PSYC 2777 Final Exam Study Guide
PSYC 2777 Final Exam Study Guide Psyc 2777
Popular in Ethnocultural Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rosemarie Pacitto on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2777 at East Carolina University taught by Nathaniel Vietor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 273 views. For similar materials see Ethnocultural Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
Reviews for PSYC 2777 Final Exam Study Guide
The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Rosemarie for help in class!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/26/16
Cohen Phinney Ethnicity- a persons norms, beliefs, and behaviors Argues 3 main factors of ethnicity 1. Culture identity 2. Ethnic identity 3. Minority status How one views themselves as apart of their group membership as well as their attitudes associated within their membership is known as ethnic identity -ever-changing view that varies among each member -.It is suggested that the stronger one feels about their ethnic identity, the stronger it plays a role on the idea or mental image one has of themselves. 3 traits of ethnic groups that influence the impact on outcomes and interests: 1. Cultural norms and values (individualism vs. collectivism) 2. The strength and meaning of identity (how an individual associates himself or herself with their culture) 3. Experiences an attitudes associated with minority status (different stereotypical labels that can be ascribed to minorities) Minority status and corresponding discrimination is variable among and within the different ethnic groups. An individual’s response to discrimination may influence his or her psychological outcome Triandis Kanter Tockenisn= person standing out in work field (women, African American) Queen B syndrome= one women in charge in workplace (token female) 4 basic types of women in the workforce= 1. Mother (older women advice for relationships, well liked, taken more serious than the pet) 2. Iron maiden (‘ball buster’) aggressiveness, taken seriously, not well liked but good GOOD CHANCE OF advancement 3. Pet- bubbly, upbeat, brings cookies, well liked, isn’t prestigious but low chance of advancement 4. Seductivess is attractive, uses sex appeal to get what she wants, liked by men, better chance of advancement Tokens difference from dominants sets a second set of dynamics in motion. The presence of a token or two makes dominants more aware of what they have in common at the same time that it threatens the commonality. Threat of tokens: 1.)The token resprents the danger of challenge to the dominants premises, either through explicit confronation by the token or by a disaffected dominant who, through increased awareness, sees the culture for what it is and sees the possibility of alternatives 2). The self- consciousness created by the tokens presence is uncomfortable for people with prefer to operate in casual, superficial ways. Loyalty tests= women expected to show loyalty to their dominant peers, failure to do so could result in further isolation, a sign of loyalty permits the token to come closer to being included in more o the dominants activities. Tokens become encapsulated in limited roles that give them the security of a ‘place’ but constrain their areas of permissible (accepted) or rewarded action Ogbu Cultural model= understanding of people have of their universe Simply: the way we look at the world Voluntary immigrants Involuntary Immigrants came her to seek Slavery, colonization opportunity Edu. System not a way to strangers in strange land get ahead realize they have to work Mistrust for schools hard to get ahead of Getting edu is ‘white thing discrimination to do Sell out to group if they persue academics **Success due to peer evalutation **Parents badmouth edu. system Gates Raised wealthy/ middle class blacks are not apart or associated with lower class black community (equated with crime/ drug use) Caught in no mans land of alientation and fragmentation is black middle class Being African American ‘Myths’ 1. “Acting black is not essential to being black 2. Don’t have to fail in order to be recognized as an African American. Succeeding and edu. Is not “a white thing to do” 3. Cant pretend that 30 million people could ever be apart of the same social class th Talented 10 rule= if you look at any culture at any time, only 10% of population considered cultural elite (drive the boat, dictate culture law & medicine, education and scholarship) IS there a culture of poverty? YES, it implies that there is something about peoples mentalities that makes them poor Kochman Article: In-class Notes as well as Personal Notes 2/10/16 “Birth of a Nation” -Most racist movie of all time -First movie ever shown in white house -Shows discrimination as ‘good thing’ and not a problem -Black Stereotypes “Song of the South” by Disney -Racist Movie Burried by Disney and hard to find --This article is Psycholinguist, meaning that it emphasizes that all language is symbolic-- Emblematic Ethnic Indicators= racial and cultural features that serve an identity function or otherwise mark and maintain social boundaries between black (in-group) and white (out-group) members. Nonemblemtic Ethnic Indicators= distinctive black cultural patterns that don’t serve such function. *These consist of different ways of communicating between blacks and whites *Evaluated by in-group by emblematic ethnic indicators Ethnography of communication operates with the notion of communicative competence: best understood, perhaps, as what a speaker needs to know to communicate effectively or appropriately in significant settings. Cognitive style = a way of looking at the world, which could formally be represented as a cognitive map. Style= a complex of symbols, forms, and value orientations, that when applied to ethnic groups signals both overt cultural contexts and underlying subjective values and standards by which performance is judged. Emblematic Ethnic Components: Racial Identification White labels for blacks: derogatory, focusing on black physical features. EX: liver lips, spade, monkey Black Labels for whites: Derogatory, about whites attitudes towards blacks (whether racist or not) White Labels for Whites: usually about ethnicity rather than racial EX: Spick, margo Black labels for blacks: inclusion or exclusion in in-group vs. out-group. Whether their counterparts ‘act black’. EX: Blood, member, brother, or OREO if excluded. Black Intonation/Expressive Intensity: features that clacks use as a self and group identifying ethnic markers. Function as an inside (ethnic) boundary marker for blacks. Substance of which characterizes blacks as “acting white”. Nonemblematic Ethnic Components: Boasting Black Talk: Whites consider a fight when talk is involved with anger present and insults exchanged. More of an argument. When blacks say they had a fight, violence occurred and weren’t just ‘arguing’ Verbal dueling: exchange or ritualistic insults. May have come about to toughen up young African American skins. Exchange ends when someone is insulted, lacks a comeback, or fight breaks out. Buriel Article: In- class Nites as well as Personal Notes 2/12/16 The Mexican descent ethnic group represents a distinct ethnic group. They sure predominately Mestizos, meaning they are a genetic mixture of European Spanish and New World Indian In the aftermath of the Mexican American war, Mexico lost most of its territories that are today the Southwestern U.S, and the Mexican residents of these annexed territories became residents by default. Because of the pervious years hostilities, Euro- American residents became hostile to these new Mexican decent Americans. Texas rangers and other groups terrorized these new residents, making the word Mexicans as bad as a racial slur as ni**ers. - Because of the treatment and associated thoughts of the Word Mexican, terms evolved such as Latin and Latin American to label Mexican ethnic identity. WW11 was a turning point in the development of ethnic consciousness of Mexican- descent population -after serving and experiencing casualties, they had proven to Euro- Americans that they were loyal Americans. Chicano Movement: because of residential, educational, and occupational segregation, people of Mexican descent exploded in protest Hispanic: appears on all government publications that make reference to the mestizo population in the U.S Ethnic Labels in Adult Populations: Twenty Statements test: measures ethnic identity in relation to the total self- identity. - negative relationship between preference for ‘Mexican’ and income level, and positive relationship between preferences for ‘Mexican American’ and income levels - 90% of those identifying themselves as “Mexican American”, “Chicano”, or “Other Spanish” were born in the U.S. Those who self identified as “Mexican” or “Mexicano” often born in Mexico - More males identify themselves as “Chicanos” than females. Ethnic Labeling in Adolescents: Students given a triad of a story designed to measure their perceptions of prejudice. The 3 stories described the same encounter in which a citizen is stopped for speeding by a policeman, except the name of the citizen changed from story to story. The 3 names substituted for each other in the stories were Juan Gonzalez, John Grant, and Beulah Johnson. - When the subject in the story was Juan, ‘Chicanos’ were more likely to perceive the encounter with the policeman as racial discrimination. - On the other hand, “Mexican Americans’ said that the policeman was only doing his job - Both of them agreed that Juan would Probably get a ticket - In the case of John, more “Chicanos” believed that he would get off without a ticket - Results for Beulah Johnson were not able to be interpreted because most respondents were unsure of racial background. Chicano identity is associated with a more militant and questioning attitude towards the U.S system of justice. Generational Status, Labeling, and Acculturation in Children: “Mexican American” is the most neutral ethnic label, and therefore the one that is acceptable to persons of the Mexican Descent. Mexicans of first generations unanimously prefer the label ‘Mexican” For the Second and third generations, “Mexican Americans” is the preferred label Kerwin and Ponterotto Jacoby Worshop History of Asians having to deal with stereotypes in the U.S Media representations: good @ math, science.. have buck teeth, small penis 2 types of Asian Americans: Ass kicker (Bruce Lee) or Math nerd Asians as “model minority” do relatively well compared to other minority groups- education, jobs (functions as a trap that Asians are EXPECTED to be good at certain things) Why do so many Asian Americans create their own small businesses? -The main reason is when they come to our country they didn’t think they can get ahead in a big corporation, It is easier to be their own boss. The Gold Rush ushered Asians into the U.S Asians taking over business/jobs Disputes between Korean shopkeepers in run0 down community’s w/ poor black clientele Blacks argue Asians treat them with disrespect and siphon money from community Asians accuse blacks of being rude and shoplifters Believed that the nations best University’s hold down # of Asian students being admitted -Title IV of the Civil Rights act of 1964 must not discriminate on basis of color, race, or national origin Interment Camps= Asians rounded up into work camps Vincent chin= Lived in Detroit of Chinese Ancestry.. died by beaten to death Hawaii= Asian American Majority Kehs= cooperative capital (Asian Americans viewed as poor credit risks) Choney, et al. Indian psychologists #s are so small many Indians are treated by non- Indian counselors or psychologists Many psychological assessments and treatments continue to ignore differences between American Indians and whites. Indianness= important aspect of personal identity development tribal specific customs and traditions reflecting attitudes and beliefs that help members define themselves Environmental and religious influence (feel influence of physical env.) religion spirituality **forced acculturation “The Indian Problem” -Simplest way to address the problem was genocide -boarding schools to make native Indians more subject to white society -Christianization of the American Indian was more effective than any other assimilation effort -Adolescents have more serious mental h ealth problems than are reported for all race populations in the U.S “caught between 2 cultures’ acculturative stress PTSD and acculturative stress Caused by threat to personal integrity (forced acculturation, racism, discrimination experienced by tribal people) Serving in the military did not gain prestige from whites and did not gain the, cultural tolerance or acceptance NA have higher role of alcoholism than any other ethnic group Patterns between drinking patterns and cultural values Acculturation on 5 levels 1. Traditional 2. Transitional 3. Marginal 4. Assimilated 5. Bicultural Lukes and Land Regards homosexuals as a minority group, or ‘sexual minority group’ and tries to explain how homosexuals are assimilated to a bicultural society similar to the process undergone by cultural minorities Biculturality- used to explain cultural identification and cultural difference without suggesting that one culture is superior to another Bicultural socialization= the way minorities interpret a sense of cultural identity and self- concept within a society that is catered to mainstream majorities (process by which minorities engage in both the mainstream and minority society while coming to terms and creating a self- identity within this concept) For ethnic minorities, the first bicultural consists of acculturation experiences within the minority cultural group. This is the opposite for homosexuals because they originate in the dominant culture group. Important reasons for examining sexual minorities from a cultural context: In the process of accepting a homosexual identity, 6 factors identified in the literature as influencing the degree to which a minority group individual becomes bicultural: 1. Cultural Overlap (addresses the degree to which 2 cultures share similar values, how people are able to adjust their behavior successfully to meet the established norms of 2 distinct groups) 2. Cultural translators, mediators and models Cultural translators are individuals who have undergone sual socialization with considerable success. They are the most effective agents to promote dual socialization for other minority members Mediators are individuals from the majority culture who serve as providers of information and guides for minority people. Often include teachers, counselors, social workers who helps homosexuals obtain info about organizations that provide services. Models are individuals from the minority group who often act as a guide or successful role models for others 3. The amount of corrective feedback. Includes both the degree and type of position and negative feedback provided by both minority and majority groups in an effort to produce normative behaviors. An attempt is made to clarify which behaviors are appropriate to particular contexts to help the individual function optimally within the norms of society. 4. Problem Solving Skills. The greater the degree of analytical skill, the greater the repertoire of strategies to cope with mainstream culture and to increase biculturality. 5. Language. How language is used within a cultural group often defiens who is and who is not a member of that group. 6. Appearance. Much as in the case of language, the use of dress many enhance or inhibit the bicultural socialization process Sexual majorities often are rejected by those holding the norms, values, and ideologies of their native culture. The experience of rejection fosters an awareness of minority status and may be internalized in a greater identification with the sexual minority group. Bloom and Blair Mohammed= messanger of god, Prophet of islam Mohammed from Mecca Medina Kaaba (shrine in the center of mecca) Quaran= book of islam 5 pillars of islam 1. Testify in Arabic that “there is no other god but god and Muhammad is his messenger” 2. Worship god 5 times a day 3. Fasting during Ramadan (ninth month in the Muslim calendar) 4. Give alms to the poor 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca Foxman and Nuemann Both arguing about anti- Semitism. Which is hostility or prejudice against jews Foxman argues that Jewish people in todays society are experiencing increased anti- semitism (caused by publishings within newspapers, tv) Suicide bombers have completed horrific actions against synagogeus, schools, and museums Jews as the enemy of all Muslims, people, and nations Believed to be behind the terrorist attacks of 911 Offers a way of standing up against anti-Semitism by free people in free nations Nuemann argues that is it the best time to be a Jew, anti- Semitism is overblown The best way to reserve "anti-Semitism" as a term of condemnation is to define it as hatred of Jews, not for what they do but for what they are. Eberhardt and Fiske Perceptions of Affirmative Action(AA): Race based AA more threatening than gender-based Perceptions of AA are negative in part because group membership is more salient for the powerless (AA targets) than for the powerful Black and female recipients view AA differently People view AA negatively in part because they see it as replacing a race- neutral and gender- neutral status quo with a group- based reward system that considers group membership to the exclusion of merit (most qualified for the job) People think employers are carelessly filling quotas for minorities Social Power= the degree of control one group has over another groups outcome Race vs Gender Stereotypes: Gender and racial stereotypes have descriptive and prescriptive elements meaning that black men are typically associated with being lazy and women are associated with being dependent. The degree of segregation between men and women and blacks and whites Women and other men of race pose different threats Whites may consider AA as help b/c to do so is consistent with the belief that rewards are ditibuted in a race- neutral manner in absence of AA (seeing blacks and women in need or help fits their stereotypes) Blacks are less likely than whites to view AA as help (feel entitled rather than deserving) Women less likely to feel entitled Sternberg Intelligence- the way we sort information (every culture does differently) IQ test measure only part of what people mean by intelligent in ordinary language. Cross cultural work shows that what is considered intelligent behavior in one cultural setting may actually be opposed to what is considered intelligent in another. - Society measures peoples competence Sailer Inter-racial dating is ever-growing - 72% of black-white couples consist of a black husband - 72% of white-Asian couples consist of a white husband and Asian wife (wasn’t always like this) 1. Before the civil rights revolution, 1960s catered to about 50% of black white couples consisting of a white husband. 2. Along with only 62% of white- Asian couples with white husband Before the civil rights movement, frowned upon for a black male to date white females Jim Crow Laws: the perseverance of the white male to denounce black men success as to not take the attention of white females -The decreased amount of white- Asian couples back in the fay could be due to anti- Asian immigration laws that had prevented women from joining the largely male dominant pioneer immigrant group. -Less eligible black men per eligible black women (this gives ammunition for black females to think white women are taking all their men and contain hostile thoughts) Black male attractiveness= their level of masculinity (women admire strength) - Typically social media tends to put black men in toughness category and Asian men in an optimal intelligence category - Height also tends to play a role in level of attractiveness Plessy vs. Ferguson 1890- Louisiana passed a law (Separate Care Act) that required separate accommodations for blacks/ whites. 1896- Supreme Court found: the notion of separate but equal States can have separate public affiliations (for blacks and whites) as long as they are equal Concerned group of New Orleans residents created “committee of citizens” dedicated to repeal law st Plessy arrested for sitting in white only car with 1 class ticket Argued that he was being stripped of his rights under the 13 th and 14 th amendment. th th 13 = outlawed slavery, 14 = all persons born citizens of U.S and states they reside must be treated equally 5-4 Overturn Plessy vs furgeson ( 5 justices ok with plessy vs. furgeson, 4 justices wanting to overturn the case) The ultimate decision was that the states legislative would decide immunity when dealing with race questions, plessy wasn’t denied of his rights of the constitution (13th and 14 th amendments)- “i n the 7:1 decision handed down on May 18, 1896, the Court rejected Plessy's arguments based on the Fourteenth Amendment, seeing no way in which the Louisiana statute violated it “ ** I was confused by the fact that in class Professor Vietor noted that the overturn of the case was 5-4 but after having read the article, it noted that a 7:1 decision was handed down to restrict Plessey of winning the case… SO I would just remember both of those numbers….*** Brown vs. Board of Education An anonymous decision Separate but equal remained standard doctrine in the US law until its repudiation in the 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown VS Board of Education Declared states to create laws combining black and white schools States trying to find loopholes to stop segregation in school Biggest tool to deep southern school legislators: shutting down academy’s to stop blacks and whites to attend schools together Rock 9(black children): ordered to be admitted into little rock high school where they were ultimately blocked admittance President Dwight Eisenhower sent escorts to allow kids into school (federal marshals) Federal Government vs. State Legislature Segregatiothruled violation of the equal protection clause of the 14 amendment James Meredith= first black student to enroll in Ol’ Miss Fredrick Douglas= “colored minority treatment is a powerful factor in relations with India” Lum V Rice= segregation of Asian- Americans from white Americans Reckless eyeballing= if black man looked at white women the wrong way it was known as eyeballing and could lead to trouble for the man Emette Till= Open casket after being beaten to death by white men for saying something to white women on street Bowers vs Hardwick (1986) 5-4 decision ruling consensual homosexual sex as sodomy (and not protected by the right to privacy) GEORGIA Michael Bowers- Attorney General Of Georgia sued Involves the right of privacy under the 14 amendment Justin Powell deciding vote of the case Loving Vs. Virginia (2003) The case was brought by Mildred Loving, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, who had been sentenced to a year in prison in Virginia for marrying each other. (violated the states antimiscegenation statute) invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage. Lawrence vs Texas Seventeen years after Bowers v. Hardwick, the Supreme Court directly overruled its decision in Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003), and held that antisodomy laws are unconstitutional. The Court struck down the sodomy law in Texas and, by extension, invalidated sodomy laws in 13 other states, making same-sex sexual activity legal in every U.S. state and territory. The Court, with a five-justice majority, overturned its previous ruling on the same issue in the 1986 case Bowers v. Hardwick, where it upheld a challenged Georgia statute and did not find aconstitutional protection of sexual privacy. Protected by substantive du process under the 14 amendment Amici curaie- friends of the court Supreme Court released its 6–3 decision striking down the Texas statute
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'