I-O Psych Final Exam Study Guide
I-O Psych Final Exam Study Guide PSYC 2544
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
I-O Psych Final Exam Study Guide 4/26/16 3:21 PM General Mental Ability (g) General Mental Ability (cognitive ability) A basis for all actions – it matters for every single job Cognitive Abilities g • Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, and learn from experience Is g important at work? ▯ yes • Intelligence (or “g”): broad general capability – describes person’s ability to learn from experience Higher job complexity = higher predictive value Procedures for Assessing Abilities Cognitive ability tests • Allow individuals to demonstrate what they know, perceive, remember, understand, or can work mentally Tests that produce a single score • Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) Tests of specific abilities • Bennett Test of Mechanical Comprehension Personality & Integrity Tests The Five Factor Model (FFM) (The Big Five) Factor: 1) Conscientiousness Characteristics: responsible, prudent, persistent, planful, achievement oriented Factor: 2) Extraversion Characteristics: sociable, assertive, talkative, ambitious, energetic Factor: 3) Agreeableness Characteristics: good-natured, cooperative, trusting, likable, friendly Factor: 4) Emotional stability Characteristics: secure, calm, poised, relaxed Factor: 5) Openness to experience Characteristics: curious, imaginative, independent, creative The Big Five is valuable in research, but not the best in practice (when hiring, company should design test specific to the job) Personality Screen-out tests ▯ identify psychopathology • Generally used for positions of public trust • May only be administered after offer of employment • Best-known example is the MMPI Screen-in tests ▯ identify normal personality • May be administered as pre-employment tests • Examples include HPI, NEO-PI, PCI Integrity Testing Overt Integrity Test • Ask questions directly about past honesty behavior (stealing, etc.) as well as attitudes toward various behaviors (employee theft, etc.) Personality Based Integrity Test • Test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad personality constructs (conscientiousness, reliability, social responsibility) Knowledge, Skills, & Interests Additional Proposed Individual Differences • Skills o Practiced acts o Technical & non-technical • Knowledge o Collection of discrete but related facts and information about a particular domain ▯ Tacit knowledge ▯ “street smarts” ▯ Procedural knowledge ▯ knowing “how” ▯ Declarative knowledge ▯ knowing “that” • Competencies o Sets of behaviors instrumental in accomplishing various activities o Combination of individual difference characteristics Biographical Data Biodata • Includes type of information collected on an application blank o E.g. previous jobs, education, and special training Ecology model • Events constituting person’s history represent choices made by individual to interact with his/her environment Distinguishing characteristics of biodata • History • External • Objective • Discrete • Control • Relevant & non-invasive Sensory and Physical Abilities Vision Touch Taste Smell Hearing Kinesthetic feedback Employee Selection Cut scores – Scores organization sets to pick who passes and who fails parts of the hiring process • Criterion-related cut score o S cut scores correlated to job criterion/performance and cut on that • Norm-related cut score o Cut scores are determined in relation to others o For example, scores in the 90% - this is based on others’ scores, not on the central score Clinical decision making • Uses personal judgment of applicants’ scores to make hiring decisions. Highly subjective. • More common and preferred, like having control over the process Statistical decision making • Combines information according to a mathematical formula o Considered more accurate and more reliable Hurdle system of combining scores • Series of tests with cut scores that thin out the pool in stages as the application process goes along o The most expensive hurdles (like in-person interviews) come towards the end of the process and cheaper hurdles (like cognitive intelligence) come towards the beginning of the process Developing Measures of Job Performance: Rating Scales “The Criterion Problem” Deficiency and Contamination Criterion deficiency • When actual criterion is missing information that is part of behavior one is trying to measure Criterion contamination • When actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure Types of Performance Measures Objective performance measures • Quantitative count of the results of work (anything you can quantify) Judgmental measures • Evaluation of the effectiveness of an individual’s work Personnel measures • Typical kept in personnel file (e.g., absences, accidents, rate of advancement) Performance Ratings One of the most common types of performance measures in organizations. Structural characteristics of performance rating scale • Extent to which duty/characteristic being rated is behaviorally defined • Extent to which meaning of response categories is defined • Degree that person interpreting ratings can understand response that rater intended Science-Practitioner Gap The scientist-practitioner gap is the difference between scientific research findings on organizations and their management versus how organizations are actually managed • The gap may exist because while theory may guide scientific research, how organizations run is not by theory. Organizations are run by leaders who make decisions in the best interests of maintaining and improving the organization A scientist-practitioner is someone who tries to understand real world phenomena using all of the tools of science, most notably by applying scientific theories and the scientific method Evidence-Based Consulting Evidence-based consulting • I-O psychologists are focused on making evidence-based decisions in their work in organizations • This includes using a decision-making process that combines critical thinking with use of the best available scientific evidence Job/Work Analysis Job analysis: process that determines essence of a collection of tasks falling within the scope of a particular job title • A formal procedure by which the content of work is defined in terms of activities performed and attributes needed to perform the work 3 Components of Job Analysis • 1) Organizational-oriented job analysis o Determines needs and goals of organization; context • 2) Task-oriented job analysis o Begins with statement of actual tasks and what is accomplished by those tasks • 3) Worker-oriented job analysis o Focuses on attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish tasks Individual Differences • Having employees with difference and diverse aspects of themselves is important • Individual differences comes into play when we think about management; it is important for managers to understand their employees • Adults have a variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time • People differ with respect to those attributes • Relative differences among people on these attributes remain even after training • Different jobs require different attributes • These attributes can be measured (KSAOs) 5 Stages of Group Development 1) Orientation (forming) – members becoming familiar with one another and the group, dependency and inclusion issues 2) Conflict (storming) – disagreement over procedures; expression of dissatisfaction; tension among members; antagonism toward leader • Conflict can be a good thing if it’s task-based 3) Structure (norming) – growth of cohesiveness and unity; establishment of roles, standards, and relationships; increased trust, communication 4) Work (performing) – goal achievement; high task orientation; emphasis on performance and production 5) Dissolution (adjourning) – termination of roles; completion of tasks; reduction of dependency Training & Development Training • Systematic acquisition of skills, concepts, or attitudes resulting in improved performance in another environment • Basic foundation for training programs is learning Learning • Relatively permanent change in behavior and human capabilities produced by experience and practice Training, Learning, & Performance Training increases probability of learning and learning increases probability of better job performance Learning & Motivational Theories Applied to Training • Reinforcement theory • Social learning theory o Watching other people behave, learning from others. Can apply to on the job training – you’re watching other people while you’re on the job • Goal-setting theory • Apply these theories to training Developing Training Programs Goldstein & Ford’s Training Model Training Needs Analysis 3 step process • Organizational analysis • Task analysis • Person analysis Required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed (organizational), what needs to be trained (task), and who will be trained (person • Basically the same as job analysis Organizational Analysis Examines: • Organization’s goals and values • Available resources • Environment • Culture/climate of organization Task Analysis • Examines what employees must do to perform job properly • Can consist of o Developing task statements o Determining homogeneous task clusters o Determining KSAOs Person Analysis • Identifies which individuals within organization should receive training and what kid of instruction they need • Assessments of trainee personality, etc. Trainee Characteristics Goal-orientation • Performance orientation o Concerned with doing well • Mastery orientation o Concerned with increasing competence • Experience level • Trainee motivation • Trainee readiness Learning Processes in Training Principles of Learning Active practice • Actively participating in training/work tasks Automaticity • Occurs when tasks can be performed with limited attention • Likely to develop when learners are given extra learning opportunities (overlearning) Whole learning • When entire task is practiced at once Part learning • When subtasks are practiced separately and later combined Massed practice • Individuals practice task continuously and without rest Distributed practice • Rest intervals between practice sessions • Generally results in more efficient learning and retention than massed practice Methods of Training Content and Methods of Training Training methods • 4 basic principles o 1) present relevant information and content to be learned o 2) demonstrate KSAOs to be learned o Create opportunities for trainees to practice skills o Provide feedback On-Site Training Methods On the job training • Trainees observe and learn from more experienced employees Job rotation • Employees move to various jobs, departments, or areas of company Off-Site Training Methods Classroom lectures Simulators • Controlled reproducibility • Safety considerations • Learning considerations E-learning (online training, webinar) Transfer of Training • Degree to which trainees apply knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained on the job • Characteristics affecting learning and transfer outcomes Characteristics of a Positive Transfer of Training Climate • Early socialization indicating that training is important • Continuous learning culture • Adequate peer and supervisor support • Opportunities to use learned capabilities • Access to equipment or resources that are essential for transfer of training • Adequate working conditions • Regular feedback and positive reinforcement for improved performance Evaluating Training Programs Training evaluation • Systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information that can be used to make effective training decisions • Several purposes of training evaluations Training Criteria Kirkpatrick’s 4-level model • Reaction criteria (Level 1) ! Internal criteria • Learning criteria (Level 2) ! Internal criteria • Behavioral criteria (Level 3) ! External criteria • Result criteria (Level 4) ! External criteria Augmented framework of Kirkpatrick’s model 1) Reaction • Affective reactions • Utility judgments 2) Learning • Immediate knowledge • Knowledge retention • Behavior/skill demonstration 3) Transfer 4) Results Utility Analysis Benefits of training programs based on: • # of individuals trained • Difference in job performance between trained and untrained employees • Length of time training expected to influence performance • Variability in job performance in untrained employees 4/26/16 3:21 PM 4/26/16 3:21 PM
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