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Final Exam Review

by: Marietou Kane

Final Exam Review CMST 101 029

Marietou Kane

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This study guide covers everything from chapters 11-19
Public Speaking - OC
Karen Slawter
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marietou Kane on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMST 101 029 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Karen Slawter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking - OC in Communication at Northern Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
CMST 101                                 Review Sheet for Final Exam l. Explain what the target audience is in persuasion.  Why is that portion of your  audience important to a speaker. ­ the target audience is the portion of the whole audience that a speaker most wants to persuade. This portion is important because you need to know that not everyone  will be persuade so you need to focus on those who are more open to the topic and  might change their way of thinking.  2.    Name the three types of persuasive speeches. ­Persuasive on question of fact, persuasion on questions of value, persuasive speech  on questions of policy.  3.    Cite an organization plan for each type of persuasive speech named above. Questions of fact: topically Questions of value: topically Questions of policy: Motivated sequence    requires passive agreement or to gain immediate action.  4.    Explain each type of persuasive speech named above. Questions of fact: Whether something is true or false. Question about the truth or  falsity of an assertion Questions of value: A question about the worth, rightness, morality and so forth of  an idea or action  Questions of policy: a question about whether a specific course of action should or  should not be taken.  5.     Explain how credibility plays a role in persuasiveness. Credibility is the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on  a given topic.  6.    What two factors influence credibility in a persuasive speaker? Competence: how audience regards speakers intelligence Character: how audience regards sincerity, concern for well being of the audience  7.    What is evidence and what role does evidence play in persuasion? Evidence is supporting material(s) used to prove or disprove something. Evidence  adds to your credibility as it shows that you are not the only one who said this, it  backs up your idea. 8.    Name and explain the four types of reasoning.   Be able to use examples for each. Reasoning from specific instance: reasoning that moves from particular facts to a  general conclusion Ex: My sister said her math class was easy, my math class is easy, math is therefore  easy Reasoning from principle: reasoning that moves from a general principle to a  specific conclusion Ex: All people are mortal, Socrate is a person, Socrate is mortal Causal Reasoning: Reasoning that seeks to establish relationship between causes and effects Ex: because the patch of ice was there I fell and broke my arm Analogical Reasoning: Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases  and infers that what is true for the first case is true for the second Ex: If you can play tennis you can probably play ping pong 9. What are the three types of appeals used in persuasion?  Give both the Greek and  English names. Ethos: Credibility, Pathos: Emotions and Logos: Logic 10.    Why should a speaker cite sources when speaking?  It adds to their credibility, shows that you did a lot of research and the audience  knows that you are not the only one who believes this 11.    Name the types of special occasion speeches and explain each. Presentation speech: speech for when you give an award, explain the type of award,  what is it, how do you qualify for it.  Introduction speech: Brief, accurate, adapt to the occasion and the audience, and  build sense of anticipation Commemoration speech: Speech to inspire the audience, heighten appreciation,  adjust content delivery to fit the situation, use creative language Acceptance speech: Speech giving thanks for gift, award, recognition, be formal  avoid bad words. Be prepared! 12. What is audience analysis and why is it important in public speaking? Audience analysis is the process of learning who your audience is, what they are  thinking and how you can best reach them. It is important because it will help you  know if they are interested or not and how to change the way you are presenting to  get them more interested.  13. Name four kinds of leader and explain each term.    Implied leader: Member to whom others defer because of rank  Designated leader: Member who rises to the top during deliberation Emergent leader: Member elected/appointed                         14.       What is meant by procedural needs?   Explain task needs and maintenance needs.              What do we need as a group to achieve goals.               Task needs: substantive actions necessary for group Maintenance needs: Communicative actions that maintain relations in group  15. Name and explain a method by which a group might arrive at consensus.  Reflective­thinking method where the group defines the problem, analyzes it,  establishes criteria for solutions, generates potential solutions and then selects the  best solution based on the common decision through reasoning, honest exchange of ideas and full examination of the issues 16. How might the group choose to present the recommendations of the group? 17. Name the element each of the examples represents in public speaking: a. During my freshman year, I volunteered six hours a week at the local homeless  shelter.    b. Answer ­­ Speaker Credibility statement c. In closing, I am urging you to volunteer time to help those people in need. Answer­ Action Step d. If you can roller­skate, you can rollerblade. Answer­ Analogical reasoning e. Parking garages have solved parking problems at Ohio University, Murray  State, and Morehead, so it will solve them at NKU. Answer­Slippery Slope f. “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where  they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their  character. “ Answer­Antithesis g. Fact 1: My physical education course last term was easy. Fact 2: My roommate’s physical education course was easy. Fact 3: My brother’s physical education course was easy. Conclusion:  Physical education courses are easy. Answer­ reasoning from specific instances h. All people are mortal. Socrates is a person. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. Answer­ reasoning from principle  i. There is a patch of ice on the sidewalk.  You fall down.  You reason that  because that patch of ice was there, you fell down. Answer­ causal reasoning j. In this speech, I’d like to show you the many problems that can result from  chewing tobacco.  Then I’d like to persuade each of you to take action and help change the lenient laws governing the use of chewing tobacco in our society.   Let’s begin by looking at how widespread the problem of chewing tobacco  really is. Answer­ Preview/main points k. Nickels from heaven.  A nickel saved is a nickel earned.  A nickel for your  thoughts.  Okay, maybe these phrases don’t have quite the same ring as the  original sayings—A penny saved is a penny earned.  But it’s a fact of our  nation’s economic life…. Answer: Repetition and cliché ? 18. What is a fallacy? Error in reasoning 19. Be able to identify the following fallacies in reasoning: Red herring: Fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the  subject Ad hominem: Fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the problem Either­or: Fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when  more alternatives can exist Bandwagon: A fallacy, which assumes that because something is popular it is  therefore good, correct or desirable Slippery slope: Fallacy, which assumes that taking a first step, will lead to the  subsequent steps that cannot be prevented 20.  Explain the 3 stages of credibility Initial: Credibility before speaker even speaks Derival: Credibility produced by speaker while giving a speech Terminal: Credibility after the speech 21. What is meant by a speech of special occasion?  Name examples Different from regular speeches; it is a speech that aim to fit the special needs of a  special occasion. Ex: speech of introduction, speech of presentation, speech of  acceptance and speech of commemoration 22. What is the reflective thinking method? 5 step method. 1. Identify and define the problem 2. Analyze the problem, 3.  Establish criteria for solutions 4. Generate potential solutions 5. Select the best  solution  23. Explain what inclusive language means Language that does not stereotype, demean or patronize people on the basis of  gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation or different factors 24. Fresh as a daisy is an example of what literary device? Cliché  25. What are some guidelines for using visual aids? Avoid passing visual aids among the audience Display visual aids only while discussing them  Explain visual aids clearly and concisely Talk to the audience not to the visual aid  Practice with your visual aid  Check the room and equipment                                                                                                           


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