Study Guide Intro to Psych, Exam 1
Study Guide Intro to Psych, Exam 1
Popular in Intro to psychology (Dr. Cousins)
Popular in Psychlogy
This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kensleigh owens on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Cousins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychology (Dr. Cousins) in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
Reviews for Study Guide Intro to Psych, Exam 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/26/16
Introduction to Psychology 0010 Study Guide for Exam 1 General conceptual understanding for each topic – what, when, how, and most importantly, why • know what each of these concepts are and their definitions • be able to clearly and specifically identify dif ferent theories and aspects of those theories Chapter 1: History of Psychology The definition of psychology - Study of brain and behavior Understand the idea of nativism (nature) and empiricism (nurture) and be able to explain how they are different - Nativism( knowledge is inborn), Empiricism( Knowledge is learned) Know the philosophies and the main ideas of these philosophies that associated with each individual Plato, Aristotle, Wilhelm Wundt, and William James. – James ( functionalism), Wundt ( Father o f psych) Generally, know the overall theme of the different areas of psychology mentioned in the book (Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, and Cultural Psychology)- Cognitive Psych( Study of mental processes), Social psych( ho w people interact), evolutionary psych ( explains brain and behavior in terms of adaptivity), Cultural psych ( How culture infl uences people) Chapter 2: Methods of Psychology Know and be able to recognize and example of an operational definition - Precise procedure by which a variable is defined and measured Know the difference between a dependent variable and an independent variable - Dependent ( measured), Independent ( changed) Know and be able to recognize an example of reliability, power and validity - Reliability( How consistant is the results), Power ( How valid is it), Validity ( Accurate measurement) Know and be able to recognize an example of demand characteristics - Aspect of an observation that lead people to act the way they think they should Know what a correlation is and that it does not mean causation . Be able to recognize an example of a correlation, a positive correlation and a negative correlation- Example: Correlation ( smoking and lung cancer), Positive( Both effects are good), Negative (smo king but leads to lung cancer, as one goes up the other goes down) Know and understand the third variable problem (confounding variable) - There might be an outside factor with the correlation Know and be able to recognize an example of observer bias and do uble blind- Observer bias( the observer has a prediction and is bias in his observation), Double blind (Both parties are unaware of the study) Know the difference between the experimental group and the control group - Expiremental group ( the group of peopl e who are treated in a particular way in an experiement, Control group ( the group of people who are not treated a certain way) Know what a case study is. - Case study ( study of a single individual) Know aspects of respecting people in ethics (informed co nsent, no coercion, protect from harm, risk -benefit ratio, deception, debriefing, confidentiality) Chapter 3: Neuroscience and Behavior Know what a neuron is. – Cells nervous system that communicates with one another to perform information processing task The parts of a neuron (cell body, dendrites, synapses, axon, terminal boutons, myelin sheath) and how each part is used in the flow of information processing- Cell body ( keeps cell alive and coordinates information), Synapses (gap), Axon( transmits info ), myelin sheath ( Insulating area, makes it easier for cells to transport info) Understand how neurons communicate with each other Know the specific types of neurons discussed in class (sensory, interneuron, motor, and mirror) - Sensory (receive from exter nal world and convey it to the brain), Interneuron ( connect sensory, motor, and other neurons), Mirror ( fire both when the animal is performing the action and when it observes another animal performing the action) Know what a synapse is. - the space between one axon and another Know the ways in which neurostransmitters enter in the synapse and leave the synapse Know the types of neurotransimtters discussed in class (glutamate, acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, endorp hins) - Glutamate ( info transmission throughout the brain), Acetylcholine ( voluntary motor control), Serotonin ( Regulation of sleep), Dopamine ( Motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal), Norepinephrine ( influences mood and arousal), Endorphins ( act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain) Know the different areas of the nervous system (peripheral –autonomic and somatic) and (central nervous system) - Peripheral (Connects the CNS to the bodys organs and muscles), Central nervous system ( C omposed of the brain and the spinal cord), Automatic ( carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands), Somatic (Conveys info in and out of the CNS) Different lobes of the brain and be able to recognize an example related to their main function (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital) - Frontal ( Critical thinking), Parietal ( touch), Temporal ( hearing and language), Occipital ( Visual info) Other areas of brain and examples of basic function (amygdala, cerebellum, hippocampus, medulla, thalamus - Amygdala ( emotions), Cerebellum (Balance), Hippocampus ( Space awareness), Thalamus ( Distributes sensory info to the brain) Know the story behind Phineas Gage Chapter 5: Consciousness Definition of consciousness - a persons subjective experience of the world and the mind The four properties of consciousness discussed in class (intentionality, unity, selectivity, transience) - Intentionality ( choose what you want to pay attention to), Unity ( can not multi task), Selec tivity ( We choose what we want to pay attention to), transcience ( tendency to change) Know the problem of other minds and the mind/body problem - Problem of other minds (trouble perceiving the consciousness of others), Mind/body problem (everyone precieve s differently) Know and recognize and example of the levels of consciousness (minimal, full and self -consciousness)- Minimal (low level of sensory awareness and responsiveness), Full ( You know and are able to report your mental state), Self consciousness (the persons attention is drawn to the self as an object) Know the default network - Free brain time, day dreaming Know the perspectives of Freud and Cognitive Psychologist on the unconscious mind - unconscious is like an iceberg Know and be able to recogniz e and example of thought suppression, rebound effect of thought suppression and ironic processes of mental control- Suppression (try to stop thinking about something), Rebound effect (thoughts will always return), Ironic processes (We will think more of the things we wish to not think about) Know the stages of sleep and the types of brain waves associated with them Know and be able to recognize examples of sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, night terrors, sleep walking) - Insomnia (not be able to sleep), Sleep apnea ( Stops breathing while sleeping), Narcolepsy ( suddenly fall asleep), Ni ght terrors ( Panic while sleeping), Sleep walking (Walking while asleep) Know hypnagogic and hypnopomic states of sleep- Hypnagogic (falling asleep), Hypnopomic (walking up) Know the difference between drug dependence, drug tolerance and drug withdrawal Know how depressants and stimulants affect the nervous system
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'