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POLI 362: Final Review/Study Guide

by: Rachel Stein

POLI 362: Final Review/Study Guide Poli 362 001

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Political Science > Poli 362 001 > POLI 362 Final Review Study Guide
Rachel Stein
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Notes for every question on the final based on the final review with Fowler.
Politics and the Mass Media
Donald Fowler
Study Guide
Politics, Media
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Poli 362 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Donald Fowler in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Politics and the Mass Media in Political Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
POLI 362: Final Review (outlines and not full answer) When is the exam: Thursday 9 a.m. 1. President of the US has the most powerful media capability in the world a. Both in his office and with connections people outside the white house b. Speech writers, people who knew issues, ability to contact any and all media outlets that are necessary c. Most prestigious office in the world d. Social and online media (everybody) wants to have special information about the president e. All willing to at least come and listen, even if they don’t agree with him f. Cabinet officials and independent agencies: i. Appoints cabinet officials and secretaries 1. 3 or 4 levels down are all appointees too ii. each cabinet has an elaborate media operations in itself iii. take cues from the white house and are sometimes called to do work for the white house 1. there is a clear interlocked relationship between the departments and independent agencies 2. the president is their boss, they do his bidding g. Also has available all the operations, abilities, and talents of his political party h. There are numerous organizations (special interest) who favor the presidents positions and the presidents occasionally (not frequently) and ask them to help sell a specific program he is promoting i. There is no feesable limitation on the president’s capacity and access to every talent and resource in media i. In order to sell a program j. Is this good for democracy or not??? i. He has the responsibility to sell his program and educate the people about what he wants and his policies ii. There is a potential that a president too anxious to sell his program may attempt to yse propoganda in a fashion that would limit the public’s “right to know” k. Built into our system is a group of opponents to the president (other party and special interest groups) who have the responsibility to keep the president honest l. Has the media netwoeks of most of the members of the house and senate of their specific party i. Members of the other party will typically oppose the president 2. The media in major political campaigns has a very special responsibility to educate the public in a discriminating (not discriminatory) fashion so that the public gets to know the retail candidates and gets to elaborate on the wholesale candidates so that the public can better understand/get to know both a. Media begins this process with a certain amount of skepticism i. Specifically for new (retail) candidates b. Has responsibility to educate public in a wider sense about wholesale candidates i. Usually b/c they are moving up to a higher position c. Leading up to the primaries there are many very important media people following candidates to see how they work in new environments i. Special responsibility of the media d. Media are almost the only institution who have this responsibility i. Party and candidates media operations also have one, but there’s is peroquial b/c they want to persuade the people there candidates are good e. Media is unique b/c they are supposed to be unbiased and purely educating 3. Matt Moore’s notes should help (also possibly the last class with the woman – don’t have these notes) a. The old media (print/tv/radio/film) have been the reliable sources of education for the american public for a long time b. The old media deals with the public as a mass i. Those media do not have the technology/capability to deal with the individuals in small groups c. New media is more sophisticated/interesting/fun but what is most valuable is they can deal with millions people as individuals i. Can talk/communicate with people in terms of their own individual taste, preferences and capacity d. New media collectively have more capability to analyze and apply more preferential factors about individual citizens than any institution/operation in the history of the world i. They truly are unique ii. Are going to become more and more discriminating iii. Cant imagine what new media is gonna be in 4 years iv. Wont know what the new media is fully capable of until after the conventions e. When matt moore talked about data and analytics – someone who is really skilled can cut a crowd up and analyze their preferences and mentality 4. (ACTUALLY 5) The relationship that the specific tool new media has that matt moore described you need to know something about that and how to describe it!!! a. Did at the very beginning of the semester b. Great city states (greek?? Democracy but few people participated) c. Roman republic i. First time people were elected by citizens to represent them in government d. 12/13 century when in England people began to think and feel like they had responsibility and a right to know and participate in government i. People believed they had a right to know and determine what government should do ii. Magna Carta – restricted king from doing certain things to subordinates iii. After this thinking developed through English common law e. Gutenberg press created a whole new universe where people can learn and read and can induce government officials to listen to what they had to say i. Great expansion of democracy ii. Still didn’t reach everyone, was limited f. People part of drafting the constitution was another leap forward i. More people, people of less prestige, ect ii. Gutenberg press also allowed for newspapers 1. Newspapers educated more people g. Andrew Jackson in the 1820/30s was universal white male suffrage h. Telegraph came not long after that i. Could send info over miles almost instantaneously ii. More people learned about government and wanted involvement in government i. Civil war broadened electorate extensively (15 amendment) j. Wireless and you get women’s right to vote in the later half of th the 19 century i. There were some states that allowed it previously but between the wireless communications, radio was invented which gave illiterate people the chance to learn about government ii. Radio was coming about the time women had the right to vote k. More people who had the right to vote prior to radio but didn’t vote now did l. TV ushers in not only info about government and the new nation post world war two i. Prime mover of the civil rights and feminist movement ii. Tv was a major contributor to universal adult suffrage m. Today it is hard to see how legally/constitutionally you could extend the suffrage the media seemed to be a technology to encourage people who have the right to vote to participate and vote i. Now its only convicted felons and people in mental institutions who can’t vote ii. This is a unique definition of democracy 1. Now you have to get everyone to vote 5. Media messages are created through a dynamic between politicians and political parties and other groups who are interested in winning support of the public for their candidates, policy, ect a. Candidates are obvious but there are a multitude of organizations and associations who what to deliver political messages to the public i. Green peace, Christian groups, democratic party, ect b. Groups define their interests and do research and create means to create a clear definition to define what they want people to believe i. Have to have a goal – or why they should matter to the public ii. This is hard to do c. In order to have a media impact you have to define what impact you want to have d. Then you have to find out what the people believe i. Done through public opinion polling ii. Has the ability to define what people think in minute detail iii. How do these details interact with each other in order to produce public policy e. New media are just the most recent leap to understand better what the public thinks and how to influence that f. All of the media (new and old) have an eye on influencing what the public thinks i. What they all do using their own technology is to collect data about publics 1. What they think 2. Why they think the way they do 3. What might be an approach to change their minds ii. Take this data and convert it to measurements 1. Until 10-15 years ago the best conveyer of those messages was TV 2. QUESTION 3 reference – new media can influence public as individuals in the best way possible now g. New media makes you subject to the influence of other people but you also now have the ability to influence others i. Its reciprocal – we can influence candidates, special interest groups, and political parties 6. Sections a. Libel and slander is when someone says really bad about you that has the potential of damaging your character/reputation/business/ect i. Private person – you take offense to what a media outlet says about you 1. You have to prove (in order to get money/penalty) that it is untrue ii. Public person – people who have access to the media in responding to incorrect or critical information 1. Gov, congressman, president, candidate 2. You have to prove multiple things a. That it is false b. That they knew it was false c. They printed it anyway d. They did it with the intent to do harm iii. Standard for public people is higher because they can respond to information using the media 1. Courts think its better to have some public peoples reputation hurt a little and protect freedom of speech and therefore democracy b. One of the famous supreme court justices said: I cannot define pornography but I know it when I see it (look up who said it) i. General rule: pornography is thought to degrade the quality of the community ii. It is difficult to define pornography iii. States used to have much greater restrictions on salacious material iv. There is a wide interpretation of what is porn v. You need to remember that the courts (specifically supreme court) has adopted a standard of community values 1. What is porn in Columbia may not be porn in Las Vegas c. You can say almost anything you want to about a public person or a government official i. You can say governor Haley should be impeached, ect 1. You cant mention physical harm 2. Cross the line when you go from criticism (Advocate change of government) to a violent overthrow of government d. Print media is protected by the constitution (freedom of press) i. Difference between that and the electronic media is the spectrum 1. Mignon Clyburn to mike copps and in other notes ii. Public owns the spectrum and people who want to use the publics property have to use it in a fashion that is beneficial to the public 1. Remember terms convenience and necessity a. Must be convenient and necessary for the public i. Must prove this to be relicensed 7. He passed out a sheet with 4-6 major headings and a whole bunch of sub headings a. If you remember major headings you’ll have part of the answer b. In essence the media is supposed to be truthful, accurate, timely, responsible c. Media is expected to be fair and not put themselves in compromising situations d. Are expected to be accurate e. Avoid conflicts of interest (compromising situations) f. The way the media continues to protect democracy is by being timely and truthful and therefore can better educate the public about what is relevant and important 8. Newspapers (local) Monday is a down day because nothing has happened over the weekend a. Tuesday gets bigger b. Wednesday gets bigger c. Thursday is the biggest weekday in a TV operation b/c more time has elapsed and therefore there are more things to write about i. People stay home more on Thursdays and cause they are home they read newspapers more d. Newspapers volume and content falls off on Friday e. Saturday is slow except for sports f. Sunday has big sports coverage and has special sophisticated news programs in the morning i. Watched by political elites and quasi elites ii. Not much happens on the weekend to make news g. Newspaper assignment goes from the editor to a reporter i. Starts early, builds to noon, work through the afternoon, work to the evening with a 6-8 pm deadline ii. Editors editor report and composition people put paper together h. Local TV stations follow about the same pattern i. Relationship in TV between editors and reporters is very similar ii. Mostly the people who are TV editors and reporters tend to have bigger egos and pay more attention to themselves i. Local TV station has to broadcast morning, noon, dinner, and night i. Aka have to have news content in all of those time periods ii. This gives them a very different schedule for a production of their product iii. Needs product 4 times a day 1. Newspapers only need to do it once j. CBS, ABC, NBC, Fox have the same basic schedule as a local TV station i. Morning, midday, dinner, late ii. All of the Columbia networks operate on that sequence iii. The producers of this are alert and reporting in places all over the world iv. Organizations are much more elaborate than print media (except for NYTimes, Washington post, Wall St Journal) 1. Newspapers only have to produce their product only once a day 2. Have different editions you can get at different times a. 3 am and 10 am NYTimes in NY is very different k. World Wide all news cable system CNN, FOX, and MSNBC (particularly CNN does not have the audience in the US that fox does, but has an audience all over the world) i. Specifics of world wide broadcast are different but they match each other b/c they have to produce broadcast on a continuous basis 9. First thing you do as a media crisis person is to write a plan a. In the plan you must define who is in charge and who will make public comments and under what conditions will they make public comments i. Must make sure to every extent possible to get the facts correct ii. Identify who the public spokesperson will be 1. Media director, president, chief executive officer b. Second thing you do is you try to find out what happened c. Someone has to keep Dr. Pastides informed with what is going on i. Tells the media nothing until he knows what the facts are d. Try to isolate the problem (put police all around capstone and people who are experts with dealing with tall buildings find out what is going on) i. Don’t tell the media stuff that is incorrect – this is second most important behind having a plan e. There will always be attention between the media person representing the institution and the media i. Working media wants to know everything “right now” and you very rarely have all the information right away ii. Presumably after a while either the bad guys will kill everyone and the cops will kill the bad guys OR the people will change their mind and let the people go and the bad guys will go to jail 10. You the comm. Director were listening to this conversation on your bosses telephone and not your own a. Info came in technically an illegal way – keep this in mind


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