Final Exam Review
Final Exam Review CMST 101 029
Popular in Public Speaking - OC
Popular in Communication
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marietou Kane on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMST 101 029 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Karen Slawter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking - OC in Communication at Northern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
CMST 101 Review Sheet for Final Exam l. Explain what the target audience is in persuasion. Why is that portion of your audience important to a speaker. the target audience is the portion of the whole audience that a speaker most wants to persuade. This portion is important because you need to know that not everyone will be persuade so you need to focus on those who are more open to the topic and might change their way of thinking. 2. Name the three types of persuasive speeches. Persuasive on question of fact, persuasion on questions of value, persuasive speech on questions of policy. 3. Cite an organization plan for each type of persuasive speech named above. Questions of fact: topically Questions of value: topically Questions of policy: Motivated sequence requires passive agreement or to gain immediate action. 4. Explain each type of persuasive speech named above. Questions of fact: Whether something is true or false. Question about the truth or falsity of an assertion Questions of value: A question about the worth, rightness, morality and so forth of an idea or action Questions of policy: a question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken. 5. Explain how credibility plays a role in persuasiveness. Credibility is the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. 6. What two factors influence credibility in a persuasive speaker? Competence: how audience regards speakers intelligence Character: how audience regards sincerity, concern for well being of the audience 7. What is evidence and what role does evidence play in persuasion? Evidence is supporting material(s) used to prove or disprove something. Evidence adds to your credibility as it shows that you are not the only one who said this, it backs up your idea. 8. Name and explain the four types of reasoning. Be able to use examples for each. Reasoning from specific instance: reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion Ex: My sister said her math class was easy, my math class is easy, math is therefore easy Reasoning from principle: reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion Ex: All people are mortal, Socrate is a person, Socrate is mortal Causal Reasoning: Reasoning that seeks to establish relationship between causes and effects Ex: because the patch of ice was there I fell and broke my arm Analogical Reasoning: Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is true for the second Ex: If you can play tennis you can probably play ping pong 9. What are the three types of appeals used in persuasion? Give both the Greek and English names. Ethos: Credibility, Pathos: Emotions and Logos: Logic 10. Why should a speaker cite sources when speaking? It adds to their credibility, shows that you did a lot of research and the audience knows that you are not the only one who believes this 11. Name the types of special occasion speeches and explain each. Presentation speech: speech for when you give an award, explain the type of award, what is it, how do you qualify for it. Introduction speech: Brief, accurate, adapt to the occasion and the audience, and build sense of anticipation Commemoration speech: Speech to inspire the audience, heighten appreciation, adjust content delivery to fit the situation, use creative language Acceptance speech: Speech giving thanks for gift, award, recognition, be formal avoid bad words. Be prepared! 12. What is audience analysis and why is it important in public speaking? Audience analysis is the process of learning who your audience is, what they are thinking and how you can best reach them. It is important because it will help you know if they are interested or not and how to change the way you are presenting to get them more interested. 13. Name four kinds of leader and explain each term. Implied leader: Member to whom others defer because of rank Designated leader: Member who rises to the top during deliberation Emergent leader: Member elected/appointed 14. What is meant by procedural needs? Explain task needs and maintenance needs. What do we need as a group to achieve goals. Task needs: substantive actions necessary for group Maintenance needs: Communicative actions that maintain relations in group 15. Name and explain a method by which a group might arrive at consensus. Reflectivethinking method where the group defines the problem, analyzes it, establishes criteria for solutions, generates potential solutions and then selects the best solution based on the common decision through reasoning, honest exchange of ideas and full examination of the issues 16. How might the group choose to present the recommendations of the group? 17. Name the element each of the examples represents in public speaking: a. During my freshman year, I volunteered six hours a week at the local homeless shelter. b. Answer Speaker Credibility statement c. In closing, I am urging you to volunteer time to help those people in need. Answer Action Step d. If you can rollerskate, you can rollerblade. Answer Analogical reasoning e. Parking garages have solved parking problems at Ohio University, Murray State, and Morehead, so it will solve them at NKU. AnswerSlippery Slope f. “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. “ AnswerAntithesis g. Fact 1: My physical education course last term was easy. Fact 2: My roommate’s physical education course was easy. Fact 3: My brother’s physical education course was easy. Conclusion: Physical education courses are easy. Answer reasoning from specific instances h. All people are mortal. Socrates is a person. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. Answer reasoning from principle i. There is a patch of ice on the sidewalk. You fall down. You reason that because that patch of ice was there, you fell down. Answer causal reasoning j. In this speech, I’d like to show you the many problems that can result from chewing tobacco. Then I’d like to persuade each of you to take action and help change the lenient laws governing the use of chewing tobacco in our society. Let’s begin by looking at how widespread the problem of chewing tobacco really is. Answer Preview/main points k. Nickels from heaven. A nickel saved is a nickel earned. A nickel for your thoughts. Okay, maybe these phrases don’t have quite the same ring as the original sayings—A penny saved is a penny earned. But it’s a fact of our nation’s economic life…. Answer: Repetition and cliché ? 18. What is a fallacy? Error in reasoning 19. Be able to identify the following fallacies in reasoning: Red herring: Fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject Ad hominem: Fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the problem Eitheror: Fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more alternatives can exist Bandwagon: A fallacy, which assumes that because something is popular it is therefore good, correct or desirable Slippery slope: Fallacy, which assumes that taking a first step, will lead to the subsequent steps that cannot be prevented 20. Explain the 3 stages of credibility Initial: Credibility before speaker even speaks Derival: Credibility produced by speaker while giving a speech Terminal: Credibility after the speech 21. What is meant by a speech of special occasion? Name examples Different from regular speeches; it is a speech that aim to fit the special needs of a special occasion. Ex: speech of introduction, speech of presentation, speech of acceptance and speech of commemoration 22. What is the reflective thinking method? 5 step method. 1. Identify and define the problem 2. Analyze the problem, 3. Establish criteria for solutions 4. Generate potential solutions 5. Select the best solution 23. Explain what inclusive language means Language that does not stereotype, demean or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation or different factors 24. Fresh as a daisy is an example of what literary device? Cliché 25. What are some guidelines for using visual aids? Avoid passing visual aids among the audience Display visual aids only while discussing them Explain visual aids clearly and concisely Talk to the audience not to the visual aid Practice with your visual aid Check the room and equipment
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