make a better society Context 0 How individuals are in uenced by society 0 Individual lives unfold in contexts social environments economic and cultural conditions 0 Child s immediate family the neighborhood child will grow up in education types of organizations Level of Analysis Micro to Macro and all points in between 0 IndividualElDyadsljSmaII groupsCommunitiesorganizations amp institutionssocia system Age of Enlightenment 0 Late 17th18th centuries 0 Reason empiricism science universalism progress individualism tolerance freedom uniformity of human behavior secularism French Revolution 0 17891799 0 Liberty equality Fraternity o Ushered in modern republics and democracies through the abolition of theocracies and absolute monarchies Industrial Revolution 0 17501850 0 Changes in agriculture manufacturing mining transportation and technology had a profound effect on the social economic and cultural conditions of the times Auguste Comte 0 17981857 0 coined the term sociology o thought that sociology would include both social statics and social dynamics Emile Durkheim 0 Father of sociology o Legitmatized sociology 0 Social Facts Karl Marx o Philosopher o Capialism 0 Historical Materialism Max Weber 0 Social change multiple in uences 0 Ideal type bureaucracy o Verstehen understanding Harriet Martineau o Introduced Comte to England 0 Proli c writer 0 advocate WEB DuBois 0 Double Consciousness 0 Structural explanations o Founding member of the NAACP Lecture 2 Research Methods Sociological Questions 0 They can range from what is right before us to questions about about entire societies 0 After major civil rights legislation has ended discrimination yet black and whites hardly hang out in groups or worship together 0 Comes from quantitative and qualitative research Literature Review 0 Conducting a good review of the literature before formulating a research question is essential This not only helps with the narrowing down of interests to questions but it helps to know if the ground to be covered is already in charted territory 0 Do I already know the answer Is the question researchable Is the question clear Does the question have a connection to social scienti c scholarship Does the question balance the general and the speci c Do I care about the answer Wheel of Science 0 lTheorieshypothesesobservationsempirical generalizations De nition of theory and hypothesis 0 Hypothesis prediction researchers make that they will test in their research Attempt to explain phenomena 0 Theory is the result of testing a hypothesis and developing an explanation that is assumed to be true about something Nomothetic School of Theory Construction 0 Tries to nd independent variables that account for the variations in a given phenomenon Probabilistic and usually incomplete ldeographic School of Theory Construction 0 Complete indepth understanding of a single case Methods De nition Strengths Limitations 0 Ethnography Observing or participating in people s everyday lives Limitations looking at behavior doesn t allow them to say much about opinions or motivation People are complicated They often act in ways that aren t consistent with their opinions 0 Experiment Creating arti cial situations that enable them to watch how people respond to them 0 Historical Comparative On records and documents to understand how people places or things worked in the past 0 Interviews lndepth oneonone When its about the thought processes that lead people to have certain opinions or engage in certain behaviors Limitations asking interview questions about motivation rarely gets at actual behavior What people say about what they do in relationships may have nothing to do with how they really act Strengths capture scripts and opinions o Surveys Ask standardized questions of large groups of people When a research question centers on patterns of behavior among large groups of people surveys are the best lnternal Validity o Affected by aws within the study itself such as not controlling some of the major variables a design problem or problems with the research instrument 0 Did the treatment cause the effect External Validity 0 Can you generalize the effects 0 When you can generalize your ndings to a larger group or other contexts o If your research lacks external validity the ndings cannot be applied to contexts other than the one in which you carried out your research For example if the subjects are all males from one ethnic group your ndings might not apply to females or other ethnic groups Thick Description 0 A rich detailed description of the ways people make sense of their lives Independent and Dependent Variables 0 Independent aspects of our research that we predict exist separate from them 0 Dependent aspects of our research that we predict will uctuate in relation to other variables Correlation v Causation 0 Correlation The existence of a relationship between two variables Exists when a change in one variable is related to a change in another variable 0 Causation when change in one variable is a direct cause of change in another variable For example longterm smoking is established as a cause of increased risk of lung cancer Ethics 0 Set of guidelines that outline what is considered moral and acceptable behavior 0 Stanford Prison Study Turned young students into guards and prisoners o Tuskegee Syphilis Study Involved 600 black men 399 with syphilis 201 without it Never given adequate treatment for their disease 0 Tea Room Trade Analysis of homosexual acts taking place in public toilets Lecture 3 Culture and Media LanguageCommunication 0 Communication the sharing of meaningful information between people 0 Language any comprehensive system of words or symbols representing concepts and it does not necessarily need to be spoken Culture as a system 0 Every society is full of symbols that communicate an idea while being distinct from the idea itself Studying symbols helps us understand things about society that are not often discussed Collective Rituals amp Symbols 0Culture as Practice 0 Culture in uences the kinds of decisions we make in our lives whether or not we are aware of it 0Habitus o Bourdieu called habits this 0 Refers to the diverse ways in which individuals develop intuitive understandings and engrained habits re ecting their class background and upbringing o Became so routine that we don t even realize we are following them 0 Explains how our future choices and opinions are always guided by our past experiences Mainstream Culture oThe most widely shared systems of meaning and cultural tool kits in society Subculture o In US hippies in the 605 and online gamers in the 20005 0 Deviant o Relatively small groups of people whose affiliation is based on shared beliefs preferences and practices that exist under the mainstream Countercultures o A group whose ideas attitudes and behaviors are in direct con ict with mainstream culture and who actively contest the dominant cultural practices in the societies of which they are a pa rt Hegemony 0 When elites gain legitimacy and power from widely shared yet taken for granted beliefs about what is right or wrong proper or improper valuable or not Ethnocentrism oThe inability to understand accept or reference patterns of behavior or belief different from one s own Cultural Relativism oThe idea that cultural meanings and practices must be evaluated in their own social contexts Cultural Capital 0 Your education your attitudes and your preferences which collectively confer upon you a higher or lower status in the eyes of others Cultural Omnivores 0 Cultural elites who demonstrate their high status through a broad range of cultural consumption including lowstatus culture Media Conglomerates o A company that owns large number of companies in various mass media such as tv radio publishing movies internet olackson Katz s Tough Guise video clip 0 Learn from media Lecture 4 Interaction Interaction o The understanding that individuals are shaped through their interaction with one another De nition of the Situation 0 What people use to know what is expected of them and what is expected of others in a situation Through the de nition of the situation people obtain a sense of the statuses and roles of those involved in the situation so that they know how to behave o For example one must know whether they are in a movie theater bank library or market to know in a social sense just whom they are interacting with and for what purpose Sapir Whorf Hypothesis 0 The structure of a language determines or greatly in uences the modes of thought and behavior characteristic of the culture in which it is spoken Symbolic lnteractionism 0 Looks at individual and group meaning making focusing on human action instead of largescale social structures 0 People develop and rely upon in the process of social interaction The Self 0 Individual re ection on one s own identity and social position George Herbert Mead o The self is not a thing but a process of interaction Based on the thinking of George Symbols 0 Something that communicates an idea while being distinct from the idea itself Language 0 A comprehensive system of words or symbols representing concepts which is often but not always spoken Social Roles 0 Set of connected behaviors rights obligations beliefs and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation Mead s Stage Theory of Self o Preparatory stageplay stagerole takinggame stage Generalized Other 0 The attitudes views and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in hisher behavior Socialization o The process by which individuals come to understand the expectations and norms of their groups as well as the various roles they transition into over the life course and how to behave in society or in particular social settings Charles Horton Cooley 0 Known for his concept of the looking glass self Perceptions 0 Looking glass self as a metaperception because it involves perception of perceptions Looking Glass Self 0 Our own selfunderstandings are dependent on how others view us Ethnomethodology o A line of sociological inquiry that studies the ways members of a particular group construct social order and make sense of their everyday lives Breaching Experiments 0 An experiment that seeks to examine people s reactions to violations of commonly accepted social rules or norms Emotions 0 Another method people use in social interaction is emotion o Emotions are not utterly beyond our control 0 Emotions are also performances we arrange for speci c purposes although the speci c content of the displays varies by context Goffman 0 Study of symbolic interaction 0 Presentation of self in everyday life 0 dramaturgy Dramaturgy front v back stage 0 When we perform a role in relation to an audience society the role is on frontstage and our performance behavior is open to judgment by those who observe it The backstage region is a place where the actors can discuss polish or re ne their performance revealing themselves to their audience Cultural Scripts 0 Behaviors and understanding that are not universal or natural 0 Are important because shows how the larger culture re ects the individual Impression Management 0 We are trying to control what people think of us Facetoface v Technology Mediated Interaction 0 Get confused about one another s meaning Co presence 0 Describes the conditions in which human individuals interact with one another face to face from body to body Conformity o A change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagine group pressure Deviance formal and informal 0 Formal deviance includes criminal violation of formallyenacted laws Robbery theft rape murder assault 0 Informal deviance rerfers to violations of informal social norms that have not been codi ed into law Picking one s nose belching loudly standing unnecessarily close to another person Solomon Asch and his studies 1955 0 Demonstrated the degree to which an individuals own opinions are in uenced by those of a majority group Social pressure Dr Berns 2005 Followup to Asch 0 Seeing is believing what the group tells you to believe 0 Found that social conformity showed up in the brain as activity in regions that are entirely devoted to perception But independence of judgment showed up as activity in brain areas involved in emotion Legitimation o A process through which a social system or some aspect of it comes to be accepted as appropriate and generally supported by those who participate in it Begins early through childhood socialization o Propriety 0 owner Validity o The degree to which a measurement instrument measures what we in fact think it measures 0 Authorization o Legitimate or socially approved use of power 0 Endorsement Moscovici and Minority In uence 0 Form of social in uence that is attributed to exposure to a consistent minority position in a group 0 Said that the minority has in uence on the majority too Importance of Interaction 0 Children begin to establish a sense of self and learn what others expect of them Learn social behavivors Lecture 5 Social Structure Culture 0 The textbook s de nition of social structure 0 The external forces most notably social hierarchies norms and institutions that provide the context for individual and group acUon o Hierarchy o A set of important social relationships that provide individuals and groups with different kinds of status in which some are elevated above others Institutions 0 A structured and enduring practice of human life that is built around wellestablished rules and norms or is centered in important organizations 0 Why the book s de nition of social structure is problematic Aspects of culture leading to social structure 0 Dual Nature of Social Structure according to Sewell 1992 0 Shared system of beliefs and knowledge shared among a group and transmitted to individuals through social interactions 0 A set of tools for social actions a tool kit of assumptions and behaviors for daily life 0 In other words culture is a system and culture is a practice 0 Cultural Schema o Familiar and preacquainted knowledge one uses when entering a familiar situation in hisher own culture 0 Resources 0 We do social structure 0 Social Structure breaking down 0 Social Hierarchies Institutional Environments o Elaboration of rules and requirements to which individual organizations must conform to order to receive legitimacy and support Socialization Habitus Bourdieu Agency 0 Free choices Civil Rights Movement


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