sociology final exam study guide
sociology final exam study guide Soc 1020
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by RachelB on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 1020 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Lambert in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology 1020 in Sociology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Social Structure & Interaction Group, primary group, secondary group, reference groups, ingroup vs. outgroup, social networks o Primary group friends, family, intimate facetoface o Secondary group more anonymous, impersonal, formal, based on shared interests/activities ex. Voluntary organizations o Ingroup loyalty and belonging o Outgroup antagonism/hostility between groups ex. School rivalry o Social networks people who are linked to one another by the groups they belong to Group size & group dynamics o Smaller groups = less stable (dyads, triads, and so on) the more people in the group, the stronger the stability there is within the group Five characteristics of bureaucracies Dysfunctions of bureaucracies Groupthink & consequences o Groupthink narrowing of thought of a group that leads to a perception that there is only one “right” viewpoint and one “right” course of action; to suggest an alternative would be seen as confrontational and disloyal ex. Shuttle disaster but everyone conformed to “it doesn’t matter” Leader, types of leaders, & leadership styles o Authoritarian one person dominates a group o Democratic everyone has an opinion and equal power o Laissezfaire “hands off” o Instrumental taskoriented o Expressive socioemotional Stanley Milgram and the power of authority o Authoritative figure telling the person to up the voltage when answer is wrong Solomon Asch & the power of peer pressure/group conformity o Used different sized cards and observed groups of people conforming to the wrong answer Deviance and Social Control What is deviance? o Any violation of norms (not just crime) Stigma o Characteristics that discredit people ex) norm of appearance birthmarks, burn victims, big ears Explanations of deviance: Sociobiologists vs. psychologists vs. sociologists o Sociobiologists study biological and genetic predispositions for deviance EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE o Psychologists focus on abnormalities within individuals (mental) Deviant personalities lead to deviant behavior o Sociologists look for answers outside individuals environment, socialization, membership in cultures, etc. Edwin Southerland & Differential Association Theory: “Excess of definitions” o From different groups we associate with, we learn to deviate or conform to society’s norms o “excess of defninitions” lead us to one side or the other Walter Reckless & Control Theory: inner and outer controls o Inner controls based on strength of attachments, commitments, involvements, and beliefs (morality, conscience, religious principles) o Outer controls family, friends, opinions of others and social standing Labeling Theory o Labels, the significance of reputation, and how reputations help determine our path of deviance or conformity (“saints” vs “roughnecks”) According to Emile Durkheim, what are the three functions of deviance? Can you give or identify appropriate examples? o Clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms o Promotes social unity o Promotes social change Robert Merton & strain theory o How mainstream values produce deviance: we learn to desire cultural goals (possessions, wealth, prestige) o Most use institutional means to acieve the goals (education, hard work, etc) Illegitimate opportunity structure (How does social class affect the types of crimes we have the opportunity to commit?) o Street crime vs “white collar” crime Conflict theory and the criminal justice system (Which groups of people are disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system?) o Criminal justice system police, courts, and prisons that deal with people accused of committing crimes o as an instrument of oppression: conflict theorists regard power and social inequality as main characteristics of society argue the notion the law treats everyone equally to bring justice is a myth o disproportionate representation if you make up a small % of the population, but are greatly represented in a certain area (ex. Prison population) What is recidivism? o Within 3 years, 62% of prisoners are rearrested and 52% sent back to prison Global Stratification What is social stratification? EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE o SS system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to PROPERTY, POWER, AND PRESTIGE (3P’S) Three major systems of social stratification (be able to describe each) o Slavery based on debt, crime, and war conditions: temporary vs lifelong, slave status not always inheritable, slaves status not always powerless and poor o Caste birth determines lifelong status based on ascribed/achieved statuses (US racial caste system from moment of birth, race marks everyone for life and racial groups are hierarchal Endogamy marrying within your own group Ritual pollution the idea that marrying outside of your group is polluting the purity of your group o Class placed at birth and primarily based on money/material possessions Social mobility movement up or down social ladderdepends on whether the system is open or closed depends on starting position at birth What determines social class according to Karl Marx? What about Max Weber? o Marx stratification happens when small groups in power use society’s resources to benefit themselves and oppress others Davis and Moore’s explanation for how stratification is functional—also, what are the critiques of this argument? o Society must make sure positions are filled o Some positions are more important than others o More important positions were to be filled by most qualified people o To motivate qualified people, there must be different awards given o Critiques: How do we determine what positions are most important? Stratification should be based on meritocracy, but is it really? If stratification is so functional, then it ought to benefit everyone Conflict perspective on stratification: Mosca and Power; Karl Marx; o Mosca argued that stratification by power Is inevitable For society to exist, it must be organized. This requires leadership to coordinate people’s actions To have leader and followers, there must be inequalities of power human nature is selfcentered, therefore people in power will use position to reap greater rewards for themselves or their group You should be able to describe how functionalism & conflict theory differ in their views of stratification. (There is a table in your books that describes this in a succinct way.) What other ways are people controlled besides force? o Soft control controlling people’s ideas ideology beliefs that justify the way things are, controlling information labor camps, media domination, censorship, stifling criticism, Big Brother Technology monitoring citizens with cameras, wiretaps, etc. Stratification of nations: most industrialized, industrializing, and least industrialized (What are characteristics of each and/or what are the living conditions like?) EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE 3 ways the world became stratified: colonialism, world system theory (core, semiperiphery, periphery, external), and culture of poverty o Colonialism countries that industrialized first got a head start and established economic colonies o World system theory industrialization led to 4 groups of nations: core, semiperiphery, periphery, and external o Culture of poverty a way of life that perpetuates poverty from one generation to the next (living on the edge of starvation and can’t afford to make changes) 3 ways that stratification is maintained (neocolonialism, multinational corporations, technology and globalization) o Neocolonialism replaced colonialism using international markets to control Least Industrialized nations (selling goods on credit creates a circle of debt) o Multinational Corporations direct and indirect exploitation of least industrialized countries buying political stability by funneling money and weapons in return for low taxes and cheap labor o Technology and global domination LIN are unable to invest in technology but some are able to export manufactured goods on a massive scale due to cheap labor $ from exports is then used to adopt high technology to modernize infrastructure (transportation, communication, electrical, and banking) and advance their industry Social Class in the United States What is social class and what are the reasons it is important? o Social class large group of people who are grouped together base don’t he fact that they have similar 3P’s o Important lead to different lifestyles, different chances in life, and shape the way people look at the world and themselves Max Weber and the three P’s (be able to describe each) o Power influence o Property wealth/income o Prestige status (occupational, etc.) How has the distribution of income changed over time? o Rich get richer, poor stay/get poorer C. Wright Mills, William Domhoff & the power elite Status consistency vs. status inconsistency Kahl and Gilberts 6tier model of social class o Capitalist upper middle lower middle workingworking poorunderclass How does our social class affect our lives? o Determines how you move on social ladder and the 3P’s o Physical and mental health o Family life o Education EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE o crime exchange and structural mobility o Intergenerational the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next o Upward movement up the social ladder o Downward mobility movement down social ladder o Structural movement as result of changes in structure of society o Exchange same number of people moving up as moving down, showing little change in social class system Know about the poverty line, how it’s calculated, and the problems associated with the poverty line Race and Ethnicity What is race and what is ethnicity? o Race the use of inherited physical traits to distinguish one group from another o Ethnicity shared lifestyle informed by cultural, historical, religious, and/or national affiliations Be familiar with the myths about race (these will likely show up as True/False questions) Whiteness o Racial domination normalized reproduces cultural, political, economic, and social advantages and privileges for white, while withholding them from nonwhites What is colorblind racism? o The idea that one’s race no longer significantly impacts one’s life we are NOT in a colorblind society and race has real consequences on people’s lives Symbolic violence o Be familiar with the racial makeup of the US population (largest/smallest groups, etc) o Whites 65% o Latinos 15% o Blacks 13% o Asian 4% o Two or more races 2% o Native American 1% biology and race Five fallacies about racism/identify examples o Individualistic only involves ideas an prejudices, assumes there are 2 types of people (racist vs nonracist), and ignores structural racism o Legalistic assumes that abolishing racist laws automatically gets rid of racism o Tokenistic assumes the presence of POC in influential positions is evidence that racism isn’t an obstacle for POC anymore o Ahistorical Fallacy assumes the history of the US is inconsequential today “I didn’t own a slave and you were never a slave!” EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE o Fixed fallacy assumes that racism is fixed, that it’s the same over space and time (assumes race doesn’t increase or decrease over time) Who created race and why o European powers to seize control over the Americas How was race created? (structural and cultural representation—be able to identify examples) What is a racial microaggression? o “you don’t look/sound black”, “you’re pretty for a Latina girl” Know the difference and be able to identify examples of institutional vs. interpersonal racism o Institutional: Jim Crow Laws o Interpersonal: to your face Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Sex (primary and secondary characteristics) versus gender o Sex primary reproductive organs, secondary physical differences (breasts,etc.) Reasons for the gender pay gap? o Occupational segregation, labor market experience, union status, race, education attainment Identify examples of heterosexual privilege o Immediate access to our loved one in case of accident or emergency o Public recognition and support for an intimate relationship o Expressing affection in most social situations and not expecting hostile or violent reactions from others o Living with your partner and doing so openly The glass ceiling vs. the glass escalator o Men have glass escalator Be able to define sexuality o Who we are physically attracted to What is heteronormativity? o Social, legal, political, and interpersonal practices that assume heterosexuality to be normal and natural How have we historically dealt with children who are born intersex? o Make them female 3 levels of the gender structure o Individual development of gendered selves o Cultural/interactional as we interact in our day to day lives, men and women face different cultural expectations (even when they occupy identical structural positions) o Institutional distribution of society’s resources (jobs, power, money, etc)
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